William Anders

Last updated

Rookie Bill Anders was thirty-five, slightly built, a devout Roman Catholic, and very serious minded. I'm not sure he ever got used to my rough sense of humor or Lovell's free-wheeling spirit. But Anders was one hell of a worker, a superb technician and all in all a great guy. Anders was always friendly and cooperative, but he avoided the usual astronaut bull sessions. Some of the guys regarded him as a younger version of Frank Borman in his single-minded concentration on work, his aversion to unnecessary conversation. [16]

Earthrise

Earthrise, taken by Anders on 24 December 1968 NASA-Apollo8-Dec24-Earthrise.jpg
Earthrise , taken by Anders on 24 December 1968

In December 1968, Anders flew on the Apollo 8 mission, the first mission where humans traveled beyond low Earth orbit, [9] and the first crewed flight to reach and orbit the Moon. [21] When the spacecraft came out from behind the Moon for its fourth pass across the front, the crew witnessed an "Earthrise" for the first time in human history. [22] NASA's Lunar Orbiter 1 had taken the first picture of an Earthrise from the vicinity of the Moon, on 23 August 1966. [23]

Anders saw the Earth emerging from behind the lunar horizon and called in excitement to the others, taking a black-and-white photograph as he did so. Anders asked Lovell for color film and then took Earthrise , which was later picked by Life magazine as one of its hundred photos of the century. [22] [24] Anders reflected on the lasting impact of the Earthrise photograph, noting that it gained iconic status over time and helped people realize the need to take care of our fragile planet. He remarked on the photograph's message for humanity, highlighting the contrast between our only home and the conflicts, including nuclear threats and terrorism, that we face. "It amazes me." [25] According to Anders:

We came all this way to explore the Moon, and the most important thing is that we discovered the Earth. [26] [27]

On conservation of the planet, he said:

If you can imagine yourself in a darkened room with only one clearly visible object, a small blue-green sphere about the size of a Christmas-tree ornament, then you can begin to grasp what the Earth looks like from space. I think that all of us subconsciously think that the Earth is flat ... Let me assure you that, rather than a massive giant, it should be thought of as the fragile Christmas-tree ball which we should handle with considerable care. [28]

The Apollo 8 command module splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 27 December after a flight lasting 147 hours and 42 seconds and a voyage of 504,006 nautical miles (933,419 km). It landed just 2 nautical miles (3.7 km) from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier USS Yorktown. [29] Due to time dilation, the three astronauts had aged about 300 microseconds less than people back on Earth. [30]

Apollo 11

The July 1969 Apollo 11 mission was commanded by Armstrong, with Collins as the CMP and Aldrin as the LMP. The Apollo 8 crew became its backup, but without Borman. Lovell stepped up to become the backup commander, and Anders became the backup CMP, with rookie astronaut Fred Haise as the backup LMP. [12] [31]

NASC, AEC, and NRC

Anders could see that Project Apollo was coming to a close and felt that his chances of commanding a Moon mission were slim. [32] On 16 May 1969, President Richard Nixon nominated him to become the executive secretary of the National Aeronautics and Space Council (NASC). This was the highest government post ever offered to an astronaut up to that time. [33] He was confirmed by the United States Senate on 19 June. [34] The Space Council consisted of the Administrator of NASA, the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), and the Secretaries of State, Defense, and Transportation, and was chaired by the Vice President. [35] Due to his commitment to the Apollo 11 backup crew, Anders was unable to assume the position until August. [32] [36]

Anders sprayed with a fire hose by his son Greg at Davis-Monthan Air Force Base in 2008 Greg Anders sprays Bill Anders with the fire hose.jpg
Anders sprayed with a fire hose by his son Greg at Davis–Monthan Air Force Base in 2008

In his new role, Anders was responsible for developing aeronautical and space policy. [9] He worked closely with the Office of Science and Technology (OST) and the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and became a personal advisor to the OMB director, Caspar Weinberger. [32] Anders worked hard to bridge the gap between OMB and OST on the one hand and NASA on the other. He became increasingly pessimistic about the future of the NASC and the space program generally. He opposed the development of the Space Shuttle, urging instead that NASA concentrate on developing the Skylab space station. [37] He argued that a small Space Shuttle would be a better option than a large one, but the large one was approved because it would involve more jobs in California. [2] Frustrated with the NASC's lack of influence, he recommended in 1972 that it be abolished. [37] This was done on 30 June 1973. [38]

Nixon was impressed by Anders and wanted to retain him in the administration. [39] On 6 August 1973, he appointed Anders to the five-member AEC. Nixon felt that the commission was dominated by lawyers and he wanted an engineer on it. The chairman of the AEC, Dixy Lee Ray, appointed Anders to be the lead commissioner for nuclear and non-nuclear power research and development. He also served as the U.S. chairman of the joint US-Soviet Union nuclear fission and fusion power technology exchange program. [9] [2] He spent much of his time dealing with the AEC's problematic research and development programs, particularly the troubled breeder reactor program. [40]

One issue that had dogged the AEC since its inception was its dual role in both developing nuclear energy and regulating it. The perception that there was a conflict of interest between the two roles became acute with the growth of the nuclear power industry. [40] On 19 January 1975, the commission was split in two, with its research and development responsibilities assumed by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), and its regulatory ones by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Some 1,970 former employees of the AEC joined the NRC. [41] President Gerald Ford appointed Anders as the first chairman of the NRC. He was the only one of the five AEC commissioners to transition to one of the new organizations. Anders made the decision process of the commissioners of the NRC more transparent than that of the AEC. The NRC inherited nuclear safety and environmental compatibility functions from the AEC, but unlike the AEC's regulatory branch, the NRC had its own safety and security research capability, so it was not reliant on the ERDA. [40]

After his term as NRC chairman, Anders was asked if he would be interested in an ambassadorship. He did not want to, but asked his wife Valerie. She expressed an interest in Norway, based on their trip there during the Apollo 8 world publicity tour. So Anders asked if Norway was available. Lawrence Eagleburger submitted his name for the position. [2] Anders was appointed Ambassador to Norway on 13 April 1976 and held that post until 18 June 1977. [42]

Private sector

Anders served briefly as a fellow of the American Enterprise Institute. In September 1977, he joined General Electric (GE) as its vice president and general manager of its Nuclear Products Division. Based in San Jose, California, Anders was responsible for the fuel, equipment, and instrumentation used in its boiling water reactors in San Jose and Wilmington, North Carolina. He also oversaw GE's partnership with Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, which manufactured large steel pressure vessels in Memphis, Tennessee. In August 1979, GE sent him to Harvard Business School to attend its six-week Advanced Management Program. On 1 January 1980, he became the general manager of the GE Aircraft Equipment Division. From its headquarters in Utica, New York, the division controlled more than 8,500 employees in five locations in the northeastern United States. Its products included aircraft flight and weapon control systems, cockpit instruments, aircraft electrical generating systems, airborne radars and data processing systems, electronic countermeasures, space command systems, and aircraft/surface multi-barrel armament systems. [9]

In 1984, Anders left GE to join Textron as its executive vice president for aerospace. Two years later he became senior executive vice president for operations, [9] but Anders did not get along well with the CEO. A perk of the job was that he got to fly Bell helicopters, as Bell was a subsidiary of Textron. [2] During his time in the civil service, Anders had remained in the Air Force as a reservist and had retained his active flight status flying NASA Northrop T-38 Talon aircraft and helicopters, retiring from the reserves as a major general in 1988. He was also a consultant to the U.S. Office of Science and Technology Policy, and a member of the Defense Science Board and the NASA Advisory Council. [6]

General Dynamics board

Anders became vice chairman of General Dynamics in January 1990, and on 1 January 1991, its chairman and CEO. [43] Soon after he took over as CEO, the company lost $700 million (equivalent to $1.6 billion in 2023) in write-offs over the canceled A-12 Avenger II program. [44] The January 1991 cancelation directly caused about 3,500 employees to be laid-off at the Fort Worth, Texas plant that built the A-12. [45] On 19 June 1991, Anders announced that General Dynamics was moving its corporate headquarters from St. Louis, Missouri, to Falls Church, Virginia, to be closer to its military customers at The Pentagon. [46] The move started on 20 December 1991, with 110 of the 275 headquarters employees moving to the Washington Beltway location, and 50 remaining in the accounting office in St. Louis, leaving 115 unemployed. [47]

When Anders took over, General Dynamics was in financial trouble. [48] The quarter before he became chairman and CEO was the worst ever in the company's history, losing $858 million (equivalent to $1.9 billion in 2023) between October to December 1990. [49] Anders sold off nearly $3 billion (equivalent to $6.5 billion in 2023) in assets, including the missile systems and Cessna. On 9 December 1992, he sold the military aircraft division to the Lockheed Corporation for $1.5 billion (equivalent to $3.3 billion in 2023), which included the F-16 jet fighter. [50] These selloffs reduced the number of employees from 98,600 to around 35,000, and the company's debt from $430 million (equivalent to $900 million in 2023) to $183 million (equivalent to $400 million in 2023). Value was returned to the shareholders in the form of $600 million in dividends. Although annual sales dropped from $10 to $3.5 billion, the value of the company's share price quadrupled. Anders earned over $40 million. [51] [52] He retired as CEO in 1993, [53] and as chairman on 4 May 1994. [54]

Anders taxiing a North American P-51 Mustang at Bergen Air Show in 2005 Bergen Air Show 075.jpg
Anders taxiing a North American P-51 Mustang at Bergen Air Show in 2005

Retirement and death

Following retirement, Anders and his wife purchased a house in Anacortes, Washington, overlooking Puget Sound and Burrows Island. After realizing he disliked the winters in northwest Washington, he purchased a second home in Point Loma, California. [2]

Anders later established the William A. Anders Foundation, a philanthropic organization for the benefit of educational and environmental issues. He also founded the Heritage Flight Museum in 1996 in Bellingham, Washington, which moved to Skagit Regional Airport in Burlington, Washington, in 2014. This is run by his family, with Anders as president until 2008, his wife Valerie as secretary, son Greg as vice president, executive director and webmaster, and son Alan as vice president and director of maintenance. [2] [55]

Anders died on 7 June 2024, at the age of 90, while flying the vintage T-34 registered to him. [56] The aircraft crashed into the waters of north Puget Sound between Jones Island and Orcas Island [57] [58] [59] and was seen by witnesses as going down into a small channel between the two islands, then sinking after catching fire. [60] After witnesses reported seeing the plane take a nosedive and crash in the water, a search was launched by the U.S. Coast Guard and the San Juan County Sheriff's Department. [61] Later that day, Anders' son, Greg, confirmed the death of his father and that his body had been recovered. [62] [63] Beginning with his Air Force career, Anders had logged over 8,000 flight hours. [64]

Publications

Awards and honors

Anders was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1983, [27] [74] the International Air & Space Hall of Fame in 1990, [75] the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame in 1997, [76] [77] and the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 2004. [78] He was a member of Tau Beta Pi National Engineering Honor Society, American Nuclear Society, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Academy of Engineering, and Society of Experimental Test Pilots. [9]

Icelandic geologist Sigurdur Thorarinsson, Bill Anders, and Dr. Ted H. Foss during geology training in Iceland in 1967 Geology training in Iceland 1967.jpg
Icelandic geologist Sigurður Þórarinsson, Bill Anders, and Dr. Ted H. Foss during geology training in Iceland in 1967

Robert John Burke played Anders in the 1998 HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon . [79] Anders appeared as himself in the 2005 documentary Race to the Moon, which was shown as part of the PBS American Experience television series (season 18, episode 2). [80] The film, renamed Earthrise: The First Lunar Voyage in 2013, was about the events that led up to the Apollo 8 mission. [81] He was interviewed in a chapter of the 2015 book No More Worlds to Conquer by Chris Wright. The chapter is roughly evenly split between his life in the Apollo program and his later corporate life. The book's front cover is the Earthrise image. [82] He appeared with fellow astronauts Frank Borman and Jim Lovell on the C-SPAN channel book review, Rocket Men. He confirmed the story that he had fallen asleep while awaiting the Apollo 8 launch. [83]

The 1994 album The Songs of Distant Earth by Mike Oldfield uses the Anders' reading for the cut "In The Beginning". [84] [85]

See also

Footnotes

  1. A 1949 agreement allowed up to 25 percent of the graduating classes of West Point and Annapolis to volunteer for the Air Force. Between 1950, when the agreement became effective, and 1959, when the first class graduated from the United States Air Force Academy, about 3,200 West Point cadets and Annapolis midshipmen chose to do so. [7]

Notes

  1. 1 2 Pace, Eric (31 August 2000). "Arthur F. Anders, 96, Hero Aboard U.S. Gunboat in 1937". The New York Times . Archived from the original on 17 December 2014. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Freeze, Di (1 April 2007). "Bill Anders: A Love of Afterburners". Airport Journals. Archived from the original on 15 April 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
  3. "Astronauts With Scouting Experience". IEEE. 31 July 2019. Archived from the original on 18 August 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  4. "Astronauts With Scouting Experience". Boy Scouts of America. Archived from the original on 1 May 2019. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  5. Newland 2010, p. 109.
  6. 1 2 3 4 "Bill Anders". United States Air Force. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008.
  7. Mitchell 1996, pp. 60–61.
  8. Nominees to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission: Hearings Before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy, Congress of the United States – Part 1: Nomination of William A. Anders (Report). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office. 1975. pp. 2–3. Archived from the original on 1 October 2022. Retrieved 7 August 2022.
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "William A. Anders (Major General, USAF Reserve, Ret.)" (PDF). NASA. December 2014. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 September 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  10. Morse & Bays 1973, p. 61.
  11. 1 2 "14 New Astronauts Introduced at Press Conference" (PDF). NASA Roundup. Vol. 3, no. 1. NASA. 30 October 1963. pp. 1, 4, 5, 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 July 2022. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  12. 1 2 Brooks, Grimwood & Swenson 1979, p. 374.
  13. Collins 2001, pp. 288–294.
  14. Brooks, Grimwood & Swenson 1979, pp. 231–234.
  15. Brooks, Grimwood & Swenson 1979, p. 256.
  16. 1 2 3 Borman & Serling 1988, p. 189.
  17. "Poised for the Leap". Time . 6 December 1968. Archived from the original on 4 February 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2011.
  18. Brooks, Grimwood & Swenson 1979, pp. 257–260.
  19. 1 2 Brooks, Grimwood & Swenson 1979, p. 262.
  20. Collins 2001, pp. 296–298.
  21. "Chasing the Moon: Transcript, Part Two". American Experience. PBS. 10 July 2019. Archived from the original on 31 August 2023. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  22. 1 2 Woods, W. David; O'Brien, Frank (22 April 2006). "Day 4: Lunar Orbits 4, 5 and 6". Apollo 8 Flight Journal. NASA. Archived from the original on 2 October 2007. Retrieved 20 September 2007.
  23. "The 'Other' Lunar Orbiter 1 Earthrise Image". Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute. Archived from the original on 25 March 2019. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  24. Chaikin, Andrew. "Who Took the Legendary Earthrise Photo From Apollo 8?". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on 28 July 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  25. Sample, Ian (24 December 2018). "Earthrise: how the iconic image changed the world". The Guardian . ISSN   0261-3077. Archived from the original on 8 June 2024. Retrieved 24 December 2018.
  26. "Remarks by the President at the National Academy of Sciences Annual Meeting". White House. 27 April 2009. Archived from the original on 22 January 2024. Retrieved 2 March 2021 via National Archives.
  27. 1 2 "Lunar Module pilot on Apollo 8, the first mission to circumnavigate the Moon". nmspacemuseum.org. New Mexico Museum of Space History. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
  28. Nicks 1970, p. 14.
  29. Orloff 2000, p. 40.
  30. Science and Technology Division, Library of Congress 1970, p. 71.
  31. Orloff 2000, p. 90.
  32. 1 2 3 Logsdon 2015, p. 51.
  33. Science and Technology Division, Library of Congress 1970, p. 141.
  34. Science and Technology Division, Library of Congress 1970, p. 184.
  35. Logsdon 2015, p. 136.
  36. Slayton & Cassutt 1994, p. 237.
  37. 1 2 Logsdon 2015, p. 200.
  38. "National Aeronautics and Space Council. 7/29/1958-6/30/1973". National Archives. Archived from the original on 11 August 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  39. Logsdon 2015, p. 199.
  40. 1 2 3 Gillette 1975, pp. 1173–1175.
  41. Buck 1983, p. 18.
  42. "William Alison Anders". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 1 October 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  43. Goodman, Adam (19 December 1990). "Stepping Down: Pace Reflects on Years At The Top" . St. Louis Post-Dispatch . p. 8F. Archived from the original on 9 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024 via Newspapers.com.
  44. Goodman, Adam (2 June 1991). "Dynamic Force" . St. Louis Post-Dispatch. pp. 1E, 6E. Archived from the original on 10 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024 via Newspapers.com.
  45. Hutcheson, Ron (8 January 1991). "Cheney decides to kill the A-12" . Fort Worth Star-Telegram . pp. A1, A12. Archived from the original on 9 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024 via Newspapers.com.
  46. Flannery, William (20 June 1991). "General Dynamics Moving Out" . St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 5E. Archived from the original on 10 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024 via Newspapers.com.
  47. Goodman, Adam (18 December 1991). "It's Official: General Dynamics Picks Friday To Move Head Office To Capital" . St. Louis Post-Dispatch. p. 10D. Archived from the original on 10 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024 via Newspapers.com.
  48. Picht, Ralph (7 February 1991). "General Dynamics posts huge loss" . The Belleville News-Democrat. Belleville, Illinois. The Associated Press. p. 4B. Archived from the original on 10 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024 via Newspapers.com.
  49. Vartabedian, Ralph; Broder, John (7 February 1991). "Jet Cancellation Cited in General Dynamics' Loss" . Los Angeles Times . pp. D3. Archived from the original on 10 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024 via Newspapers.com.
  50. Harmon, Amy; Vartabedian, Ralph (10 December 1992). "Lockheed Vaults to Top of Jet Fighter Business" . Los Angeles Times. pp. B5–B6. Archived from the original on 9 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024 via Newspapers.com.
  51. Sims, Calvin (19 March 1993). "Big Payout by General Dynamics". The New York Times . p. D1. Archived from the original on 11 August 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  52. Pearlstein, Steven (19 March 1993). "General Dynamics CEO to Step Down" . The Washington Post . Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  53. Tribune Staff (19 March 1993). "Cuts at General Dynamics base" . Chicago Tribune . Tribune Wire Service. p. 43. Archived from the original on 10 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024 via Newspapers.com.
  54. AP Staff (5 May 1994). "EB's parent may buy or sell some businesses" . Hartford Courant . The Associated Press. pp. C1–C2. Archived from the original on 10 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024 via Newspapers.com.
  55. Museum Staff (2016). "'The First Earthrise' Apollo 8 Astronaut Bill Anders recalls the first mission to the Moon". The Museum of Flight. Seattle. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2024.
  56. Robledo, Anthony (7 June 2024). "Apollo 8 astronaut William Anders, who took famous 'Earthrise' photo, dies in plane crash". Archived from the original on 9 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024.
  57. Fox 13 News Staff (7 June 2024). "Video shows fiery small plane crash into WA waters near Orcas Island". FOX 13. Seattle. Archived from the original on 8 June 2024. Retrieved 8 June 2024.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  58. Lewis, Russell (7 July 2024). "NASA astronaut Bill Anders, who took famous photo of Earth during Apollo, dies at 90". NPR . Archived from the original on 8 June 2024. Retrieved 8 June 2024.
  59. Goldstein, Richard. "William A. Anders, Who Flew on First Manned Orbit of the Moon, Dies at 90". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 8 June 2024. Retrieved 8 June 2024.
  60. Robledo, Anthony (7 June 2024). "Apollo 8 astronaut William Anders, who took famous 'Earthrise' photo, dies in plane crash". USA TODAY. Archived from the original on 8 June 2024. Retrieved 8 June 2024.
  61. Flam, Charna (7 June 2024). "Former Apollo 8 Astronaut William Anders Dead at 90 After Plane Crash in Washington". People . New York: Dotdash Meredith. ISSN   0093-7673. Archived from the original on 9 June 2024. Retrieved 9 June 2024.
  62. FOX 13 News Staff (7 June 2024). "San Juan Islands plane crash pilot identified: Who is William Anders?". FOX 13. Seattle. Archived from the original on 7 June 2024. Retrieved 7 June 2024.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  63. Johnson, Gene; McAvoy, Audrey (7 June 2024). "Former astronaut William Anders who took iconic Earthrise photo has died in Washington plane crash". The Associated Press . Seattle. Archived from the original on 8 June 2024. Retrieved 8 June 2024.
  64. "Maj. Gen. William A. Anders". Heritage Flight Museum. Archived from the original on 11 August 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  65. Sterner, Doug (2024). "William Alison Anders". The Hall of Valor. Sightline Media Group. Archived from the original on 1 October 2023. Retrieved 10 June 2024.
  66. AP Staff (9 May 1969). "Apollo 8 Wins Collier Trophy". Alabama Journal . Montgomery, Alabama: Journal Pub. Co. The Associated Press. p. 18. Archived from the original on 8 January 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2022 via Newspapers.com.
  67. "AF Major, 3 Astronauts Get Harmon". Fort Lauderdale News. Fort Lauderdale, Florida. United Press International. 7 September 1969. p. 67. Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2022 via Newspapers.com.
  68. "Paine Selected as NASA Chief". The San Francisco Examiner. San Francisco, California. Associated Press. 5 March 1969. p. 6. Archived from the original on 8 January 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2022 via Newspapers.com.
  69. "The Gen. Thomas D. White USAF Space Trophy" (PDF). Air Force Magazine. USAF. May 1997. p. 156. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 March 2022.
  70. "Golden Plate Awardees of the American Academy of Achievement". achievement.org. American Academy of Achievement. Archived from the original on 26 March 2023. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  71. Schulz, Rita. "Lunar craters named in honor of Apollo 8". EurekAlert!. International Astronomical Union. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 7 October 2018.
  72. "Apollo 8 Crew Honored". Florida Today. Cocoa, Florida. 25 March 1970. p. 12C. Archived from the original on 3 February 2020. Retrieved 3 September 2022 via Newspapers.com.
  73. Wood, Alison; Stamm, Amy (17 November 2022). "National Air and Space Museum's 2023 Michael Collins Trophy Awarded to Bill Anders and the James Webb Space Telescope Team" (Press release). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on 3 October 2023. Retrieved 8 June 2024.
  74. Sheppard, David (2 October 1983). "Space Hall Inducts 14 Apollo Program Astronauts". El Paso Times. El Paso, Texas. p. 18. Archived from the original on 27 March 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2022 via Newspapers.com.
  75. "San Diego Air & Space Museum". Historical Balboa Park, San Diego. Archived from the original on 3 September 2022. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  76. "U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame". Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. Archived from the original on 15 October 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
  77. Meyer, Marilyn (2 October 1997). "Ceremony to Honor Astronauts". Florida Today. Cocoa, Florida. p. 2B. Archived from the original on 12 February 2019. Retrieved 3 September 2022 via Newspapers.com.
  78. "Come With Us to Washington DC for the induction of the Class of 2018! – National Aviation Hall of Fame". National Aviation Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 29 August 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  79. James, Caryn (3 April 1998). "Television Review; Boyish Eyes on the Moon". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 August 2018. Retrieved 5 August 2018.
  80. "Race to the Moon | American Experience | PBS". www.pbs.org. Archived from the original on 23 May 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2024.
  81. Kertscher, Kevin Michael (20 October 2005). "The Making of 'Race to the Moon': Apollo 8 Documentary Producer Tells All". Space.com. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  82. "Anders' Game". Euromoney. June 2015. Archived from the original on 8 June 2024. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  83. "Rocket Men'". C-SPAN. April 2018. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  84. "Archived copy". Discogs . Archived from the original on 10 June 2024. Retrieved 10 June 2024.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  85. Aloia Do Norte (13 May 2016). Mike Oldfield - In the beginning & Let there be light. Archived from the original on 10 June 2024. Retrieved 10 June 2024 via YouTube.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Apollo 8</span> First crewed space mission to orbit the Moon

Apollo 8 was the first crewed spacecraft to leave Earth's gravitational sphere of influence, and the first human spaceflight to reach the Moon. The crew orbited the Moon ten times without landing, and then departed safely back to Earth. These three astronauts—Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders—were the first humans to witness and photograph the far side of the Moon and an Earthrise.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Frank Borman</span> American astronaut and lunar explorer (1928–2023)

Frank Frederick Borman II was an American United States Air Force (USAF) colonel, aeronautical engineer, NASA astronaut, test pilot, and businessman. He was the commander of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon, and together with crewmates Jim Lovell and William Anders, became the first of 24 humans to do so, for which he was awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Michael Collins (astronaut)</span> American astronaut (1930–2021)

Michael Collins was an American astronaut who flew the Apollo 11 command module Columbia around the Moon in 1969 while his crewmates, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, made the first crewed landing on the surface. He was also a test pilot and major general in the U.S. Air Force Reserve.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gene Cernan</span> American astronaut and lunar explorer (1934–2017)

Eugene Andrew Cernan was an American astronaut, naval aviator, electrical engineer, aeronautical engineer, and fighter pilot. During the Apollo 17 mission, Cernan became the 11th human being to walk on the Moon. As he re-entered the Apollo Lunar Module after Harrison Schmitt on their third and final lunar excursion, he remains the most recent person to walk on the Moon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles Duke</span> American astronaut and lunar explorer (born 1935)

Charles Moss Duke Jr. is an American former astronaut, United States Air Force (USAF) officer and test pilot. As Lunar Module pilot of Apollo 16 in 1972, he became the 10th and youngest person to walk on the Moon, at age 36 years and 201 days.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jim Lovell</span> American astronaut (born 1928)

James Arthur Lovell Jr. is an American retired astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot and mechanical engineer. In 1968, as command module pilot of Apollo 8, he became, with Frank Borman and William Anders, one of the first three astronauts to fly to and orbit the Moon. He then commanded the Apollo 13 lunar mission in 1970 which, after a critical failure en route, looped around the Moon and returned safely to Earth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joe Engle</span> American astronaut (born 1932)

Joe Henry Engle is an American pilot, aeronautical engineer and former NASA astronaut. He was the commander of two Space Shuttle missions including STS-2 in 1981, the program's second orbital flight. He also flew two flights in the Shuttle program's 1977 Approach and Landing Tests. Engle is one of twelve pilots who flew the North American X-15, an experimental spaceplane jointly operated by the Air Force and NASA, and the last surviving test pilot of the aircraft. After Richard H. Truly died in 2024, Engle is now the last surviving crew member of STS-2.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ken Mattingly</span> American astronaut (1936–2023)

Thomas Kenneth Mattingly II was an American aviator, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, rear admiral in the United States Navy, and astronaut who flew on Apollo 16 and Space Shuttle STS-4 and STS-51-C missions.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">James McDivitt</span> American astronaut (1929–2022)

James Alton McDivitt Jr. was an American test pilot, United States Air Force (USAF) pilot, aeronautical engineer, and NASA astronaut in the Gemini and Apollo programs. He joined the USAF in 1951 and flew 145 combat missions in the Korean War. In 1959, after graduating first in his class with a Bachelor of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the University of Michigan through the U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) program, he qualified as a test pilot at the Air Force Experimental Flight Test Pilot School and Aerospace Research Pilot School, and joined the Manned Spacecraft Operations Branch. By September 1962, McDivitt had logged over 2,500 flight hours, of which more than 2,000 hours were in jet aircraft. This included flying as a chase pilot for Robert M. White's North American X-15 flight on July 17, 1962, in which White reached an altitude of 59.5 miles (95.8 km) and became the first X-15 pilot to be awarded Astronaut Wings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thomas P. Stafford</span> American astronaut and lunar explorer (1930–2024)

Thomas Patten Stafford was an American Air Force officer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut, and one of 24 astronauts who flew to the Moon. He also served as Chief of the Astronaut Office from 1969 to 1971.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Project Gemini</span> 1961–1966 US human spaceflight program

Project Gemini was the second United States human spaceflight program to fly. Conducted after the first American crewed space program, Project Mercury, while the Apollo program was still in early development, Gemini was conceived in 1961 and concluded in 1966. The Gemini spacecraft carried a two-astronaut crew. Ten Gemini crews and 16 individual astronauts flew low Earth orbit (LEO) missions during 1965 and 1966.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Charles Bassett</span> United States Air Force test pilot and astronaut (1931–1966)

Charles Arthur "Charlie" Bassett II, , was an American electrical engineer and United States Air Force test pilot. He went to Ohio State University for two years and later graduated from Texas Tech University with a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Engineering. He joined the Air Force as a pilot and graduated from both the Air Force's Experimental Test Pilot School and the Aerospace Research Pilot School. Bassett was married and had two children.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Apollo (crater)</span> Crater on the Moon

Apollo, also called the Apollo basin, is an enormous impact crater located in the southern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. This formation dwarfs the large crater Oppenheimer that is located next to the western rim. The crater Barringer lies across the northern wall. To the southeast is the crater Anders, and Kleymenov is just to the east of the rim.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">NASA Astronaut Group 2</span> 2nd group of NASA astronauts

NASA Astronaut Group 2, also known as the Next Nine and the New Nine, was the second group of astronauts selected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Their selection was announced on September 17, 1962. The group augmented the Mercury Seven. President John F. Kennedy had announced Project Apollo, on May 25, 1961, with the ambitious goal of putting a man on the Moon by the end of the decade, and more astronauts were required to fly the two-man Gemini spacecraft and three-man Apollo spacecraft then under development. The Mercury Seven had been selected to accomplish the simpler task of orbital flight, but the new challenges of space rendezvous and lunar landing led to the selection of candidates with advanced engineering degrees as well as test pilot experience.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">NASA Astronaut Group 3</span> Group of astronauts selected by NASA

NASA Astronaut Group 3—"The Fourteen"—was a group of fourteen astronauts selected by NASA for the Gemini and Apollo program. Their selection was announced in October 1963. Seven were from the United States Air Force, four from the United States Navy, one was from the United States Marine Corps and two were civilians. Four died in training accidents before they could fly in space. All of the surviving ten flew Apollo missions; five also flew Gemini missions. Buzz Aldrin, Alan Bean, Gene Cernan and David Scott walked on the Moon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Apollo 8 Genesis reading</span> Reading of the Book of Genesis by Apollo 8 crewmembers

On Christmas Eve, December 24, 1968, the crew of Apollo 8, the first humans to travel to the Moon, read from the Book of Genesis during a television broadcast. During their ninth orbit of the Moon astronauts Bill Anders, Jim Lovell, and Frank Borman recited verses 1 through 10 of the Genesis creation narrative from the King James Bible. Anders read verses 1–4, Lovell verses 5–8, and Borman read verses 9 and 10.

<i>Earthrise</i> Photograph taken by astronaut Bill Anders during the Apollo 8 mission

Earthrise is a photograph of Earth and part of the Moon's surface that was taken from lunar orbit by astronaut William Anders on December 24, 1968, during the Apollo 8 mission. Nature photographer Galen Rowell described it as "the most influential environmental photograph ever taken".

First to the Moon: The Story of Apollo 8 is a 2018 documentary film about the second crewed spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, which launched on December 21, 1968. Apollo 8 was the first crewed spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit, reach the Moon, orbit it, and return safely to Earth. The film was released in December 2018 and has been screened at The Explorers Club in New York City, the Kansas Cosmosphere, and Arizona State University.

<i>Cosmic Birth</i> 2019 Icelandic film

Cosmic Birth is a 2019 Icelandic documentary film about mankind's journey to the Moon and the experience of viewing the Earth from a quarter of a million miles away. The film also looks into the role that Iceland played in the training of the Apollo astronauts for the first crewed missions to another world. Cosmic Birth is written and directed by Exploration Museum founder Örlygur Hnefill Örlygsson and filmmaker and musician Rafnar Orri Gunnarsson.

References

PD-icon.svg This article incorporates public domain material from William A. Anders (Major General, USAF Reserve, Ret.) (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration . Retrieved 8 January 2021.

William Anders
William Anders.jpg
Anders in 1964
Born
William Alison Anders

(1933-10-17)17 October 1933
Died7 June 2024(2024-06-07) (aged 90)
Education
Awards
Space career
NASA astronaut
Rank Major General, USAFR
Time in space
6d 3h
Selection NASA Group 3 (1963)
Missions Apollo 8
Mission insignia
Apollo-8-patch.png
Retirement1 September 1969
United States Ambassador to Norway
In office
11 May 1976 18 June 1977
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by United States Ambassador to Norway
1976–1977
Succeeded by