628

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Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
628 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 628
DCXXVIII
Ab urbe condita 1381
Armenian calendar 77
ԹՎ ՀԷ
Assyrian calendar 5378
Balinese saka calendar 549–550
Bengali calendar 35
Berber calendar 1578
Buddhist calendar 1172
Burmese calendar −10
Byzantine calendar 6136–6137
Chinese calendar 丁亥(Fire  Pig)
3324 or 3264
     to 
戊子年 (Earth  Rat)
3325 or 3265
Coptic calendar 344–345
Discordian calendar 1794
Ethiopian calendar 620–621
Hebrew calendar 4388–4389
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 684–685
 - Shaka Samvat 549–550
 - Kali Yuga 3728–3729
Holocene calendar 10628
Iranian calendar 6–7
Islamic calendar 6–7
Japanese calendar N/A
Javanese calendar 518–519
Julian calendar 628
DCXXVIII
Korean calendar 2961
Minguo calendar 1284 before ROC
民前1284年
Nanakshahi calendar −840
Seleucid era 939/940 AG
Thai solar calendar 1170–1171
Tibetan calendar 阴火猪年
(female Fire-Pig)
754 or 373 or −399
     to 
阳土鼠年
(male Earth-Rat)
755 or 374 or −398
Coin of king Ardashir III (c. 621-630) Aradashiriii.jpg
Coin of king Ardashir III (c. 621–630)

Year 628 ( DCXXVIII ) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. The denomination 628 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A leap year starting on Friday is any year with 366 days that begins on Friday 1 January and ends on Saturday 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are CB, such as the years 1808, 1836, 1864, 1892, 1904, 1932, 1960, 1988, 2016, 2044, 2072, and 2112 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2000 and 2028 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Tuesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this leap year occurs in May. Common years starting on Saturday share this characteristic.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By place

Byzantine Empire

  • Spring Byzantine–Sassanid War: Emperor Heraclius issues an ultimatum for peace to King Khosrow II, but he refuses his generous terms. The war-weary Persians revolt against Khosrow's regime at Ctesiphon, and install his son Kavadh II on the throne on February 25. He puts his father to death and begins negotiations with Heraclius. Kavadh is forced to return all the territories conquered during the war. The Persians must give up all of the trophies they have captured, including the relic of the True Cross. Evidently there is also a large financial indemnity. Having accepted a peace agreement on his own terms, Heraclius returns in triumph to Constantinople. [1]
  • Third Perso-Turkic War: The Western Göktürks, under their leader Tong Yabghu Qaghan, plunder Tbilisi (modern Georgia). The Persian defenders are executed or mutilated; Tong Yabghu appoints governors (tuduns) to manage various tribes under his overlordship. [2]
Heraclius Byzantine Emperor 610–641

Heraclius was the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire from 610 to 641. He was responsible for introducing Greek as the Byzantine Empire's official language. His rise to power began in 608, when he and his father, Heraclius the Elder, the exarch of Africa, led a revolt against the unpopular usurper Phocas.

Khosrow II Sassanian king

Khosrow II, entitled "Aparvēz", also Khusraw Parvēz, was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.

Ctesiphon ancient Parthian/Persian city in present Iraq

Ctesiphon was an ancient city, located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about 35 kilometres (22 mi) southeast of present-day Baghdad. Ctesiphon served as a royal capital of the Persian Empire in the Parthian and Sasanian eras for over eight hundred years. Ctesiphon remained the capital of the Sasanian Empire until the Muslim conquest of Persia in 651 AD.

Britain

The Battle of Cirencester was fought in 628 at Cirencester in modern-day England. The conflict involved the armies of Mercia, under King Penda, and the Gewisse, under Kings Cynegils and Cwichelm. The Mercians defeated the Gewisse and, according to Bede, "after reaching an agreement", took control of the Severn valley and the minor kingdom of the Hwicce, which had been under the influence of the Gewisse since the Battle of Dyrham in 577.

Penda of Mercia 7th-century king of Mercia in Britain

Penda was a 7th-century King of Mercia, the Anglo-Saxon kingdom in what is today the English Midlands. A pagan at a time when Christianity was taking hold in many of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, Penda took over the Severn Valley in 628 following the Battle of Cirencester before participating in the defeat of the powerful Northumbrian king Edwin at the Battle of Hatfield Chase in 633.

Mercia One of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy

Mercia was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy. The name is a Latinisation of the Old English Mierce or Myrce, meaning "border people". Mercia dominated what would later become England for three centuries, subsequently going into a gradual decline while Wessex eventually conquered and united all the kingdoms into Kingdom of England.

Persia

February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 309 days remaining until the end of the year.

Sasanian Empire last Persian empire before the rise of Islam

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire, was the last kingdom of the Persian Empire before the rise of Islam. Named after the House of Sasan, it ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire succeeded the Parthian Empire and was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire for a period of more than 400 years.

Kavadh II Iranian king of the Sasanian dynasty

Shērōē, better known by his dynastic name of Kavadh II, was king (shah) of the Sasanian Empire briefly in 628. He was the son of Khosrow II, whom he succeeded after having him overthrown in a coup d'état. Kavadh's reign is seen as a turning point in Sasanian history, and has been argued by some scholars as playing a key role in the fall of the Sasanian Empire.

Arabia

Muhammad prophet and founder of Islam

Muhammad was the founder of Islam. According to Islamic doctrine, he was a prophet, sent to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and other prophets. He is viewed as the final prophet of God in all the main branches of Islam, though some modern denominations diverge from this belief. Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

Pilgrimage journey or search of moral or spiritual significance

A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance. Typically, it is a journey to a shrine or other location of importance to a person's beliefs and faith, although sometimes it can be a metaphorical journey into someone's own beliefs.

Mecca Saudi Arabian city and capital of the Makkah province

Mecca is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and 340 kilometres (210 mi) south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah.

By topic

Arts and sciences

Brahmagupta was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. He is the author of two early works on mathematics and astronomy: the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta, a theoretical treatise, and the Khaṇḍakhādyaka, a more practical text.

The Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta is the main work of Brahmagupta, written c. 628. Τhis text of mathematical astronomy contains significant mathematical content, including a good understanding of the role of zero, rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers, a method for computing square roots, methods of solving linear and quadratic equations, and rules for summing series, Brahmagupta's identity, and Brahmagupta’s theorem.

Education

  • The Sharia enjoins women as well as men to obtain secular and religious educations. It forbids eating pork, domesticated donkey, and other flesh denied to Jews by Mosaic law (approximate date).

Religion

  • Muhammad's letters to world leaders explain the principles of the new monotheistic Muslim faith, as they will be contained in his book, the Quran .

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

The 620s decade ran from January 1, 620, to December 31, 629.

The 610s decade ran from January 1, 610, to December 31, 619.

630 Year

Year 630 (DCXXX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 630 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

624 Year

Year 624 (DCXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 624 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

626 Year

Year 626 (DCXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 626 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

627 Year

Year 627 (DCXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 627 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

629 Year

Year 629 (DCXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 629 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

581 Year

Year 581 (DLXXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 581 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

618 Year

Year 618 (DCXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 618 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

619 Year

Year 619 (DCXIX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. The denomination 619 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Shahrbaraz general and briefly king in Persia

Shahrbaraz or Shahrvaraz was king of the Sasanian Empire from 27 April 630 to 9 June 630. He usurped the throne from Ardashir III, and was killed by Sasanian nobles after forty days. Before usurping the Sasanian throne he was a general (spahbed) under Khosrow II (590–628). He is furthermore noted for his important role during the climactic Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628, and the events that followed afterwards. His name Shahrbaraz is actually an honorific title, and means "the Boar of the Empire", attesting to his dexterity in military command and his warlike personality, as the boar was the animal associated with the Zoroastrian Izad Vahram, the epitome of victory.

Boran Sassanid queen

Boran was queen (banbishn) of the Sasanian Empire. She was the daughter of emperor Khosrow II, and the first of only two women to rule the Sasanian Empire; the other was her sister and successor, Azarmidokht. Various authors place her reign between one year and four months to two years.

Western Turkic Khaganate former Khaganate

The Western Turkic Khaganate or Onoq Khaganate was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the wars in the beginning of the 7th century after the split of the Göktürk Khaganate into the Western khaganate and the Eastern Turkic Khaganate.The Western Turkic Khaganate was subjugated by the Tang Empire in 657

Tong Yabghu Qaghan was khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate from 618 to 628 AD. His name is usually translated as "Tiger Yabgu" in Old Turkic. Another interpretation of his name is "sufficiency" or "completeness".

The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate. Unlike the previous two wars, it was not fought in Central Asia, but in Transcaucasia. Hostilities were initiated in 627 AD by Khagan Tong Yabghu of the Western Göktürks and Emperor Heraclius of the Eastern Roman Empire. Opposing them were the Sassanid Persians, allied with the Avars. The war was fought against the background of the last Byzantine-Sassanid War and served as a prelude to the dramatic events that changed the balance of powers in the Middle East for centuries to come.

Turkic Khaganate khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia

The Turkic Khaganate or Göktürk Khaganate was a khaganate established by the Ashina clan of the Göktürks in medieval Inner Asia. Under the leadership of Bumin Qaghan and his sons, the Ashina succeeded the Rouran Khaganate as the hegemonic power of the Mongolian Plateau and rapidly expanded their territories in Central Asia. Initially the Khaganate would use Sogdian in official and numismatic functions. It was the first Turkic state to use the name Türk politically and is known for the first written record of any Turkic language in history.

Farrukh Hormizd Persian prince

Farrukh Hormizd or Farrokh Hormizd, also known as Hormizd V, was a spahbed in northern Persia, he was a prince of Atropatene. He later came in conflict with the Sassanid nobles, "dividing the resources of the country". He was later killed by Siyavakhsh in a palace plot on the orders of Azarmidokht after he proposed to her in an attempt to usurp the Sasanian throne. He had two children, Rostam Farrokhzād and Farrukhzad.

Timeline of the Sasanian Empire

The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty is the name mused for the Persian dynasty which lasted from 224 to 651 AD.

References

  1. Kaegi, Walter Emil (2003), Heraclius: Emperor of Byzantium, Cambridge University Press, p. 178, 189–190. ISBN   0-521-81459-6
  2. Christian 283; Artamanov, p. 170–180
  3. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
  4. Palmer, Alan & Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 30–34. ISBN   0-7126-5616-2.