965

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Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
965 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 965
CMLXV
Ab urbe condita 1718
Armenian calendar 414
ԹՎ ՆԺԴ
Assyrian calendar 5715
Balinese saka calendar 886–887
Bengali calendar 372
Berber calendar 1915
Buddhist calendar 1509
Burmese calendar 327
Byzantine calendar 6473–6474
Chinese calendar 甲子(Wood  Rat)
3661 or 3601
     to 
乙丑年 (Wood  Ox)
3662 or 3602
Coptic calendar 681–682
Discordian calendar 2131
Ethiopian calendar 957–958
Hebrew calendar 4725–4726
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1021–1022
 - Shaka Samvat 886–887
 - Kali Yuga 4065–4066
Holocene calendar 10965
Iranian calendar 343–344
Islamic calendar 353–355
Japanese calendar Kōhō 2
(康保2年)
Javanese calendar 865–866
Julian calendar 965
CMLXV
Korean calendar 3298
Minguo calendar 947 before ROC
民前947年
Nanakshahi calendar −503
Seleucid era 1276/1277 AG
Thai solar calendar 1507–1508
Tibetan calendar 阳木鼠年
(male Wood-Rat)
1091 or 710 or −62
     to 
阴木牛年
(female Wood-Ox)
1092 or 711 or −61
Pope John XIII (r. 965-972) Pope John XIII.jpg
Pope John XIII (r. 965–972)

Year 965 ( CMLXV ) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Sunday is any non-leap year that begins on Sunday, 1 January, and ends on Sunday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is A. The most recent year of such kind was 2017 and the next one will be 2023 in the Gregorian calendar, or, likewise, 2018 and 2029 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Sunday, Monday or Tuesday has two Friday the 13ths. This common year contains two Friday the 13ths in January and October.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By place

Byzantine Empire

Nikephoros II Phokas Byzantine emperor

Nikephoros II Phokas was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. His reign, however, included controversy. In the west, he inflamed conflict with the Bulgarians and saw Sicily completely turn over to the Muslims, while he failed to make any serious gains in Italy following the incursions of Otto I. Meanwhile, in the east, he completed the conquest of Cilicia and even retook the island of Cyprus, thus opening the path for subsequent Byzantine incursions reaching as far as the Jazira and the Levant. His administrative policy was less successful, as in order to finance these wars he increased taxes both on the people and on the church, while maintaining unpopular theological positions and alienating many of his most powerful allies. These included his nephew John Tzimiskes, who would take the throne after killing Nikephoros in his sleep.

Tarsus, Mersin Place in Mersin, Turkey

Tarsus is a historic city in south-central Turkey, 20 km inland from the Mediterranean. It is part of the Adana-Mersin metropolitan area, the fourth-largest metropolitan area in Turkey with a population of 3 million people. Tarsus forms an administrative district in the eastern part of the Mersin Province and lies in the core of Çukurova region.

Mopsuestia

Mopsuestia is an ancient city in Cilicia Campestris on the Pyramus River located approximately 20 km (12 mi) east of ancient Antiochia in Cilicia. From the city's harbour the river is navigable to the Mediterranean Sea, a distance of over 40 km (24 mi).

Europe

Lothair of France French monarch

Lothair, sometimes called Lothair III or Lothair IV, was the penultimate Carolingian king of West Francia, reigning from 10 September 954 until his death in 986.

County of Flanders French fiefdom and historic territory in the Low Countries

The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries.

Arnulf II was Count of Flanders from 965 until his death.

China

July 12 is the 193rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 172 days remaining until the end of the year.

Meng Chang (孟昶), originally Meng Renzan (孟仁贊), courtesy name Baoyuan (保元), formally Prince Gongxiao of Chu (楚恭孝王), was the second emperor of Later Shu during imperial China's Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. He ruled from 934 until 965, when his state was conquered by the Song Dynasty. He died soon afterwards.

Later Shu one of the Ten Kingdoms of tenth century China

Shu, also known as Meng Shu, was one of the Ten Kingdoms during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China. It was located in present-day Sichuan with its capital in Chengdu and lasted from 934 to 965. It was the fourth and latest state of this name on the same territiory.

By topic

Literature

September 23 is the 266th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 99 days remaining until the end of the year. It is frequently the day of the autumnal equinox in the Northern Hemisphere and the day of the vernal equinox in the Southern Hemisphere.

Al-Mutanabbi Arabic poet from the Abbasid era

Abu at-Tayyib Ahmad bin Al-Husayn al-Mutanabbi al-Kindi was an Arab poet. He is considered one of the greatest, most prominent and most influential poets in the Arabic language, and much of his work has been translated into over 20 languages worldwide. Much of his poetry revolves around praising the kings he visited during his lifetime. Some consider his 326 poems to be a great representation of his life story. He started writing poetry when he was nine years old. He is well known for his sharp intelligence and wittiness. Al-Mutanabbi had a great pride in himself through his poetry. Among the topics he discussed were courage, the philosophy of life, and the description of battles. Many of his poems were and still are widely spread in today's Arab world and are considered to be proverbial.

Abbasid Caliphate Third Islamic caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. It was founded by a dynasty descended from Muhammad's uncle, Abbas ibn Abdul-Muttalib, from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs for most of the caliphate from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after having overthrown the Umayyad Caliphate in the Abbasid Revolution of 750 CE (132 AH).

Religion

March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 305 days remaining until the end of the year.

Pope Leo VIII pope

Pope Leo VIII was Pope from 23 June 964 to his death in 965; before that, he was an antipope from 963 to 964, in opposition to Pope John XII and Pope Benedict V. An appointee of the Holy Roman Emperor, Otto I, his pontificate occurred during the period known as the Saeculum obscurum.

Pope John XIII pope

Pope John XIII was Pope from 1 October 965 to his death in 972. His pontificate was caught up in the continuing conflict between the Emperor, Otto I, and the Roman nobility.

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

The 840s decade ran from January 1, 840, to December 31, 849.

The 910s decade ran from January 1, 910, to December 31, 919.

The 930s decade ran from January 1, 930, to December 31, 939.

The 960s decade ran from January 1, 960, to December 31, 969.

The 980s decade ran from January 1, 980, to December 31, 989.

967 Year

Year 967 (CMLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

966 Year

Year 966 (CMLXVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

1003 Year

Year 1003 (MIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

946 Year

Year 946 (CMXLVI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

972 Year

Year 972 (CMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

963 Year

Year 963 (CMLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

950 Year

Year 950 (CML) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

986 Year

Year 986 (CMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

1025 Year

Year 1025 (MXXV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

960 Year

Year 960 (CMLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

956 Year

Year 956 (CMLVI) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 915 (CMXV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

895 Year

Year 895 (DCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

936 Year

Year 936 (CMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

942 Year

Year 942 (CMXLII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

References

  1. W. Treadgold. A History of the Byzantine state and Society, p. 948.
  2. Jim Bradbury (2007). The Capetians: Kings of France, 987–1328, p. 43 (London: Hambledon Continuum).
  3. Richard Brzezinski (1998). History of Poland: Old Poland, King Mieszko I, p. 15. ISBN   83-7212-019-6.