Carla Anderson Hills

Last updated
Carla Anderson Hills
Carla Anderson Hills at the 21st Annual CAF Conference (37109768555) (cropped).jpg
Co-Chairwoman of the Council on Foreign Relations
In office
June 30, 2007 July 1, 2017
Servingwith Robert Rubin
President Richard N. Haass
Preceded by Peter Peterson
Succeeded by David M. Rubenstein
10th United States Trade Representative
In office
February 6, 1989 January 20, 1993
President George H. W. Bush
Preceded by Clayton Yeutter
Succeeded by Mickey Kantor
5th United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
In office
March 10, 1975 January 20, 1977
President Gerald Ford
Preceded by James Thomas Lynn
Succeeded by Patricia Roberts Harris
20th United States Assistant Attorney General for the Civil Division
In office
1973–1975
President Richard Nixon
Gerald Ford
Preceded by Harlington Wood Jr.
Succeeded by Rex Lee
Personal details
Born
Carla Anderson

(1934-01-03) January 3, 1934 (age 85)
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Political party Republican
Spouse(s) Roderick Hills
Children4
Education Stanford University (BA)
St Hilda's College, Oxford
Yale University (LLB)

Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, 1934) is an American lawyer and a public figure. She served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in the Gerald Ford administration, and as U.S. Trade Representative. She was the first woman to serve as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the third woman to serve as a cabinet officer. [1]

United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development government position

The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, a member of the President's Cabinet, and thirteenth in the Presidential line of succession. The post was created with the formation of the Department of Housing and Urban Development on September 9, 1965, by President Lyndon B. Johnson's signing of the Department of Housing and Urban Development Act into law. The department's mission is "to increase homeownership, support community development and increase access to affordable housing free from discrimination."

Gerald Ford 38th president of the United States

Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. was an American politician who served as the 38th president of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977. Before his accession to the presidency, Ford served as the 40th vice president of the United States from December 1973 to August 1974. Ford is the only person to have served as both vice president and president without being elected to either office by the Electoral College.

Contents

Early life and education

Born Carla Anderson in Los Angeles, she received her B.A. degree from Stanford University, after studying at St Hilda's College, Oxford. She earned her LL.B. degree from Yale Law School in 1958 and married Roderick M. Hills the same year. [2]

Los Angeles City in California

Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L.A., is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, and the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of nearly four million, Los Angeles is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. The city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, Hollywood and the entertainment industry, and its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America.

Stanford University private research university located in Stanford, California, United States

Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, wealth, proximity to Silicon Valley, and ranking as one of the world's top universities.

St Hildas College, Oxford college of the University of Oxford

St Hilda's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. The college is named after the Anglo-Saxon Saint, Hilda of Whitby and was founded in 1893 as a hall for women; remaining an all-women's college until 2008. St Hilda’s was the last single-sex college in the university as Somerville College had admitted men in 1994. The college now has almost equal numbers of men and women at both undergraduate and postgraduate level.

Career

Hills being sworn in as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in 1975 Ford A3597 NLGRF photo contact sheet (1975-03-10)(Gerald Ford Library) (cropped).jpg
Hills being sworn in as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in 1975
Hills with President Gerald Ford in 1977 Ford B2727 NLGRF photo contact sheet (1977-01-08)(Gerald Ford Library) (cropped1).jpg
Hills with President Gerald Ford in 1977

Hills was admitted to the California bar in 1959, and served as an Assistant United States Attorney in Los Angeles from 1959 to 1961. From 1962 to 1974, she was a partner at Munger, Tolles, Hills, and Rickershauser in Los Angeles. In 1972, she was an adjunct professor at UCLA. [3] An authority on federal practice and anti-trust law, Mrs. Hills wrote of Federal Civil Practice and Antitrust Advisor. [4] She is a former president of the National Association of Women Lawyers.

United States Attorney chief prosecutor representing the United States federal government

United States attorneys represent the United States federal government in United States district courts and United States courts of appeals.

The National Association of Women Lawyers is a voluntary organization founded in 1899 and based in the United States. Its aim is to promote women lawyers and women's legal rights.

She was a United States Assistant Attorney General heading the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice before being named as the secretary of the Department of Housing and Urban Development. Elliot L. Richardson sought to appoint her as assistant U.S. Attorney General in 1973, but he resigned shortly thereafter during the Watergate scandal. The offer was renewed by his successor, William B. Saxbe, in 1974.

United States Assistant Attorney General Government official rank

Many of the divisions and offices of the United States Department of Justice are headed by an Assistant Attorney General.

Watergate scandal Political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s

The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during 1972 to 1974, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up his involvement. After the five burglars were caught and the conspiracy was discovered—chiefly through the work of a few journalists, Congressional staffers and an election-finance watchdog official—Watergate was investigated by the United States Congress. Meanwhile, Nixon's administration resisted its probes, which led to a constitutional crisis.

William B. Saxbe American politician

William Bart"Bill"Saxbe was an American politician affiliated with the Republican Party, who served as a U.S. Senator for Ohio, and was the Attorney General for Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford, and as the U.S. Ambassador to India.

Hills' lack of relevant experience was somewhat controversial during the hearings for her nomination to head the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. (Hills hit back against her critics, criticizing Senator William Proxmire’s “total ignorance” of HUD’s programs in 1977). While there, she approved ithe demolition of the massive public housing project in Northwest St. Louis, Pruitt-Igoe, a decayed and crime-ridden project generally acknowledged to have been a planning disaster, housing only six hundred people in seventeen buildings with the other sixteen buildings vacant and boarded up when it was finally demolished.. As Oscar Newman argued in his groundbreaking work on “defensible space,” high-rise projects like Pruitt-Igoe promoted crime by isolating tenants in individual units unconnected to specific public areas. Following Newman’s arguments for scattered site rental housing, Hills promoted the “section 8” subsidy program under the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, under which the federal government would subsidize individual households’ rent rather than finance the construction of large-scale housing projects. President Ford later commented in his autobiography, A Time to Heal, that Hills was an exceptionally effective advocate for HUD, often appealing the budgetary decisions of James Lynn, Ford’s OMB chief, to the President and winning most of the time. Hills’ reputation on Ford’s cabinet was high enough that she was one of the candidates on his “short list” to replace U.S. Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas. (Ultimately, Ford selected John Paul Stevens). From 1978 through 1989, she was again a practicing attorney, and she served as chairwoman of the Urban Institute from 1983 through 1988.

United States Department of Housing and Urban Development Cabinet department in the Executive branch of the United States federal government

The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) is a Cabinet department in the Executive branch of the United States federal government. Although its beginnings were in the House and Home Financing Agency, it was founded as a Cabinet department in 1965, as part of the "Great Society" program of President Lyndon Johnson, to develop and execute policies on housing and metropolises.

Public housing residential properties owned by a government

Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local.

St. Louis Independent city in the United States

St. Louis is a major independent city and inland port in the U.S. state of Missouri. It is situated along the western bank of the Mississippi River, which marks Missouri's border with Illinois. The Missouri River merges with the Mississippi River just north of the city. These two rivers combined form the fourth longest river system in the world. The city had an estimated 2017 population of 308,626 and is the cultural and economic center of the St. Louis metropolitan area, which is the largest metropolitan area in Missouri, the second-largest in Illinois, and the 20th-largest in the United States.

U.S. Trade Representative

Official portrait Carla A. Hills official portrait.jpg
Official portrait
Hills with President George H.W. Bush during the NAFTA Initialing Ceremony in Austin, Texas. Nafta.jpg
Hills with President George H.W. Bush during the NAFTA Initialing Ceremony in Austin, Texas.

Hills served as U.S. Trade Representative under President George H. W. Bush from 1989 to 1993. She was under pressure to implement the 1988 Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act to go after countries that were considered to be trading unfairly with the U.S. The New York Times called Section 301 of the Act her "crowbar", which enabled the U.S. to impose tariffs as high as 100%. She initially went after Japan, Brazil and India, although the Bush administration later decided Japan had changed its ways. [1]

President of the United States Head of state and of government of the United States

The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces.

George H. W. Bush 41st president of the United States

George Herbert Walker Bush was an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993 and the 43rd vice president from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he held posts that included those of congressman, ambassador, and CIA director. Until his son George W. Bush became the 43rd president in 2001, he was usually known simply as George Bush.

Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act United States Law

The Omnibus Foreign Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 is an act passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Ronald Reagan.

An advocate of free trade, she was the primary U.S. negotiator of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). In 2000, Hills was awarded the Mexican Order of the Aztec Eagle (La Orden Mexicana del Aguila Azteca), which is the highest honor awarded to non-citizens by the Mexican government. [5] In fact, it was the first time Mexican-Americans were awarded this award since November 12, 1990 when the union leader, Cesar Chavez, received it. [6]

President George H.W. Bush's administration's priority was to hammer out the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in the Uruguay Round, where Hills was known as a strong negotiator. "Delegations from 97 countries [sought] ways to notch down everyone's tariffs and remove other obstacles to trade." "The 97 signatories to GATT account for two-thirds of the $3 trillion in merchandise traded each year. Since the original agreement in 1947, GATT has been altered six times..." but, "after the last GATT revision – the Tokyo Round, which started in 1976 – many American industries were outclassed by others". [1]

Since 1993, she has worked as a consultant and a public speaker through Hills & Company International Consultants, which advises on investment, trade and risks abroad. She was one of the founders of the Forum for International Policy where she is a trustee. [7] Carla stepped down from Time Warner, Inc. with Ted Turner in 2006. [8] She now serves on international advisory boards for American International Group, The Coca-Cola Company, Gilead Sciences, Inc., J.P. Morgan Chase and Rolls Royce as well as the board of the U.S.-China Business Council. [9] [10]

In 2008, Yale University granted her an honorary degree. She has also received honorary degrees from other institutions. [11]

North American community

In 2005, Hills participated in the Task Force on the Future of North America. The Task Force produced a controversial report called Building a North American Community sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations. The reported advocated strengthening trading relationships between the U.S., Canada and Mexico by making trade more efficient, building infrastructure in North America, fast tracking borders and integrating language. For example, it recommended assisting "elementary and secondary schools in teaching about North America." (page 29) "Develop teacher exchange and training programs for elementary and secondary school teachers. This would assist in removing language barriers and give some students a greater sense of a North American identity. Greater efforts should also be made to recruit Mexican language teachers to teach Spanish in the United States and Canada." [12]

Affiliations

Awards and honors

In 1979, the Supersisters trading card set was produced and distributed; one of the cards featured Hills's name and picture. [16]

In 1993, Hills received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards. [17]

See also

Related Research Articles

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World Trade Organization Intergovernmental trade organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that is concerned with the regulation of international trade between nations. The WTO officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakesh Agreement, signed by 124 nations on 15 April 1994, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948. It is the largest international economic organization in the world.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Louis Uchitelle (June 10, 1990). "A Crowbar for Carla Hills". New York Times. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  2. "Carla Anderson Hills" . Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  3. "International Crisis Group – Carla A. Hills". Archived from the original on 2009-09-12. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  4. Hills, Carla A. (1978). Antitrust Advisor: 1984 Cumulative Supplement. Colorado Springs: Shepard's, Inc. ISBN   978-0-07-056701-6.
  5. "Hills Program on Governance, Roderick M. & Carla A. Hills". Archived from the original on 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  6. Hamm, Patricia H. (July 1, 1996). "Chicanos, NAFTA and U.S.-Mexico Relations: A 1988-1993 Chronology" (PDF). Center for Research on Latinos in a Global Society (University of California, Irvine): 8. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  7. 1 2 "The Forum for International Policy, trustees". Archived from the original on 2009-04-14. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  8. "Ted Turner and Carla A. Hills to Step Down from Time Warner's Board of Directors". February 24, 2006. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  9. "Carla A. Hills Profile – Forbes.com". Archived from the original on 2009-03-04. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  10. http://www.uschina.org/
  11. Yale University gives ex-Beatle honorary doctorate in music [ permanent dead link ]RepublicanAmerican, 2008-05-26, retrieved 2008-05-26
  12. Pastor, Robert A.; Hills, Carla A.; Jones, James R.; Manley, John P.; Niles, Thomas M.T.; Cunningham, Nelson W.; Weld, William F.; Yzaguirre, Raul H. (May 2005). Building a North American Community (PDF). Council on Foreign Relations Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN   0-87609-348-9 . Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  13. Board of Directors, Council on Foreign Relations, retrieved 2008-05-26
  14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-09-27. Retrieved 2008-07-04.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link), National Committee on United States-China Relations, retrieved 2008-07-04
  15. Inter-American Dialogue BoD, dead as of 2008-05-26 Archived May 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine retrieved 2008-05-26
  16. Wulf, Steve (2015-03-23). "Supersisters: Original Roster". Espn.go.com. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  17. http://www.jeffersonawards.org/pastwinners/national
Political offices
Preceded by
James Lynn
United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development
1975–1977
Succeeded by
Patricia Harris
Preceded by
Clay Yeutter
United States Trade Representative
1989–1993
Succeeded by
Mickey Kantor