Carla Anderson Hills
|Co-Chairwoman of the Council on Foreign Relations|
June 30, 2007 –July 1, 2017
Servingwith Robert Rubin
|President||Richard N. Haass|
|Preceded by||Peter Peterson|
|Succeeded by||David M. Rubenstein|
|10th United States Trade Representative|
February 6, 1989 –January 20, 1993
|President||George H. W. Bush|
|Preceded by||Clayton Yeutter|
|Succeeded by||Mickey Kantor|
|5th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development|
March 10, 1975 –January 20, 1977
|Preceded by||James Thomas Lynn|
|Succeeded by||Patricia Roberts Harris|
|20th United States Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Division|
|President|| Richard Nixon |
|Preceded by||Harlington Wood Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Rex Lee|
January 3, 1934
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Education|| Stanford University (BA)|
St Hilda's College, Oxford
Yale University (LLB)
Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, 1934) is an American lawyer and a public figure. She served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in the Gerald Ford administration, and as U.S. Trade Representative. She was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the third woman to serve as a cabinet officer.
The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, a member of the President's Cabinet, and thirteenth in the Presidential line of succession. The post was created with the formation of the Department of Housing and Urban Development on September 9, 1965, by President Lyndon B. Johnson's signing of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act into law. The department's mission is "to increase homeownership, support community development and increase access to affordable housing free from discrimination."
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th president of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977. Before his accession to the presidency, Ford served as the 40th vice president of the United States from December 1973 to August 1974. Ford is the only person to have served as both vice president and president without being elected to either office by the Electoral College.
Born Carla Anderson in Los Angeles, she received her B.A. degree from Stanford University, after studying at St Hilda's College, Oxford. She earned her LL.B. degree from Yale Law School in 1958 and married Roderick M. Hills the same year.
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, and the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of nearly four million, Los Angeles is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. The city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood and the entertainment industry, and its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America.
Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, wealth, proximity to Silicon Valley, and ranking as one of the world's top universities.
St Hilda's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. The college is named after the Anglo-Saxon Saint, Hilda of Whitby and was founded in 1893 as a hall for women; remaining an all-women's college until 2008. St Hilda’s was the last single-sex college in the university as Somerville College had admitted men in 1994. The college now has almost equal numbers of men and women at both undergraduate and postgraduate level.
Hills was admitted to the California bar in 1959, and served as an Assistant United States Attorney in Los Angeles from 1959 to 1961. From 1962 to 1974, she was a partner at Munger, Tolles, Hills, and Rickershauser in Los Angeles. In 1972, she was an adjunct professor at UCLA.An authority on federal practice and anti-trust law, Mrs. Hills wrote of Federal Civil Practice and Antitrust Advisor. She is a former president of the National Association of Women Lawyers.
United States attorneys represent the United States federal government in United States district courts and United States courts of appeals.
The National Association of Women Lawyers is a voluntary organization founded in 1899 and based in the United States. Its aim is to promote women lawyers and women's legal rights.
She was a United States Assistant Attorney General heading the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice before being named as the secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Elliot L. Richardson sought to appoint her as assistant U.S. Attorney General in 1973, but he resigned shortly thereafter during the Watergate scandal. The offer was renewed by his successor, William B. Saxbe, in 1974.
Many of the divisions and offices of the United States Department of Justice are headed by an Assistant Attorney General.
The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during 1972 to 1974, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up his involvement. After the five burglars were caught and the conspiracy was discovered—chiefly through the work of a few journalists, Congressional staffers and an election-finance watchdog official—Watergate was investigated by the United States Congress. Meanwhile, Nixon's administration resisted its probes, which led to a constitutional crisis.
William Bart"Bill"Saxbe was an American politician affiliated with the Republican Party, who served as a U.S. Senator for Ohio, and was the Attorney General for Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford, and as the U.S. Ambassador to India.
Hills' lack of relevant experience was somewhat controversial during the hearings for her nomination to head the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (Hills hit back against her critics, criticizing Senator William Proxmire’s “total ignorance” of HUD’s programs in 1977). While there, she approved ithe demolition of the massive public housing project in Northwest St. Louis, Pruitt-Igoe, a decayed and crime-ridden project generally acknowledged to have been a planning disaster, housing only six hundred people in seventeen buildings with the other sixteen buildings vacant and boarded up when it was finally demolished.. As Oscar Newman argued in his groundbreaking work on “defensible space,” high-rise projects like Pruitt-Igoe promoted crime by isolating tenants in individual units unconnected to specific public areas. Following Newman’s arguments for scattered site rental housing, Hills promoted the “section 8” subsidy program under the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, under which the federal government would subsidize individual households’ rent rather than finance the construction of large-scale housing projects. President Ford later commented in his autobiography, A Time to Heal, that Hills was an exceptionally effective advocate for HUD, often appealing the budgetary decisions of James Lynn, Ford’s OMB chief, to the President and winning most of the time. Hills’ reputation on Ford’s cabinet was high enough that she was one of the candidates on his “short list” to replace U.S. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas. (Ultimately, Ford selected John Paul Stevens). From 1978 through 1989, she was again a practicing attorney, and she served as chairwoman of the Urban Institute from 1983 through 1988.
The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a Cabinet department in the Executive branch of the United States federal government. Although its beginnings were in the House and Home Financing Agency, it was founded as a Cabinet department in 1965, as part of the "Great Society" program of President Lyndon Johnson, to develop and execute policies on housing and metropolises.
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local.
St. Louis is a major independent city and inland port in the U.S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois. The Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world. The city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, which is the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, and the 20th-largest in the United States.
Hills served as U.S. Trade Representative under President George H. W. Bush from 1989 to 1993. She was under pressure to implement the 1988 Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act to go after countries that were considered to be trading unfairly with the U.S. The New York Times called Section 301 of the Act her "crowbar", which enabled the U.S. to impose tariffs as high as 100%. She initially went after Japan, Brazil and India, although the Bush administration later decided Japan had changed its ways.
The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.
George Herbert Walker Bush was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, ambassador, and CIA director. Until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was usually known simply as George Bush.
The Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 is an act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Ronald Reagan.
An advocate of free trade, she was the primary U.S. negotiator of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). In 2000, Hills was awarded the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle (La Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca), which is the highest honor awarded to non-citizens by the Mexican government.In fact, it was the first time Mexican-Americans were awarded this award since November 12, 1990 when the union leader, Cesar Chavez, received it.
President George H.W. Bush's administration's priority was to hammer out the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in the Uruguay Round, where Hills was known as a strong negotiator. "Delegations from 97 countries [sought] ways to notch down everyone's tariffs and remove other obstacles to trade." "The 97 signatories to GATT account for two-thirds of the $3 trillion in merchandise traded each year. Since the original agreement in 1947, GATT has been altered six times..." but, "after the last GATT revision – the Tokyo Round, which started in 1976 – many American industries were outclassed by others".
Since 1993, she has worked as a consultant and a public speaker through Hills & Company International Consultants, which advises on investment, trade and risks abroad. She was one of the founders of the Forum for International Policy where she is a trustee.Carla stepped down from Time Warner, Inc. with Ted Turner in 2006. She now serves on international advisory boards for American International Group, The Coca-Cola Company, Gilead Sciences, Inc., J.P. Morgan Chase and Rolls Royce as well as the board of the U.S.-China Business Council.
In 2008, Yale University granted her an honorary degree. She has also received honorary degrees from other institutions.
In 2005, Hills participated in the Task Force on the Future of North America. The Task Force produced a controversial report called Building a North American Community sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations. The reported advocated strengthening trading relationships between the U.S., Canada and Mexico by making trade more efficient, building infrastructure in North America, fast tracking borders and integrating language. For example, it recommended assisting "elementary and secondary schools in teaching about North America." (page 29) "Develop teacher exchange and training programs for elementary and secondary school teachers. This would assist in removing language barriers and give some students a greater sense of a North American identity. Greater efforts should also be made to recruit Mexican language teachers to teach Spanish in the United States and Canada."
In 1979, the Supersisters trading card set was produced and distributed; one of the cards featured Hills's name and picture.
In 1993, Hills received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards.
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) is a legal agreement between many countries, whose overall purpose was to promote international trade by reducing or eliminating trade barriers such as tariffs or quotas. According to its preamble, its purpose was the "substantial reduction of tariffs and other trade barriers and the elimination of preferences, on a reciprocal and mutually advantageous basis."
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned with the regulation of international trade between nations. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 124 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs. It is headquartered in New York City, with an additional office in Washington, D.C. Its membership, which numbers 4,900, has included senior politicians, more than a dozen secretaries of state, CIA directors, bankers, lawyers, professors, and senior media figures.
A trade agreement is a wide-ranging taxes, tariff and trade treaty that often includes investment guarantees. It exists when two or more countries agree on terms that helps them trade with each other. The most common trade agreements are of the preferential and free trade types are concluded in order to reduce tariffs, quotas and other trade restrictions on items traded between the signatories.
In international economic relations and international politics, "most favoured nation" (MFN) is a status or level of treatment accorded by one state to another in international trade. The term means the country which is the recipient of this treatment must nominally receive equal trade advantages as the "most favoured nation" by the country granting such treatment. In effect, a country that has been accorded MFN status may not be treated less advantageously than any other country with MFN status by the promising country. There is a debate in legal circles whether MFN clauses in bilateral investment treaties include only substantive rules or also procedural protections.
Laura D'Andrea Tyson is an American economist and former Chair of the US President's Council of Economic Advisers during the Clinton Administration. She also served as Director of the National Economic Council. She is currently a professor at the Haas School of Business of the University of California, Berkeley.
The Independent Task Force on the Future of North America advocates a greater economic and social integration between Canada, Mexico, and the United States as a region. It is a group of prominent business, political and academic leaders from the U.S., Canada and Mexico organized and sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations (U.S.), the Canadian Council of Chief Executives, and the Mexican Council on Foreign Relations. It was co-chaired by former Canadian Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, John Manley, former Finance Minister of Mexico, Pedro Aspe, and former Governor of Massachusetts and Assistant U.S. Attorney General William F. Weld.
The Kennedy Round was the sixth session of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) multilateral trade negotiations held between 1964 and 1967 in Geneva, Switzerland. Congressional passage of the U.S. Trade Expansion Act in 1962 authorized the White House to conduct mutual tariff negotiations, ultimately leading to the Kennedy Round. Participation greatly increased over previous rounds. Sixty-six nations, representing 80% of world trade, attended the official opening on May 4, 1964, at the Palais des Nations. Despite several disagreements over details, the director general announced the round’s success on May 15, 1967, and the final agreement was signed on June 30, 1967—the very last day permitted under the Trade Expansion Act. The round was named after U.S. President John F. Kennedy, who was assassinated six months before the opening negotiations.
Margaret C. Sullivan serves as the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) Chief Operating Officer as well as Chief of Staff. Prior to joining the Obama Administration, she served as Director of Political Risk Management at Farallon Capital Management., a large investment firm based in San Francisco, California.
The International Trade Organization (ITO) was the proposed name for an international institution for the regulation of trade.
Marina von Neumann Whitman is an American economist, writer and former automobile executive. She is a Professor of Business Administration and Public Policy at the University of Michigan's Ross School of Business as well as The Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy.
Susan Carol Schwab is an American politician, who served under President George W. Bush as United States Trade Representative from June, 2006 to January, 2009.
Howard Charles Petersen (1910–1995) was an American government official and banker. He was the United States Assistant Secretary of War from 1945 to 1947.
Isher Judge Ahluwalia is an Indian economist. She is Chairperson, Board of Governors, the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER).
Kathleen L. Casey was a Republican commissioner of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. She was appointed by President George W. Bush and sworn in on July 17, 2006. Her term expired in August 2011.
Mona K. Sutphen served as the White House Deputy Chief of Staff for Policy in the Obama administration from 2009 to 2011. She is currently a Senior Advisor at The Vistria Group, a private equity firm. From 2013 to 2019, she was a partner at Macro Advisory Partners LLP and from 2011-2013 was Managing Director at UBS AG, covering geopolitical risk, macro-policy trends and their impact on the global economy. She has also previously held positions as an American diplomat and served on the National Security Council during the Clinton Administration. She is the co-author of The Next American Century: How the U.S. Can Thrive as Other Powers Rise.
An Eco-tariff, also known as an environmental tariff, is a trade barrier erected for the purpose of reducing pollution and improving the environment. These trade barriers may take the form of import or export taxes on products that have a large carbon footprint or are imported from countries with lax environmental regulations.
Foreign trade of the United States comprises the international imports and exports of the United States, one of the world's most significant economic markets. The country is among the top three global importers and exporters.
Barbara Hackman Franklin is an American government official, corporate director, and business executive. She served as the 29th U.S. Secretary of Commerce from 1992-1993 to President George H.W. Bush, during which she led a Presidential mission to China.
Brooms manufactured from broomcorn became specifically subject to an increase in US import tariffs in 1996. In response to the US action, chief exporter of broomcorn brooms Mexico requested dispute settlement from an arbitration tribunal of NAFTA, which eventually decided in Mexico's favor. It was one of only three cases to be decided under the provisions of Chapter 20 of NAFTA.
| United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development |
| United States Trade Representative |