Gordon Cooper

Last updated

Gordon Cooper
Gordon Cooper 2.jpg
Born
Leroy Gordon Cooper Jr.

(1927-03-06)March 6, 1927
DiedOctober 4, 2004(2004-10-04) (aged 77)
NationalityAmerican
Alma mater University of Hawaii
University of Maryland
Air Force Institute of Technology, B.S. 1956
Occupation Test pilot
Awards Legion of Merit
Distinguished Flying Cross (2)
NASA Distinguished Service Medal
NASA Exceptional Service Medal
Space career
NASA Astronaut
Rank US-O6 insignia.svg Colonel, USAF
Time in space
9d 09h 14m
Selection 1959 NASA Group 1
Missions Mercury-Atlas 9
Gemini 5
Mission insignia
Faith 7 insignia.gif Gemini5insignia.png
RetirementJuly 31, 1970

Leroy Gordon "Gordo" Cooper Jr. (March 6, 1927 – October 4, 2004) was an American aerospace engineer, test pilot, United States Air Force pilot, and the youngest of the seven original astronauts in Project Mercury, the first manned space program of the United States. Cooper learned to fly as a child, and after service in the United States Marine Corps during World War II, he was commissioned into the United States Air Force in 1949. After service as a fighter pilot, he qualified as a test pilot in 1956, and was selected as an astronaut in 1959.

Test pilot aviator who flies new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers

A test pilot is an aircraft pilot with additional training to fly and evaluate experimental, newly produced and modified aircraft with specific manoeuvres known as flight test techniques.

United States Air Force Air and space warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U.S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947. It is the youngest branch of the U.S. Armed Forces, and the fourth in order of precedence. The USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, and command and control.

Mercury Seven Group of seven Mercury astronauts

The Mercury Seven were the group of seven astronauts for Project Mercury announced by NASA on April 9, 1959. They are also referred to as the Original Seven and Astronaut Group 1. They piloted all the manned spaceflights of the Mercury program from May 1961 to May 1963. These seven original American astronauts were Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, and Deke Slayton.

Contents

In 1963 Cooper piloted the longest and last Mercury spaceflight, Mercury-Atlas 9. During that 34-hour mission he became the first American to spend an entire day in space, the first to sleep in space, and the last American launched on an entirely solo orbital mission. Despite a series of severe equipment failures, he managed to successfully complete the mission under manual control, guiding his spacecraft, which he named Faith 7 , to a splashdown just 4 miles (6.4 km) ahead of the recovery ship. Cooper became the first astronaut to make a second orbital flight when he flew as Command Pilot of Gemini 5 in 1965. Along with Pilot Pete Conrad, he set a new space endurance record by traveling 3,312,993 miles (5,331,745 km) in 190 hours and 56 minutes—just short of eight days—showing that astronauts could survive in space for the length of time necessary to go from the Earth to the Moon and back.

Mercury-Atlas 9 manned spacecraft

Mercury-Atlas 9 was the final crewed space mission of the U.S. Mercury program, launched on May 15, 1963 from Launch Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral, Florida. The spacecraft, named Faith 7, completed 22 Earth orbits before splashing down in the Pacific Ocean, piloted by astronaut Gordon Cooper, then an Air Force major. The Atlas rocket was No. 130-D, and the Mercury spacecraft was No. 20. This mission marks the last time an American was launched alone to conduct an entirely solo orbital mission.

Orbital spaceflight Spaceflight where spacecraft orbits an astronomical body

An orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit. To do this around the Earth, it must be on a free trajectory which has an altitude at perigee above 100 kilometers (62 mi); this is, by at least one convention, the boundary of space. To remain in orbit at this altitude requires an orbital speed of ~7.8 km/s. Orbital speed is slower for higher orbits, but attaining them requires greater delta-v.

Splashdown method of landing a spacecraft by parachute in a body of water

Splashdown is the method of landing a spacecraft by parachute in a body of water. It was used by American manned spacecraft prior to the Space Shuttle program, and is planned for use by the upcoming Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. It is also possible for the Russian Soyuz spacecraft to land in water, though this is only a contingency. The only example of an unintentional manned splashdown in Soviet history is the Soyuz 23 landing.

Cooper liked to race cars and boats, and entered the $28,000 Salton City 500 miles (800 km) boat race, and the Southwest Championship Drag Boat races in 1965, and the 1967 Orange Bowl Regatta with fire fighter Red Adair. In 1968, he entered the 24 Hours of Daytona, but NASA management ordered him to withdraw due to the dangers involved. After serving as backup commander of the Apollo 10 mission, he was superseded by Alan Shepard, and retired from NASA and the Air Force with the rank of colonel in 1971.

Red Adair firefighter

Paul Neal "Red" Adair was an American oil well firefighter. He became notable as an innovator in the highly specialized and hazardous profession of extinguishing and capping oil well blowouts, both land-based and offshore.

24 Hours of Daytona Sports car endurance race held in Daytona, FL, US

The 24 Hours of Daytona, currently known as the Rolex 24 At Daytona for sponsorship reasons, is a 24-hour sports car endurance race held annually at Daytona International Speedway in Daytona Beach, Florida. It is run on a 3.56-mile (5.73 km) combined road course, utilizing portions of the NASCAR tri-oval and an infield road course. Since its inception, it has been held on the last weekend of January or first weekend of February as part of Speedweeks, and it is the first major automobile race of the year in the United States. It is also the first race of the season for the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship.

Apollo 10 mission in the United States Apollo space program

Apollo 10 was the fourth crewed mission in the United States Apollo space program, and the second to orbit the Moon. Launched on May 18, 1969, it was the F mission: a "dress rehearsal" for the first Moon landing, testing all of the components and procedures, just short of actually landing. The Apollo Lunar Module (LM) was flown to a descent orbit within 8.4 nautical miles (15.6 km) of the lunar surface, at the point where powered descent for landing would normally begin. Its success enabled the first landing to be attempted on the Apollo 11 mission two months later.

Early life and education

Leroy Gordon Cooper Jr. was born on March 6, 1927, in Shawnee, Oklahoma, [1] the only child of Tecumseh, Oklahoma, residents Leroy Gordon Cooper Sr. and Hattie Lee (née  Herd) Cooper. [2] His mother was a school teacher. His father enlisted in the U.S. Navy during World War I, and served on the presidential yacht USS Mayflower. After the war Cooper Sr. completed his high school education; Hattie Lee was one of his teachers, although she was only two years older than him. He joined the Oklahoma National Guard, flying a Curtiss JN-4 biplane, despite never having formal military pilot training. He graduated from college and law school, and became a state district judge. During World War II he was called to active duty, and served in the Pacific theater in the Judge Advocate General's Corps. [3] He transferred to United States Air Force (USAF) after it was formed in 1947, and was stationed at Hickham Air Force Base, Hawaii. He retired from the USAF with the rank of colonel in 1957. [4]

Shawnee, Oklahoma City in Oklahoma, United States

Shawnee is a city in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, United States. The population was 31,543 in 2014, a 4.9 percent increase from 28,692 at the 2000 census. The city is part of the Oklahoma City-Shawnee Combined Statistical Area; it is also the county seat of Pottawatomie County and the principal city of the Shawnee Micropolitan Statistical Area.

World War I 1914–1918 global war originating in Europe

World War I, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history. It is also one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide.

Presidential yacht may refer to a naval vessel of a country's navy that would be specially used by the country's president. It is common for a vessel to be designated as the presidential yacht during a fleet review.

Cooper attended Jefferson Elementary School and Shawnee High School in Shawnee, Oklahoma, [4] where he was on the football and track teams. During his senior high school year, he played at halfback in the state football championship. [5] He was active in the Boy Scouts of America, where he achieved its second highest rank, Life Scout. [6] His parents owned a Command-Aire biplane, and he learned to fly at a young age. He unofficially soloed when he was 12 years old, and earned his pilot's license in a Piper J-3 Cub when he was 16. [4] [7] His family moved to Murray, Kentucky, when his father was called back into service, and he graduated from Murray High School in June 1945. [2]

American football Team field sport

American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end. The offense, which is the team controlling the oval-shaped football, attempts to advance down the field by running with or passing the ball, while the defense, which is the team without control of the ball, aims to stop the offense's advance and aims to take control of the ball for themselves. The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, and otherwise they turn over the football to the defense; if the offense succeeds in advancing ten yards or more, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponent's goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins.

Senior (education) a student in the fourth year of study, esp. in the U.S.

In United States education, a senior is a student in the fourth year of study.

Halfback (American football) offensive position in American football

A halfback (HB) is an offensive position in American football, whose duties involve lining up in the backfield and carrying the ball on most rushing plays, i.e. a running back. When the principal ball carrier lines up deep in the backfield, and especially when that player is placed behind another player, as in the I formation, that player is instead referred to as a tailback.

After Cooper learned that the United States Army and Navy flying schools were not taking any more candidates, he enlisted in the United States Marine Corps. [5] He left for Parris Island as soon as he graduated from high school, [2] but World War II ended before he saw overseas service. He was assigned to the Naval Academy Preparatory School as an alternate for an appointment to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, but the primary appointee was accepted, and Cooper was assigned to guard duty in Washington, D.C. He was serving with the Presidential Honor Guard when he was discharged from the Marine Corps in 1946. [5]

United States Army Land warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, and is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution. As the oldest and most senior branch of the U.S. military in order of precedence, the modern U.S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, which was formed to fight the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783)—before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army. The United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, and dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775.

United States Marine Corps Amphibious warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces

The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines or U.S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force. The U.S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island military base

Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island is an 8,095-acre (32.76 km2) military installation located within Port Royal, South Carolina, approximately 5 miles (8.0 km) south of Beaufort, the community that is typically associated with the installation. MCRD Parris Island is used for the training of enlisted Marines. Male recruits living east of the Mississippi River and female recruits from all over the United States report here to receive their initial training. Male recruits living west of the Mississippi River receive their training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego, California, but may train at Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island by special request.

Cooper went to Hawaii to live with his parents. He started attending the University of Hawaii, and bought his own J-3 Cub. There he met his first wife, Trudy B. Olson of Seattle, Washington, through the local flying club. She was active in flying, and would later become the only wife of a Mercury astronaut to have a pilot's license. They were married on August 29, 1947 in Honolulu when both were 20 years old. They had two daughters: Camala Keoki, born in 1948, and Janita Lee, born in 1950. [2] [4] [8]

Military service

USAF Experimental Flight Test School Class 56D. Front row: Captains Gordon Cooper, James Wood, Jack Mayo and Gus Grissom. USAF Experimental Flight Test School Class 56D.jpg
USAF Experimental Flight Test School Class 56D. Front row: Captains Gordon Cooper, James Wood, Jack Mayo and Gus Grissom.

At college, Cooper was active in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps (ROTC), [8] which led to his being commissioned as a second lieutenant in the U.S. Army in June 1949. He was able to transfer his commission to the United States Air Force in September 1949. [9] He received flight training at Perrin Air Force Base, Texas and Williams Air Force Base, Arizona, [4] in the T-6 Texan. [8]

On completion of his flight training in 1950, Cooper was posted to Landstuhl Air Base, West Germany, where he flew F-84 Thunderjets and F-86 Sabres for four years. He became a flight commander of the 525th Fighter Bomber Squadron. While in Germany, he attended the European Extension of the University of Maryland. He returned to the United States in 1954, and studied for two years at the U.S. Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) in Ohio. He completed his Bachelor of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering there on August 28, 1956. [4] [10]

While at AFIT, Cooper met Gus Grissom, a fellow USAF officer, and the two became good friends. They were involved in an accident on takeoff from Lowry Field on June 23, 1956, when the Lockheed T-33 Cooper was piloting suddenly lost power. He aborted the takeoff, but the landing gear collapsed and the aircraft skidded erratically for 2,000 feet (610 m), and crashed at the end of the runway, bursting into flames. Cooper and Grissom escaped unscathed, although the aircraft was a total loss. [10]

Cooper and Grissom attended the USAF Experimental Flight Test School (Class 56D) at Edwards Air Force Base in California in 1956. [10] After graduation Cooper was posted to the Flight Test Engineering Division at Edwards, where he served as a test pilot and project manager testing the F-102A and F-106B. [2] He also flew the T-28, T-37, F-86, F-100 and F-104. [11] By the time he left Edwards, he had logged more than 2,000 hours of flight time, of which 1,600 hours were in jet aircraft. [10]

NASA career

Project Mercury

Cooper in his Mercury spacesuit, the Navy Mark IV Mercury Suit Gordon Cooper.jpg
Cooper in his Mercury spacesuit, the Navy Mark IV

In January 1959, Cooper received unexpected orders to report to Washington, D.C. There was no indication what it was about, but his commanding officer, Major General Marcus F. Cooper (no relation) recalled an announcement in the newspaper saying that a contract had been awarded to McDonnell Aircraft in St. Louis, Missouri, to build a space capsule, and advised Cooper not to volunteer for astronaut training. On February 2, 1959, Cooper attended a NASA briefing on Project Mercury and the part astronauts would play in it. Cooper went through the selection process with another 109 pilots, [12] and was not surprised when he was accepted as the youngest of the first seven American astronauts. [13] Others were though; Slayton later recalled that "When I heard Gordo's name, my first reaction was, something's wrong. Gordo was an engineer at Edwards. As far as I was concerned, he wasn't even a test pilot." [14]

During the selection interviews, Cooper had been asked about his domestic relationship, and had lied, saying that he and Trudy had a good, stable marriage. In fact, she had left him four months before in the wake of a lengthy affair he had with a married woman, and was living with their daughters in San Diego while he occupied a bachelor's quarters at Edwards. Aware that NASA wanted to project an image of its astronauts as loving family men, and that his story would not stand up to scrutiny, he drove down to San Diego to see Trudy at the first opportunity. Lured by the prospect of a great adventure for herself and her daughters, she agreed to go along with the charade and pretend that they were a happily married couple. [15]

The identities of the Mercury Seven were announced at a press conference at Dolley Madison House in Washington, D.C., on April 9, 1959: [16] Scott Carpenter, Gordon Cooper, John Glenn, Gus Grissom, Wally Schirra, Alan Shepard, and Deke Slayton. [17] Each was assigned a different portion of the project along with other special assignments. Cooper specialized in the Redstone rocket, which would be used for the first, sub-orbital spaceflights. [18] He also chaired the Emergency Egress Committee, responsible for working out emergency launch pad escape procedures, [19] and engaged Bo Randall to develop a personal survival knife for astronauts to carry. [20]

The astronauts drew their salaries as military officers, and an important component of that was flight pay. In Cooper's case, it amounted to $145 a month (equivalent to $1,246in 2018). NASA saw no reason to provide the astronauts with aircraft, so they had to fly to meetings around the country on commercial airlines. To continue earning their flight pay, Grissom and Slayton would go out on the weekend to Langley Air Force Base, and attempt to put in the required four hours a month, competing for T-33 aircraft with senior deskbound colonels and generals. Cooper traveled to McGhee Tyson Air National Guard Base in Tennessee, where a friend let him fly higher-performance F-104B jets. This came up when Cooper had lunch with William Hines, a reporter for The Washington Star , and was duly reported in the paper. Cooper then discussed the issue with Congressman James G. Fulton. The matter was taken up by the House Committee on Science and Astronautics. Within weeks the astronauts had priority access to USAF F-102s, something that Cooper considered a "hot plane", but which could still take off from and land at short civilian airfields; but it did not make Cooper popular with senior NASA management. [21] [22]

After General Motors executive Ed Cole presented Shepard with a brand-new Chevrolet Corvette, Jim Rathmann, a racing car driver who won the Indianapolis 500 in 1960, and was a Chevrolet dealer in Melbourne, Florida, convinced Cole to turn this into an ongoing marketing campaign. Henceforth, astronauts would be able to lease brand-new Corvettes for a dollar a year. All of the Mercury Seven but Glenn soon took up the offer. Cooper, Grissom and Shepard were soon racing their Corvettes around Cape Canaveral, with the police ignoring their exploits. From a marketing perspective, it was very successful, and helped the highly priced Corvette become established as a desirable brand. Cooper held licenses with the Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) and the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR). He also enjoyed racing speedboats, [23] and had affairs with the female astronaut groupies. [24]

Cooper served as capsule communicator (CAPCOM) for NASA's first sub-orbital spaceflight, by Alan Shepard in Mercury-Redstone 3, [25] and Scott Carpenter's orbital flight on Mercury-Atlas 7, [26] and was backup pilot for Wally Schirra in Mercury-Atlas 8. [4]

Mercury-Atlas 9

Cooper was designated for the next mission, Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9). Apart from the grounded Slayton, he was the only one of the Mercury Seven who had not yet flown in space. Some officials at NASA Headquarters (HQ) were unenthusiastic about Cooper, considering his complaints about flight pay and other incidents as evidence of a disturbing lack of judgment. [27] His laid-back attitude and Oklahoma accent did not help. [24] Slayton later recalled: "Cooper was a capable pilot and could do the job, so I recommended him. There was some grumbling out of HQ so I said: 'Either we fly him on MA-9, or we send him back to the Air Force now. It isn't fair to keep this guy hanging around if we're not gonna fly him.'" [28] NASA management did not want to send one of its astronaut heroes back to the Air Force, so Cooper's selection was publicly announced on November 14, 1962, with Shepard designated as his backup. [28]

Mercury-Atlas 9 lifts off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 14 Cooper - GPN-2000-000997.jpg
Mercury-Atlas 9 lifts off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 14

Project Mercury had begun with a goal of ultimately flying an 18-orbit, 27-hour mission, known as the manned one-day mission (MODM). [29] On November 9, senior staff at the Manned Spacecraft Center decided to fly a 22-orbit mission as MA-9. Project Mercury still remained years behind the Soviet Union's space program, which had already flown a 64-orbit mission in Vostok 3. When Atlas 130-D, the booster designated for MA-9, first emerged from the factory in San Diego on January 30, 1963, it failed to pass inspection and was returned to the factory. [30] For Schirra's MA-8 mission, 20 modifications had been made to the Mercury spacecraft; for Cooper's MA-9, 183 changes were made. [30] [31] Cooper decided to name his spacecraft, Mercury Spacecraft No. 20, Faith 7 . NASA public affairs officers could see the newspaper headlines if the spacecraft were lost at sea: "NASA loses Faith". [32]

Cooper was nearly replaced by Shepard after an argument with NASA Deputy Administrator Walter C. Williams over last-minute changes to his pressure suit to insert a new medical probe. [33] This was followed by Cooper buzzing Hangar S at Cape Canaveral in an F-102 and lighting the afterburner. [33] Williams told Slayton he was prepared to replace Cooper with Shepard. They decided not to, but not to let Cooper know immediately. Instead, Slayton told Cooper that Williams was looking to ground whoever buzzed Hangar S. [34] According to Cooper, Slayton later told him that President John F. Kennedy had intervened to prevent his removal. [33]

Cooper was launched into space on May 15, 1963, aboard the Faith 7 spacecraft, for what turned out to be the last of the Project Mercury missions. Because MA-9 would orbit over nearly every part of the world from 33 degrees north to 33 degrees south, [35] a total of 28 ships, 171 aircraft, and 18,000 servicemen were assigned to support the mission. [35] He orbited the Earth 22 times and logged more time in space than all five previous Mercury astronauts combined—34 hours, 19 minutes and 49 seconds. Cooper achieved an altitude of 165.9 miles (267.0 km) at apogee. He was the first American astronaut to sleep, not only in orbit, [2] [36] but on the launch pad during a countdown. [37]

Toward the end of the Faith 7 flight there were mission-threatening technical problems. During the 19th orbit, the capsule had a power failure. Carbon dioxide levels began rising, both in his suit and in the cabin, and the cabin temperature climbed to over 130  °F (54  °C ). The clock and then the gyroscopes failed, but the radio, which was connected directly to the battery, remained working, allowing Cooper to communicate with the mission controllers. [38] Like all Mercury flights, MA-9 was designed for fully automatic control, a controversial engineering decision which reduced the role of an astronaut to that of a passenger, and prompted Chuck Yeager to describe Mercury astronauts as "Spam in a can". [39] "This flight would put an end to all that nonsense", Cooper later wrote, "My electronics were shot and a pilot had the stick." [40]

Cooper turned to his understanding of star patterns, took manual control of the tiny capsule and successfully estimated the correct pitch for re-entry into the atmosphere. [41] Precision was needed in the calculation; small errors in timing or orientation could produce large errors in the landing point. Cooper drew lines on the capsule window to help him check his orientation before firing the re-entry rockets. "So I used my wrist watch for time," he later recalled, "my eyeballs out the window for attitude. Then I fired my retrorockets at the right time and landed right by the carrier." [42]

Faith 7 splashed down 4 miles (6.4 km) ahead of the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier USS Kearsarge. Faith 7 was hoisted on board by a helicopter with Cooper still inside. Once on deck he used the explosive bolts to blow open the hatch. Postflight inspections and analyses studied the causes and nature of the electrical problems that had plagued the final hours of the flight, but no fault was found with the performance of the pilot. [43]

Project Gemini

Cooper began the tradition of NASA mission insignia with this design for Gemini 5. Gemini-5-logo.png
Cooper began the tradition of NASA mission insignia with this design for Gemini 5.

MA-9 was the last of the Project Mercury flights. Walt Williams and others wanted to follow up with a three-day Mercury-Atlas 10 (MA-10) mission, but NASA HQ had already announced that there would be no MA-10 if MA-9 was successful. [32] Shepard in particular was eager to fly the mission, for which he had been designated. [44] He even attempted to enlist the support of President Kennedy. [45] An official decision that there would be no MA-10 was made by NASA Administrator James E. Webb on June 22, 1963. [43] Had the mission been approved, Shepard might not have flown it, as he was grounded in October 1963, [46] and MA-10 might well have been flown by Cooper, who was his backup. [44]

Project Mercury was followed by Project Gemini, which took its name from the fact that it carried two men instead of just one. [47] Slayton designated Cooper as commander of Gemini 5, an eight-day, 120-orbit mission. [46] Cooper's assignment was officially announced on February 8, 1965. Pete Conrad, one of the nine astronauts selected in 1962 was designated as his co-pilot, with Neil Armstrong and Elliot See as their respective backups. On July 22, Cooper and Conrad went through a rehearsal of a double launch of Gemini atop a Titan II booster from Launch Complex 19 and an Atlas-Agena target vehicle from Launch Complex 14. At the end of the successful test, the erector could not be raised, and the two astronauts had to be retrieved with a cherry picker, an escape device that Cooper had devised for Project Mercury and insisted be retained for Gemini. [48]

Trudy and their teenage daughters, Cam and Jan, watch the launch of Gemini 5 Astro TrudyCooper daughters.jpg
Trudy and their teenage daughters, Cam and Jan, watch the launch of Gemini 5

Cooper and Conrad wanted to name their spacecraft Lady Bird after Lady Bird Johnson, the First Lady of the United States, but Webb turned down their request; he wanted to "depersonalize" the space program. [49] Cooper and Conrad then came up with the idea of a mission patch, similar to the organizational emblems worn by military units. The patch was intended to commemorate all the hundreds of people directly involved, not just the astronauts. [50] Cooper and Conrad chose an embroidered cloth patch sporting the names of the two crew members, a Conestoga wagon, and the slogan "8 Days or Bust" which referred to the expected mission duration. [51] Webb ultimately approved the design, but insisted on the removal of the slogan from the official version of the patch, feeling it placed too much emphasis on the mission length and not the experiments, and fearing the public might see the mission as a failure if it did not last the full duration. The patch was worn on the right breast of the astronauts' uniforms below their nameplates and opposite the NASA emblems worn on the left. [51] [52]

The mission was postponed from August 9 to 19 to give Cooper and Conrad more time to train, and was then delayed for two days due to a storm. Gemini 5 was launched at 09:00 on August 21, 1965. The Titan II booster placed them in a 163 by 349 kilometers (101 by 217 mi) orbit. Cooper's biggest concern was the fuel cell. To make it last eight days, Cooper intended to operate it at a low pressure, but when it started to dip too low the Flight Controllers advised him to switch on the oxygen heater. It eventually stabilized at 49 newtons per square centimetre (71 psi)—lower than it had ever been operated at before. While MA-9 had become uncomfortably warm, Gemini 5 became cold. There were also problems with the Orbit Attitude and Maneuvering System thrusters, which became erratic, and two of them failed completely. [53]

Pete Conrad (left) and Cooper on deck of recovery carrier USS Lake Champlain after Gemini 5 mission Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr. tweaks astronaut L. Gordon Cooper's eight-day growth of beard for the cameramen.jpg
Pete Conrad (left) and Cooper on deck of recovery carrier USS Lake Champlain after Gemini 5 mission

Gemini 5 was originally intended to practice orbital rendezvous with an Agena target vehicle, but this had been deferred to a later mission owing to problems with the Agena. [54] Nonetheless, Cooper practiced bringing his spacecraft to a predetermined location in space. This raised confidence for achieving rendezvous with an actual spacecraft on subsequent missions, and ultimately in lunar orbit. Cooper and Conrad were able to carry out all but one of the scheduled experiments, most of which were related to orbital photography. [55]

The mission was cut short by the appearance of Hurricane Betsy in the planned recovery area. Cooper fired the retrorockets on the 120th orbit. Splashdown was 130 kilometers (81 mi) short of the target. A computer error had set the Earth's rotation at 360 degrees per day whereas it is actually 360.98. The difference was significant in a spacecraft. The error would have been larger had Cooper not recognized the problem when the reentry gauge indicated that they were too high, and attempted to compensate by increasing the bank angle from 53 to 90 degrees to the left to increase the drag. Helicopters plucked them from the sea and took them to the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier USS Lake Champlain. [55]

The two astronauts established a new space endurance record by traveling a distance of 3,312,993 miles (5,331,745 km) in 190 hours and 56 minutes—just short of eight days—showing that astronauts could survive in space for the length of time necessary to go from the Earth to the Moon and back. Cooper became the first astronaut to make a second orbital flight. [56]

Cooper served as backup Command Pilot for Gemini 12, the last of the Gemini missions, with Gene Cernan as his pilot. [57]

Project Apollo

In November 1964, Cooper entered the $28,000 Salton City 500 miles (800 km) boat race with racehorse owner Ogden Phipps and racing car driver Chuck Daigh. [58] They were in fourth place when a cracked motor forced them to withdraw. The next year Cooper and Grissom had an entry in the race, but were disqualified after failing to make a mandatory meeting. Cooper competed in the Southwest Championship Drag Boat races at La Porte, Texas, later in 1965, [59] and in the 1967 Orange Bowl Regatta with fire fighter Red Adair. [60] In 1968, he entered the 24 Hours of Daytona with Charles Buckley, the NASA chief of security at the Kennedy Space Center. The night before the race, NASA management ordered him to withdraw due to the dangers involved. [61] Cooper upset NASA management by quipping to the press that "NASA wants astronauts to be tiddlywinks players." [61]

Apollo 10 backup crew (left to right) Cooper, Edgar Mitchell, and Donn Eisele during water egress training in April 1969. Cooper Mitchell Eisele.jpg
Apollo 10 backup crew (left to right) Cooper, Edgar Mitchell, and Donn Eisele during water egress training in April 1969.

Cooper was selected as backup Commander for the May 1969 Apollo 10 mission. This placed him in line for the position of Commander of Apollo 13, according to the usual crew rotation procedure established by Slayton as Director of Flight Crew Operations. However, when Shepard, the Chief of the Astronaut Office, returned to flight status in May 1969, Slayton replaced Cooper with Shepard as Commander of this crew. This mission subsequently became Apollo 14 to give Shepard more time to train. [2] [62] Loss of this command placed Cooper further down the flight rotation, meaning he would not fly until one of the later flights, if ever. [63]

Slayton alleged that Cooper had developed a lax attitude towards training during the Gemini program; for the Gemini 5 mission, other astronauts had to coax him into the simulator. [64] However, according to Walter Cunningham, Cooper and Scott Carpenter were the only Mercury astronauts who consistently attended geology classes. [65] Slayton later asserted that he never intended to rotate Cooper to another mission, and assigned him to the Apollo 10 backup crew simply because of a lack of qualified astronauts with command experience at the time. Slayton noted that Cooper had a slim chance of receiving the Apollo 13 command if he did an outstanding job as backup commander of Apollo 10, but Slayton felt that Cooper did not. [66]

Dismayed by his stalled astronaut career, Cooper retired from NASA and the USAF on July 31, 1970, with the rank of colonel, having flown 222 hours in space. [2] Soon after he divorced Trudy, [67] he married Suzan Taylor, a schoolteacher, in 1972. [67] They had two daughters: Colleen Taylor, born in 1979; and Elizabeth Jo, born in 1980. They remained married until his death in 2004. [68]

Later life

Cooper at an induction ceremony of the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 2004. Astronauts John Young and Gene Cernan stand behind him. KSC-04pd1006~orig.jpg
Cooper at an induction ceremony of the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 2004. Astronauts John Young and Gene Cernan stand behind him.

After leaving NASA, Cooper served on several corporate boards and as technical consultant for more than a dozen companies in fields ranging from high performance boat design to energy, construction, and aircraft design. [56] Between 1962 and 1967, he was president of Performance Unlimited, Inc., a manufacturer and distributor of racing and marine engines, and fiberglass boats. He was president of GCR, which designed, tested and raced championship cars, conducted tire tests for race cars, and worked on installation of turbine engines on cars. He served on the board of Teletest, which designed and installed advanced telemetry systems; Doubloon, which designed and built treasure hunting equipment; and Cosmos, which conducted archeological exploration projects. [56]

As part owner and race project manager of the Profile Race Team from 1968 to 1970, Cooper designed and raced high performance boats. Between 1968 and 1974 he served as a technical consultant at Republic Corp., and General Motors, Ford and Chrysler Motor Companies, where he was a consultant on design and construction of various automotive components. He was also a technical consultant for Canaveral International, Inc., for which he developed technical products and served in public relations on its land development projects, and served on the board of directors of APECO, Campcom LowCom, and Crafttech. [56]

Cooper was President of his own consulting firm, Gordon Cooper & Associates, Inc., which was involved in technical projects ranging from airline and aerospace fields to land and hotel development. [56] From 1973 to 1975, he worked for The Walt Disney Company as the vice-president of Research and Development for Epcot. [56] In 1989, he became CEO of Galaxy Group Inc., a company which designed and improved small airplanes. [69] Many of Cooper's business deals went bad, leaving investors with debts. [70]

UFO sightings

In Cooper's autobiography, Leap of Faith, co-authored with Bruce Henderson, he recounted his experiences with the Air Force and NASA, along with his efforts to expose an alleged UFO conspiracy theory. [71] In his review of the book, space historian Robert Pearlman wrote: "While no one can argue with someone's experiences, in the case of Cooper's own sightings, I found some difficulty understanding how someone so connected with ground breaking technology and science could easily embrace ideas such as extraterrestrial visits with little more than anecdotal evidence." [72]

Cooper claimed to have seen his first UFO while flying over West Germany in 1951, [73] although he denied reports he had seen a UFO during his Mercury flight. [74] On May 3, 1957, when Cooper was at Edwards, he had a crew set up an Askania Cinetheodolite precision landing system on a dry lake bed. This cinetheodolite system could take pictures at one frame per second as an aircraft landed. The crew consisted of James Bittick and Jack Gettys, who began work at the site just before 08:00, with both still and motion picture cameras. According to Cooper's accounts, when they returned later that morning they reported that they had seen a "strange-looking, saucer-like" aircraft that did not make a sound either on landing or take-off. [75]

Cooper recalled that these men, who saw experimental aircraft on a regular basis as part of their job, were clearly unnerved. They explained how the saucer hovered over them, landed 50 yards (46 m) away using three extended landing gears, and then took off as they approached for a closer look. He called a special Pentagon number to call to report such incidents, and was instructed to have their film developed, but to make no prints of it, and send it in to the Pentagon right away in a locked courier pouch. [76] As Cooper had not been instructed to not look at the negatives before sending them, he did. Cooper claimed that the quality of the photography was excellent, and what he saw was exactly what Bittick and Gettys had described to him. He expected that there would be a follow-up investigation, since an aircraft of unknown origin had landed at a classified military installation, but never heard about the incident again. He was never able to track down what happened to those photos, and assumed they ended up going to the Air Force's official UFO investigation, Project Blue Book, which was based at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. [76]

Cooper claimed until his death that the U.S. government was indeed covering up information about UFOs. He pointed out that there were hundreds of reports made by his fellow pilots, many coming from military jet pilots sent to respond to radar or visual sightings. [42] In his memoirs, Cooper wrote he had seen unexplained aircraft several times during his career, and that hundreds of reports had been made. [42] In 1978 he testified before the UN on the topic. [77] Throughout his later life Cooper repeatedly expressed in interviews that he had seen UFOs, and described his recollections for the documentary Out of the Blue. [42]

Death

In later life, Cooper developed Parkinson's disease. [78] He died at age 77 from heart failure at his home in Ventura, California, on October 4, 2004. His death occurred on the 47th anniversary of the Sputnik 1 launch and the same day that SpaceShipOne made its second official qualifying flight. [68]

A portion of Cooper's ashes (along with those of Star Trek actor James Doohan and 206 others) was launched from New Mexico on April 29, 2007, on a sub-orbital memorial flight by a privately owned UP Aerospace SpaceLoft XL sounding rocket. The capsule carrying the ashes fell back toward Earth as planned; it was lost in mountainous landscape. The search was obstructed by bad weather, but after a few weeks the capsule was found, and the ashes it carried were returned to the families. [79] [80] [81] The ashes were then launched on the Explorers orbital mission on August 3, 2008, but were lost when the Falcon 1 rocket failed two minutes into the flight. [81] [82]

On May 22, 2012, another portion of Cooper's ashes was among those of 308 people included on the SpaceX COTS Demo Flight 2 that was bound for the International Space Station. [81] This flight, using the Falcon 9 launch vehicle and the Dragon capsule, was unmanned. The second stage and the burial canister remained in the initial orbit that the Dragon C2+ was inserted into, and burned up in the Earth's atmosphere a month later. [83]

Awards and honors

Cooper at a parade given in his honor Astronaut Gordon Cooper at Patrick Air Force Base for parade DVIDS687652.jpg
Cooper at a parade given in his honor

Cooper received many awards including the Legion of Merit, Distinguished Flying Cross with oak leaf cluster, the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, the Collier Trophy, [84] the Harmon Trophy, the DeMolay Legion of Honor, the John F. Kennedy Trophy, [56] the Iven C. Kincheloe Award, [85] the Air Force Association Trophy, the John J. Montgomery Award, the General Thomas D. White Trophy, [86] the University of Hawaii Regents Medal, the Columbus Medal, and the Silver Antelope Award. [56] He received an honorary D.Sc. from Oklahoma State University in 1967. [56]

He was one of five Oklahoman astronauts inducted into the Oklahoma Aviation and Space Hall of Fame in 1980. [87] He was inducted into the International Space Hall of Fame in 1981, [69] [88] and the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame on May 11, 1990. [89]

Cooper was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, the American Astronautical Society, Scottish Rite and York Rite Masons, Shriners, the Royal Order of Jesters, the Rotary Club, Order of Daedalians, Confederate Air Force, Adventurers' Club of Los Angeles, and Boy Scouts of America. [56] He was a Master Mason (member of Carbondale Lodge # 82 in Carbondale, Colorado), and was given the honorary 33rd Degree by the Scottish Rite Masonic body. [90]

Cultural influence

Cooper's Mercury astronaut career and appealing personality were depicted in the 1983 film The Right Stuff , in which he was portrayed by Dennis Quaid. Cooper worked closely with the production company, and every line uttered by Quaid was reportedly attributable to Cooper's recollection. Quaid met with Cooper before the casting call and learned his mannerisms. Quaid had his hair cut and dyed to match Cooper's appearance in the 1950s and 1960s. [91]

Cooper was later portrayed by Robert C. Treveiler in the 1998 HBO miniseries From the Earth to the Moon , and by Bret Harrison in the 2015 ABC TV series The Astronaut Wives Club . That year, he was also portrayed by Colin Hanks in the Season 3 episode "Oklahoma" of Drunk History, written by Laura Steinel, which retold the story of his Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. [91]

While he was in space, Cooper recorded dark spots he noticed in the waters of the Caribbean. He believed these anomalies may be the locations of shipwrecks. The 2017 Discovery Channel docu-series Cooper's Treasure followed Cooper's friend Darrell Miklos as he searched through Cooper's files to discover the location of the suspected shipwrecks. [92] [93]

Cooper appeared as himself in an episode of the television series CHiPs , and during the early 1980s made regular call-in appearances on chat shows hosted by David Letterman, Merv Griffen and Michael Douglas. The Thunderbirds character Gordon Tracy was named after him. He was also a major contributor to the book In the Shadow of the Moon (published after his death), which offered his final published thoughts on his life and career. [94]

Notes

  1. Burgess 2011, p. 336.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Gray, Tara. "L. Gordon Cooper Jr". 40th Anniversary of Mercury 7. NASA. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  3. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 93–94.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Burgess 2011, p. 337.
  5. 1 2 3 Cooper & Henderson 2000, p. 102.
  6. "Scouting and Space Exploration". Boy Scouts of America. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  7. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 94–95.
  8. 1 2 3 Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 102–103.
  9. "Leroy Gordon Cooper, Jr". Veteran Tributes. Retrieved December 30, 2018.
  10. 1 2 3 4 Burgess 2016, p. 13.
  11. Burgess 2016, p. 14.
  12. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 7–10.
  13. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 12–15.
  14. Slayton & Cassutt 1994, p. 73.
  15. Burgess 2016, pp. 23–24.
  16. Burgess 2011, pp. 274–275.
  17. Atkinson & Shafritz 1985, pp. 42–47.
  18. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 22–23.
  19. Burgess 2016, p. 34.
  20. Cooper et al. 2010, pp. 83–85.
  21. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 24–25.
  22. Wolfe 1979, pp. 152–153.
  23. Burgess 2016, p. 36.
  24. 1 2 Thompson 2004, p. 336.
  25. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 28–30.
  26. Burgess 2016, p. 47.
  27. Slayton & Cassutt 1994, pp. 121–122.
  28. 1 2 Slayton & Cassutt 1994, p. 122.
  29. Swenson, Grimwood & Alexander 1966, pp. 486–487.
  30. 1 2 Swenson, Grimwood & Alexander 1966, pp. 489–490.
  31. Slayton & Cassutt 1994, p. 127.
  32. 1 2 Swenson, Grimwood & Alexander 1966, p. 492.
  33. 1 2 3 Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 37–39.
  34. Slayton & Cassutt 1994, p. 129.
  35. 1 2 Swenson, Grimwood & Alexander 1966, p. 489.
  36. Swenson, Grimwood & Alexander 1966, p. 497.
  37. Swenson, Grimwood & Alexander 1966, p. 496.
  38. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 52–53.
  39. Wolfe 1979, p. 78.
  40. Cooper & Henderson 2000, p. 57.
  41. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 56–57.
  42. 1 2 3 4 David, Leonard (July 30, 2000). "Gordon Cooper Touts New Book Leap of Faith". Space.com. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2008.
  43. 1 2 Swenson, Grimwood & Alexander 1966, p. 501.
  44. 1 2 Burgess 2016, pp. 204–206.
  45. Thompson 2004, pp. 343–345.
  46. 1 2 Slayton & Cassutt 1994, pp. 136–139.
  47. Hacker & Grimwood 1977, pp. 3–5.
  48. Hacker & Grimwood 1977, p. 255.
  49. Cooper & Henderson 2000, p. 113.
  50. Cooper & Henderson 2000, p. 115.
  51. 1 2 "'8 Days or Bust' +50 years: Gemini 5 made history with first crew mission patch". collectSPACE. August 24, 2015. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  52. French & Burgess 2007, p. 44.
  53. Hacker & Grimwood 1977, pp. 256–259.
  54. Hacker & Grimwood 1977, pp. 239, 266.
  55. 1 2 Hacker & Grimwood 1977, pp. 259–262.
  56. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Gordon Cooper NASA Biography". NASA JSC. October 2004. Archived from the original on December 24, 2018. Retrieved May 7, 2017.
  57. Burgess 2016, p. 231.
  58. "Astronaut Goes to Sea". Desert Sun. 38 (78). November 3, 1964. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  59. Burgess 2016, p. 233.
  60. "1967 Orange Bowl Regatta". The Vintage Hydroplanes. Retrieved January 21, 2019.
  61. 1 2 Cooper & Henderson 2000, p. 178.
  62. Shayler 2002, p. 281.
  63. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 176–182.
  64. Chaikin 2007, p. 247.
  65. Cunningham 2009, pp. 42–43.
  66. Slayton & Cassutt 1994, p. 236.
  67. 1 2 Cooper & Henderson 2000, p. 202.
  68. 1 2 Wald, Matthew L. (October 5, 2004). "Gordon Cooper, Astronaut, Is Dead at 77". The New York Times. Retrieved July 10, 2015.
  69. 1 2 "Leroy G. Cooper Jr.: Flew the last Mercury mission, longest of program". New Mexico Museum of Space History. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  70. "The Space Review: Loss of faith: Gordon Cooper's post-NASA stories". The Space Review. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  71. Burgess 2016, pp. 341–342.
  72. "'Faith' regained: Gordon Cooper interview". collectSPACE. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  73. Cooper & Henderson 2000, p. 81.
  74. Martin, Robert Scott (September 10, 1999). "Gordon Cooper: No Mercury UFO". Space.com. Purch. Archived from the original on January 23, 2010. Retrieved January 20, 2008.
  75. Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 82–83.
  76. 1 2 Cooper & Henderson 2000, pp. 83–86.
  77. Bond, Peter (November 18, 2004). "Col Gordon Cooper". Independent. London. Retrieved October 3, 2010.
  78. Schwindt, Oriana (April 18, 2017). "This astronaut found sunken treasure from space and kept it secret until his deathbed". VICE News. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  79. "Ashes of "Star Trek's" Scotty found after space ride". Reuters. May 18, 2007. Retrieved January 20, 2008.
  80. Sherriff, Lucy (May 22, 2007). "Scotty: ashes located and heading home". The Register. Retrieved January 20, 2008.
  81. 1 2 3 "Pioneering astronaut's ashes ride into orbit with trailblazing private spacecraft". collectSPACE. May 22, 2012. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  82. Bergin, Chris (August 2, 2008). "SpaceX Falcon I fails during first stage flight". NASASpaceflight.com. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  83. "FALCON 9 R/B – Satellite Information". Heavens Above. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  84. "Astronauts Have Their Day at the White House". Chicago Tribune. Chicago, Illinois. October 11, 1963. p. 3 via Newspapers.com.
  85. Wolfe, Tom (October 25, 1979). "Cooper the Cool jockeys Faith 7—between naps". Chicago Tribune. p. 22 via Newspapers.com.
  86. "Cooper Gets White Trophy For U.S. Air Achievement". The New York Times. September 22, 1964. p. 21.
  87. "State Aviation Hall of Fame Inducts 9". The Daily Oklahoman. Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. December 19, 1980. p. 2S via Newspapers.com.
  88. Harbert, Nancy (September 27, 1981). "Hall to Induct Seven Space Pioneers". Albuquerque Journal. Albuquerque, New Mexico. p. 53 via Newspapers.com.
  89. "L. Gordon Cooper Jr". Astronaut Scholarship Foundation. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  90. "Masonic Astronauts". Freemason Information. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
  91. 1 2 Burgess 2016, pp. 273–274.
  92. "About Cooper's Treasure". Discovery. Retrieved April 29, 2017.
  93. Bradley, Laura (April 17, 2017). "How a NASA Astronaut's Treasure Map Could Make History". Vanity Fair. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  94. Burgess 2016, p. 230.

Related Research Articles

Project Mercury the first human spaceflight program of the United States

Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963. An early highlight of the Space Race, its goal was to put a man into Earth orbit and return him safely, ideally before the Soviet Union. Taken over from the US Air Force by the newly created civilian space agency NASA, it conducted twenty uncrewed developmental flights, and six successful flights by astronauts. The program, which took its name from Roman mythology, cost $2.2 billion adjusted for inflation. The astronauts were collectively known as the "Mercury Seven", and each spacecraft was given a name ending with a "7" by its pilot.

Gus Grissom 20th-century American astronaut

Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom was one of the seven original National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Project Mercury astronauts, and the first of the Mercury Seven to die. He was also a Project Gemini and an Apollo program astronaut. Grissom was the second American to fly in space, and the first member of the NASA Astronaut Corps to fly in space twice. In addition, Grissom was a World War II and Korean War veteran, U.S. Air Force test pilot, and a mechanical engineer. He was a recipient of the Distinguished Flying Cross, and the Air Medal with an oak leaf cluster, a two-time recipient of the NASA Distinguished Service Medal, and, posthumously, the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.

Elliot See American test pilot and NASA astronaut

Elliot McKay See Jr. was an American engineer, naval aviator, test pilot, and NASA astronaut.

Alan Shepard American astronaut

Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman. In 1961 he became the first American to travel into space, and in 1971 he walked on the Moon.

Frank Borman NASA astronaut

Frank Frederick Borman II is a retired United States Air Force (USAF) colonel, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, businessman, rancher, and NASA astronaut. He was the Commander of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon, and together with crew mates Jim Lovell and Bill Anders, became the first of 24 humans to do so, for which he was awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. As of 2019, he is the oldest living former American astronaut, eleven days older than Lovell.

Gemini 3 first manned mission in NASAs Gemini program

Gemini 3 was the first crewed mission in NASA's Gemini program. On March 23, 1965, astronauts Gus Grissom and John Young flew three low Earth orbits in their spacecraft, which they nicknamed Molly Brown. This was the ninth crewed US spaceflight, and the 17th world human spaceflight including eight Soviet flights. It was also the final crewed flight controlled from Cape Kennedy Air Force Station in Florida, before mission control functions were shifted to a new control center located at the newly opened Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas.

Mercury-Atlas 8 manned spacecraft

Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) was the fifth United States manned space mission, part of NASA's Mercury program. Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr., orbited the Earth six times in the Sigma 7 spacecraft on October 3, 1962, in a nine-hour flight focused mainly on technical evaluation rather than on scientific experimentation. This was the longest U.S. manned orbital flight yet achieved in the Space Race, though well behind the several-day record set by the Soviet Vostok 3 earlier in the year. It confirmed the Mercury spacecraft's durability ahead of the one-day Mercury-Atlas 9 mission that followed in 1963.

David Scott American engineer, retired U.S. Air Force officer, former test pilot, and former NASA astronaut

David Randolph Scott is a retired test pilot and NASA astronaut who was the seventh person to walk on the Moon. The commander of Apollo 15, Scott was selected as an astronaut as part of the third group in 1963. Scott flew three times in space, and is the only living commander of an Apollo mission that landed on the Moon and one of four surviving Moon walkers.

Scott Carpenter American test pilot, astronaut and aquanaut

Malcolm Scott Carpenter, , was an American naval officer and aviator, test pilot, aeronautical engineer, astronaut, and aquanaut. He was one of the Mercury Seven astronauts selected for NASA's Project Mercury in April 1959. Carpenter was the second American to orbit the Earth and the fourth American in space, after Alan Shepard, Gus Grissom, and Glenn.

Deke Slayton American astronaut

Donald Kent "Deke" Slayton was an American World War II pilot, aeronautical engineer, and test pilot who was selected as one of the original NASA Mercury Seven astronauts, and became NASA's first Chief of the Astronaut Office and Director of Flight Crew Operations, and was responsible for NASA crew assignments.

Wally Schirra American astronaut

Walter Marty Schirra Jr. was an American naval aviator and NASA astronaut. In 1959, he became one of the original seven astronauts chosen for Project Mercury, which was the United States' first effort to put human beings into space. On October 3, 1962, he flew the six-orbit, nine-hour, Mercury-Atlas 8 mission, in a spacecraft he nicknamed Sigma 7. At the time of his mission in Sigma 7, Schirra became the fifth American and ninth human to travel into space. In the two-man Gemini program, he achieved the first space rendezvous, station-keeping his Gemini 6A spacecraft within 1 foot (30 cm) of the sister Gemini 7 spacecraft in December 1965. In October 1968, he commanded Apollo 7, an 11-day low Earth orbit shakedown test of the three-man Apollo Command/Service Module and the first manned launch for the Apollo program.

Manned Orbiting Laboratory part of the United States Air Forces manned spaceflight program

The Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), originally referred to as the Manned Orbital Laboratory, was a never-flown part of the United States Air Force's human spaceflight program, a successor to the cancelled Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar military reconnaissance space plane project. The project was developed from several early Air Force and NASA concepts of crewed space stations to be used for reconnaissance purposes. MOL evolved into a single-use laboratory, with which crews would be launched on 40-day missions and return to Earth using a Gemini B spacecraft, derived from NASA's Project Gemini.

Thomas P. Stafford United States astronaut

Thomas Patten Stafford is an American former Air Force officer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut.

Mercury-Atlas 10

Mercury-Atlas 10 (MA-10) was a cancelled early manned space mission, which would have been the last flight in NASA's Mercury program. It was planned as a three-day extended mission, to launch in late 1963; the spacecraft, Freedom 7-II, would have been flown by Alan Shepard, a veteran of the suborbital Mercury-Redstone 3 mission in 1961. However, it was cancelled after the success of the one-day Mercury-Atlas 9 mission in May 1963, to allow NASA to focus its efforts on the more advanced two-man Gemini program.

Project Gemini NASAs second human spaceflight program

Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program. Conducted between projects Mercury and Apollo, Gemini started in 1961 and concluded in 1966. The Gemini spacecraft carried a two-astronaut crew. Ten Gemini crews flew low Earth orbit (LEO) missions during 1965 and 1966, putting the United States in the lead during the Cold War Space Race against the Soviet Union.

NASA Astronaut Group 2 Wikimedia list article

NASA's Astronaut Group 2, also known as the New Nine and the Next Nine, was the second group of astronauts selected by NASA. Their selection was announced on September 17, 1962. The nine astronauts were Neil Armstrong, Frank Borman, Pete Conrad, Jim Lovell, James McDivitt, Elliot See, Tom Stafford, Ed White and John Young. Six of the nine flew to the Moon, and Armstrong, Conrad and Young walked on it as well. Seven of the Nine were awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.

NASA Astronaut Group 3

Astronaut Group 3 was a group of fourteen astronauts selected by NASA. Their selection was announced in October 1963 Four died in training accidents before they could fly in space. All of the surviving ten flew in the Apollo program; five also flew Gemini missions. Four, Aldrin, Bean, Cernan and Scott, walked on the Moon.

1966 NASA T-38 crash Aviation accident

The 1966 NASA T-38 crash occurred when a NASA Northrop T-38 Talon crashed at Lambert Field in St. Louis, Missouri, on February 28, 1966, killing two Project Gemini astronauts, Elliot See and Charles Bassett. The aircraft, piloted by See, crashed into the McDonnell Aircraft building where their Gemini 9 spacecraft was being assembled. The weather was poor with rain, snow, fog, and low clouds. A NASA panel, headed by the Chief of the Astronaut Office, Alan Shepard, investigated the crash. While the panel considered possible medical issues or aircraft maintenance problems, in addition to the weather and air traffic control factors, the end verdict was that the crash was caused by pilot error.

References