CHRNB4

Last updated
CHRNB4
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases CHRNB4 , cholinergic receptor nicotinic beta 4 subunit
External IDs MGI: 87892 HomoloGene: 20196 GeneCards: CHRNB4
Gene location (Human)
Ideogram human chromosome 15.svg
Chr. Chromosome 15 (human) [1]
Human chromosome 15 ideogram.svg
HSR 1996 II 3.5e.svg
Red rectangle 2x18.png
Band 15q25.1Start78,624,119 bp [1]
End78,727,754 bp [1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CHRNB4 207516 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_000750
NM_001256567

NM_148944

RefSeq (protein)

NP_000741
NP_001243496

NP_683746

Location (UCSC) Chr 15: 78.62 – 78.73 Mb Chr 9: 55.03 – 55.05 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB4 gene. [5] [6]

Protein biological molecule consisting of chains of amino acid residues

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, providing structure to cells and organisms, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity.

Gene basic physical and functional unit of heredity

In biology, a gene is a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA is first copied into RNA. The RNA can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic trait. These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes as well as gene–environment interactions. Some genetic traits are instantly visible, such as eye color or number of limbs, and some are not, such as blood type, risk for specific diseases, or the thousands of basic biochemical processes that constitute life.

Contents


Interactive pathway map

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective Wikipedia articles. [§ 1]

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CHRNB4 Go to articlego to articleGo to articleGo to articleGo to articleGo to articlego to articlego to articleGo to articleGo to articlego to articleGo to articleGo to article
|{{{bSize}}}px|alt=Nicotine Activity on Chromaffin Cells edit]]
Nicotine Activity on Chromaffin Cells edit
  1. The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: "NicotineActivityonChromaffinCells_WP1603".

See also

Related Research Articles

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor chemical compound

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor polypeptides that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Nicotinic receptors also respond to drugs, including the nicotinic receptor agonist nicotine. They are found in the central and peripheral nervous system, muscle, and many other tissues of many organisms, including humans. At the neuromuscular junction they are the primary receptor in muscle for motor nerve-muscle communication that controls muscle contraction. In the peripheral nervous system: (1) they transmit outgoing signals from the presynaptic to the postsynaptic cells within the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system, and (2) they are the receptors found on skeletal muscle that receive acetylcholine released to signal for muscular contraction. In the immune system, nAChRs regulate inflammatory processes and signal through distinct intracellular pathways. In insects, the cholinergic system is limited to the central nervous system.

Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is an epileptic disorder that causes frequent violent seizures during sleep. These seizures often involve complex motor movements, such as hand clenching, arm raising/lowering, and knee bending. Vocalizations such as shouting, moaning, or crying are also common. ADNFLE is often misdiagnosed as nightmares. Attacks often occur in clusters and typically first manifest in childhood. There are four known loci for ADNFLE, three with known causative genes. These genes, CHRNA4, CHRNB2, and CHRNA2, encode various nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α and β subunits.

CHRNA7 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7, also known as nAChRα7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA7 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR).

CHRNA4 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4, also known as nAChRα4, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA4 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR).

CHRNB2 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB2 gene.

CHRNA3 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3, also known as nAChRα3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR).

CHRNE protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Acetylcholine receptor subunit epsilon is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNE gene.

CHRNA1 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-1, also known as nAChRα1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR).

Alpha-7 nicotinic receptor

The alpha-7 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α7 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor implicated in long term memory, consisting entirely of α7 subunits. As with other nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, functional α7 receptors are pentameric [i.e., (α7)5 stoichiometry].

CHRNA5 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-5, also known as nAChRα5, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR).

CHRNB3 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit beta-3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB3 gene.

CHRNA2 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2, also known as nAChRα2, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA2 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR).

CHRND protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Acetylcholine receptor subunit delta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRND gene.

CHRNB1 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Acetylcholine receptor subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNB1 gene.

CHRFAM7A protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

CHRNA7-FAM7A fusion protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRFAM7A gene.

CHRNA9 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Neuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-9, also known as nAChRα9, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA9 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of certain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR).

RIC3 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

RIC-3 also known as resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 3 is a chaperone protein that in humans is encoded by the RIC3 gene. The RIC3 gene was first discovered in C. elegans. RIC-3 protein is conserved in most animals and influences the maturation of various ligand gated ion channels including the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, particularly the homomeric α7 nicotinic receptor. RIC-3 enhances currents generated by these receptors by expediting receptor transport to the cell surface and by increasing receptor number.

CHRNA6 protein-coding gene in the species Homo sapiens

Cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 6, also known as nAChRα6, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CHRNA6 gene. The CHRNA6 gene codes for the α6 nicotinic receptor subunit that is found in certain types of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors found primarily in the brain. Neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors containing α6 subunits are expressed on dopamine-releasing neurons in the midbrain, and dopamine release following activation of these neurons is thought to be involved in the addictive properties of nicotine. Due to their selective localisation on dopaminergic neurons, α6-containing nACh receptors have also been suggested as a possible therapeutic target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

The alpha-3 beta-4 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α3β4 receptor and the ganglion-type nicotinic receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, consisting of α3 and β4 subunits. It is located in the autonomic ganglia and adrenal medulla, where activation yields post- and/or presynaptic excitation, mainly by increased Na+ and K+ permeability.

The alpha-3 beta-2 nicotinic receptor, also known as the α3β2 receptor, is a type of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, consisting of α3 and β2 subunits.

References

  1. 1 2 3 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000117971 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. 1 2 3 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000035200 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. "Human PubMed Reference:".
  4. "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  5. Eng CM, Kozak CA, Beaudet AL, Zoghbi HY (Apr 1991). "Mapping of multiple subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to chromosome 15 in man and chromosome 9 in mouse". Genomics. 9 (2): 278–282. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90253-B. PMID   2004777.
  6. "Entrez Gene: CHRNB4 cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 4".

Further reading

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