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Athletics at the 1990 Commonwealth Games | ||
---|---|---|

Track events | ||

100 m | men | women |

200 m | men | women |

400 m | men | women |

800 m | men | women |

1500 m | men | women |

3000 m | women | |

5000 m | men | |

10,000 m | men | women |

100 m hurdles | women | |

110 m hurdles | men | |

400 m hurdles | men | women |

3000 m steeplechase | men | |

4×100 m relay | men | women |

4×400 m relay | men | women |

Road events | ||

Marathon | men | women |

10 km walk | women | |

30 km walk | men | |

Field events | ||

High jump | men | women |

Pole vault | men | |

Long jump | men | women |

Triple jump | men | |

Shot put | men | women |

Discus throw | men | women |

Hammer throw | men | |

Javelin throw | men | women |

Combined events | ||

Heptathlon | women | |

Decathlon | men | |

The **women's 400 metres ** event at the 1990 Commonwealth Games was held on 27 and 28 January at the Mount Smart Stadium in Auckland.^{ [1] }

The **400 metres**, or **400 metre dash**, is a sprinting event in track and field competitions. It has been featured in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1964 for women. On a standard outdoor running track, it is one lap around the track. Runners start in staggered positions and race in separate lanes for the entire course. In many countries, athletes previously competed in the 440 yard dash (402.336 m)—which is a quarter of a mile and was referred to as the 'quarter-mile'—instead of the 400 m (437.445 yards), though this distance is now obsolete.

At the **1990 Commonwealth Games**, the **athletics** events were held at the Mount Smart Stadium in Auckland, New Zealand from 27 January to 3 February 1990. A total of 42 events were contested, 23 by male and 19 by female athletes.

**Mt Smart Stadium** is a stadium in Auckland, New Zealand. It is the home ground of National Rugby League team, the New Zealand Warriors. Built within the quarried remnants of the Rarotonga / Mount Smart volcanic cone, it is located 10 kilometres south of the city centre, in the suburb of Penrose.

Gold | Silver | Bronze |

Fatima Yusuf | Linda Keough | Charity Opara |

Qualification: First 4 of each heat (Q) and the next 1 fastest (q) qualified for the final.

Rank | Heat | Name | Nationality | Time | Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 2 | Charity Opara | 51.12 | Q, AR | |

2 | 1 | Fatima Yusuf | 51.69 | Q | |

3 | 2 | Jenni Stoute | 52.39 | Q | |

4 | 1 | Linda Keough | 52.76 | Q | |

5 | 2 | Mercy Addy | 52.77 | Q | |

6 | 2 | Maree Holland | 53.28 | Q | |

7 | 1 | Angela Piggford | 53.72 | Q | |

8 | 2 | Gail Harris | 53.88 | q | |

9 | 1 | Cheryl Allen | 54.74 | Q | |

10 | 1 | Susan Andrews | 54.77 | ||

11 | 1 | Josephine Mary Singarayar | 55.85 | ||

12 | 1 | Jill Cockram | 56.39 | ||

13 | 2 | Andrea Wade |

Rank | Lane | Name | Nationality | Time | Notes |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

3 | Fatima Yusuf | 51.08 | AR | ||

5 | Linda Keough | 51.63 | |||

6 | Charity Opara | 52.01 | |||

4 | 2 | Maree Holland | 52.01 | ||

5 | 4 | Jenni Stoute | 53.44 | ||

6 | 9 | Angela Piggford | 53.45 | ||

7 | 8 | Gail Harris | 54.24 | ||

8 | 1 | Cheryl Allen | 54.36 | ||

9 | 7 | Mercy Addy | 57.01 |

In descriptive statistics, the **interquartile range** (**IQR**), also called the **midspread** or **middle 50%**, or technically **H-spread**, is a measure of statistical dispersion, being equal to the difference between 75th and 25th percentiles, or between upper and lower quartiles, IQR = *Q*_{3} − *Q*_{1}. In other words, the IQR is the first quartile subtracted from the third quartile; these quartiles can be clearly seen on a box plot on the data. It is a trimmed estimator, defined as the 25% trimmed range, and is a commonly used robust measure of scale.

In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, **if and only if** is a biconditional logical connective between statements.

**Q** is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. In nearly all languages using the Latin script it is a consonant, not a vowel.

**RSA** (**Rivest–Shamir–Adleman**) is one of the first public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission. In such a cryptosystem, the encryption key is public and it is different from the decryption key which is kept secret (private). In RSA, this asymmetry is based on the practical difficulty of the factorization of the product of two large prime numbers, the "factoring problem". The acronym RSA is made of the initial letters of the surnames of Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir, and Leonard Adleman, who first publicly described the algorithm in 1978. Clifford Cocks, an English mathematician working for the British intelligence agency Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ), had developed an equivalent system in 1973, but this was not declassified until 1997.

**Q** is a fictional character as well as the name of a race in *Star Trek* appearing in the *Next Generation*, *Deep Space Nine*, and *Voyager* series, as well as in related media. The most familiar Q is portrayed by John de Lancie. He is an extra-dimensional being of unknown origin who possesses immeasurable power over normal human notions of time, space, the laws of physics, and reality itself, being capable of violating or altering them in unpredictable ways with a hand gesture cue. Despite his vast knowledge and experience spanning untold eons, he is not above practical jokes for his own personal amusement, for a Machiavellian and manipulative purpose, or to prove a point. He is said to be nigh-omnipotent, and he is continually evasive regarding his true motivations.

In statistics, the **standard deviation** is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be close to the mean of the set, while a high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a wider range of values.

An **electric field** is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them. Mathematically the electric field is a vector field that associates to each point in space the force, called the Coulomb force, that would be experienced per unit of charge by an infinitesimal test charge at that point. The units of the electric field in the SI system are newtons per coulomb (N/C), or volts per meter (V/m). Electric fields are created by electric charges, or by time-varying magnetic fields. Electric fields are important in many areas of physics, and are exploited practically in electrical technology. On an atomic scale, the electric field is responsible for the attractive force between the atomic nucleus and electrons that holds atoms together, and the forces between atoms that cause chemical bonding. Electric fields and magnetic fields are both manifestations of the electromagnetic force, one of the four fundamental forces of nature.

In mathematics, the **quaternions** are a number system that extends the complex numbers. They were first described by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1843 and applied to mechanics in three-dimensional space. A feature of quaternions is that multiplication of two quaternions is noncommutative. Hamilton defined a quaternion as the quotient of two directed lines in a three-dimensional space or equivalently as the quotient of two vectors.

In mathematics, the **Euclidean distance** or **Euclidean metric** is the "ordinary" straight-line distance between two points in Euclidean space. With this distance, Euclidean space becomes a metric space. The associated norm is called the **Euclidean norm.** Older literature refers to the metric as the **Pythagorean metric**. A generalized term for the Euclidean norm is the **L ^{2} norm** or L

**Deductive reasoning**, also **deductive logic**, **logical deduction** is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.

The **Dead Sea Scrolls** are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves in the West Bank near the Dead Sea. Scholarly consensus dates these scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE. The texts have great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Almost all of the Dead Sea Scrolls collection is currently under the ownership of the Government of the state of Israel, and housed in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum.

**Exclusive or** or **exclusive disjunction** is a logical operation that outputs true only when inputs differ.

**Capacitance** is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential. There are two closely related notions of capacitance: *self capacitance* and *mutual capacitance*. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits *self capacitance*. A material with a large self capacitance holds more electric charge at a given voltage than one with low capacitance. The notion of *mutual capacitance* is particularly important for understanding the operations of the capacitor, one of the three elementary linear electronic components.

**Hamiltonian mechanics** is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics. It uses a different mathematical formalism, providing a more abstract understanding of the theory. Historically, it was an important reformulation of classical mechanics, which later contributed to the formulation of statistical mechanics and quantum mechanics.

In probability theory and statistics, the **Bernoulli distribution**, named after Swiss mathematician Jacob Bernoulli, is the discrete probability distribution of a random variable which takes the value 1 with probability and the value 0 with probability that is, the probability distribution of any single experiment that asks a yes–no question; the question results in a boolean-valued outcome, a single bit of information whose value is success/yes/true/one with probability *p* and failure/no/false/zero with probability *q*. It can be used to represent a coin toss where 1 and 0 would represent "heads" and "tails", respectively, and *p* would be the probability of the coin landing on heads or tails, respectively. In particular, unfair coins would have

* Q* is a popular music magazine published monthly in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1986 by the journalists and broadcasters Mark Ellen and David Hepworth, who were presenters of the BBC television music series

**Kamaal Ibn John Fareed**, better known by his stage name **Q-Tip**, is an American rapper, record producer, singer, actor and DJ. Nicknamed **The Abstract**, he is noted for his innovative jazz-influenced style of hip hop production and his philosophical, esoteric and introspective lyrical themes. He embarked on his music career in the late 1980s, as an MC and main producer of the influential alternative hip hop group A Tribe Called Quest. In the mid-1990s, he co-founded the production team The Ummah, followed by the release of his gold-certified solo debut *Amplified* in 1999. In the 2000s, he released the Grammy Award-nominated album *The Renaissance* and the experimental album *Kamaal the Abstract*.

The **DHC-8 Dash 8** is a series of turboprop-powered regional airliners, introduced by de Havilland Canada (DHC) in 1984. DHC was later bought by Boeing in 1988, then by Bombardier in 1992; the program is to be resold to Viking Air parent Longview Aviation Capital by late 2019. Powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PW100s, it was developed from the Dash 7 with improved cruise performance, lowered operational costs but worse STOL performance. Three sizes were offered: initially the 37-40 seat -100 until 2005 and the more powerful -200 from 1995, the stretched 50-56 seats -300 from 1989, both until 2009, and the 68-90 seats -400 from 1999, still in production. The **Q Series** are post-1997 variants with quieter cabins.

In mathematics, a **rational number** is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction *p*/*q* of two integers, a numerator *p* and a non-zero denominator *q*. Since *q* may be equal to 1, every integer is a rational number. The set of all rational numbers, often referred to as "**the rationals**", the **field of rationals** or the **field of rational numbers** is usually denoted by a boldface **Q** ; it was thus denoted in 1895 by Giuseppe Peano after *quoziente*, Italian for "quotient".

**Coulomb's law**, or **Coulomb's inverse-square law**, is a law of physics for quantifying Coulomb's force, or electrostatic force. Electrostatic force is the amount of force with which stationary, electrically charged particles either repel, or attract each other. This force and the law for quantifying it, represent one of the most basic forms of force used in the physical sciences, and were an essential basis to the study and development of the theory and field of classical electromagnetism. The law was first published in 1785 by French physicist Charles-Augustin de Coulomb.

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