Charles Bolden

Last updated

Charles Bolden
Charles F. Bolden, Jr.jpg
12th Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
In office
July 17, 2009 January 20, 2017
President Barack Obama
Deputy
Preceded by Michael D. Griffin
Succeeded by Jim Bridenstine
Personal details
Born
Charles Frank Bolden Jr.

(1946-08-19) August 19, 1946 (age 74)
Columbia, South Carolina, U.S.
Spouse(s)Alexis Walker
Children2
Alma mater
Civilian awards
Military service
AllegianceUnited States
Branch/serviceFlag of the United States Marine Corps.svg  United States Marine Corps
Years of service1968–2004
RankUS-O8 insignia.svg Major General
Commands
Battles/wars
Military awards
CharlesBolden.jpg
Bolden in October 1991
StatusRetired
Awards
Space career
NASA Astronaut
Time in space
28d 08h 37m
Selection NASA Astronaut Group 9
Missions
Mission insignia
STS-61-c-patch.png Sts31 flight insignia.png Sts-45-patch.png Sts-60-patch.png

Charles Frank Bolden Jr. (born August 19, 1946) [1] is a former NASA administrator, a retired United States Marine Corps Major General, and a former astronaut who flew on four Space Shuttle missions.

Contents

A 1968 graduate of the United States Naval Academy, he became a Marine aviator and test pilot. After his service as an astronaut, he became Deputy Commandant of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy. [2]

On May 23, 2009, President Barack Obama announced the nomination of Bolden as NASA administrator and Lori Garver as deputy NASA administrator. [3] Both were confirmed by the Senate by unanimous consent on July 15, 2009. [4] [5] Bolden was the first African American to head the agency on a permanent basis. [3]

On January 12, 2017, Bolden announced his retirement from NASA during a town hall meeting at NASA Headquarters in Washington D.C. His last day would be January 19, and Robert M. Lightfoot Jr. was announced as acting NASA Administrator.

In 2020, Bolden was elected a member of the National Academy of Engineering for leadership and development of US human spaceflight and space operations programs, and for revitalizing fundamental aeronautics research.

Education

Bolden graduated from C. A. Johnson High School in Columbia, South Carolina, in 1964. [6] He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Electrical Science from the United States Naval Academy in 1968, where he was a contemporary of future Marine officers Oliver North, Jim Webb and Michael Hagee and future Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Michael Mullen, and later earned a Master of Science degree in Systems Management from the University of Southern California in 1977. He is a member of Omega Psi Phi fraternity.

Military career

Bolden speaking at a USMC recruiting event in 1982 Charles F. Bolden Jr., Astronaut, USMC, public speaking DM-SN-85-10497.JPEG
Bolden speaking at a USMC recruiting event in 1982

In high school Bolden was turned down for an appointment to the United States Naval Academy by South Carolina's Congressional delegation, which included then segregationist Senator Strom Thurmond. Bolden received his appointment after personally writing, as a high school senior, to President Johnson. A recruiter came to his house a few weeks later, eventually leading to Bolden receiving an appointment from U.S. Representative William L. Dawson from Chicago, Illinois. He later received notes of congratulations from Thurmond at various career milestones. [6]

Bolden was commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps following graduation from the United States Naval Academy in 1968. He was president of his class. He underwent flight training at Pensacola, Florida, Meridian, Mississippi, and Kingsville, Texas, before being designated a Naval Aviator in May 1970.

He flew more than 100 sorties into North and South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in the A-6A Intruder while assigned to VMA(AW)-533 at Royal Thai Air Base Nam Phong, Thailand, from June 1972 to June 1973. [7]

Upon returning to the United States, Bolden began a two-year tour as a Marine Corps officer selection and recruiting officer in Los Angeles, California, followed by three years in various assignments at Marine Corps Air Station El Toro, California.

In June 1979, he graduated from the United States Naval Test Pilot School at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland and was assigned to the Naval Air Test Center's Systems Engineering and Strike Aircraft Test Directorates. While there, he served as an ordnance test pilot and flew numerous test projects in the A-6E, EA-6B, and A-7C/E airplanes. He logged more than 6,000 hours flying time.

Bolden was selected as an astronaut candidate by NASA in 1980. He was a member of the NASA Astronaut Corps until 1994 when he returned to assignments in the Marine Corps, first as the Deputy Commandant of Midshipmen at the Naval Academy, effective June 27, 1994. In July 1997, he was assigned as the Deputy Commanding General of I Marine Expeditionary Force. From February to June 1998, he served as Commanding General, I MEF (Forward) in support of Operation Desert Thunder in Kuwait. In July 1998, he was promoted to his final rank of major general and assumed his duties as the Deputy Commander, United States Forces Japan. He then served as the Commanding General, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, from August 9, 2000, until August 2002. He retired from the military in August 2004.

NASA career

Selected by NASA in May 1980, Bolden became an astronaut in August 1981. His technical assignments included: Astronaut Office Safety Officer; Technical Assistant to the Director of Flight Crew Operations; Special Assistant to the Director of the Johnson Space Center; Astronaut Office Liaison to the Safety, Reliability and Quality Assurance Directorates of the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Kennedy Space Center; Chief of the Safety Division at JSC; Lead Astronaut for Vehicle Test and Checkout at the Kennedy Space Center; and Assistant Deputy Administrator, NASA Headquarters. [8]

A veteran of four space flights, he has logged over 680 hours in space. Bolden served as pilot on STS-61-C (January 1218, 1986) and STS-31 (April 2429, 1990), and was the mission commander on STS-45 (March 24 April 2, 1992), and STS-60 (February 311, 1994).

Bolden was the first person to ride the Launch Complex 39 slidewire baskets which enable rapid escape from a Space Shuttle on the launch pad. The need for a human test was determined following a launch abort on STS-41-D where controllers were afraid to order the crew to use the untested escape system. [9]

A few years before his appointment by President Barack Obama to be administrator of NASA, Bolden auditioned, along with professional actors, for the role of virtual host for NASA's "Shuttle Launch Experience" educational attraction at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in Merritt Island, Florida. [10]

Spaceflights

Bolden on the flight deck of Columbia during STS-61-C STS61C-01-007.jpg
Bolden on the flight deck of Columbia during STS-61-C

On STS-61-C, Bolden piloted Space Shuttle Columbia. During the six-day flight, crew members deployed the SATCOM Ku band satellite and conducted experiments in astrophysics and materials processing. The mission launched from Kennedy Space Center on January 12, 1986, orbited the Earth 96 times, and ended with a successful night landing at Edwards Air Force Base, California on January 18, 1986.

Bolden piloted Space Shuttle Discovery during STS-31. Launched on April 24, 1990, from Kennedy Space Center, the crew spent the five-day mission deploying the Hubble Space Telescope and conducting a variety of mid-deck experiments. They also used a variety of cameras, including both the IMAX in cabin and cargo bay cameras, for Earth observations from their record-setting altitude of over 400 miles. Following 75 orbits of Earth in 121 hours, Discovery landed at Edwards Air Force Base on April 29, 1990.

On STS-45, Bolden commanded a crew of seven aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis, launched on March 24, 1992, from Kennedy Space Center. STS-45 was the first Spacelab mission dedicated to NASA's "Mission to Planet Earth". During the nine-day mission, the crew operated the twelve experiments that constituted the ATLAS-1 (Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science) cargo. ATLAS-1 obtained detailed measurements of atmospheric chemical and physical properties. In addition, this was the first time an artificial beam of electrons was used to stimulate an auroral discharge. Following 143 orbits of Earth, Atlantis landed at Kennedy Space Center on April 2, 1992.

Bolden on the flight deck of Discovery during STS-60 Sts060-302-001.jpg
Bolden on the flight deck of Discovery during STS-60

Bolden commanded STS-60's crew of six aboard Discovery. This was the historic first joint-American–Russian Space Shuttle mission involving the participation of a Russian cosmonaut, Sergei Krikalev, as a Mission Specialist. The flight launched on February 3, 1994, from Kennedy Space Center, and carried the Space Habitation Module-2 (SPACEHAB), and the Wake Shield Facility. The crew conducted a series of joint American/Russian science activities. The mission achieved 130 orbits of the Earth, ending with a landing on February 11, 1994, at the Kennedy Space Center. [7]

Administrator of NASA

Bolden speaks after landing of the last Space Shuttle mission, STS-135 Charles Bolden speaks at STS-135 wheels stop event.jpg
Bolden speaks after landing of the last Space Shuttle mission, STS-135

In 2009, President Obama appointed Bolden to be administrator of NASA. [11]

In a NASA video published April 28, 2010, titled "NASA's New Era of Innovation and Discovery", Bolden said, "We're going to turn science fiction into science fact." [12] [13]

On the same day, at a question and answer session with employees at the Johnson Space Center, Bolden compared the Constellation Program to a stillborn baby calf extracted from a camel's womb by U.S. Marines. Bolden said, "We've got some stillborn calves around, and we have got to figure out ways to help each other bring them back to life." [14]

In a June 2010 interview with Al Jazeera , Bolden said that the top three goals he was tasked with by President Obama were to help re-inspire children to want to get into science and math, to expand NASA's international relationships, and, "perhaps foremost", "to reach out to the Muslim world ... to help them feel good about their historic contribution to science... and math and engineering". [15] [16]

Bolden said his agency's long-term ambition is landing astronauts on Mars. [17] He has cited spending cuts as a concern for major NASA projects. [18]

On August 28, 2012, he was the first human being to have his voice broadcast on the surface of Mars. Although the rover has no speakers, it received the transmission of his voice and then beamed it back to Earth. [19] [20]

In 2013 he noted the National Aerospace Week as NASA administrator. [21]

On October 28, 2015, Bolden presented the next steps for a human journey to Mars at the Center for American Progress in Washington, D.C. [22] [23] [24] [25]

On January 12, 2017, Bolden announced his resignation from NASA during a Town Hall meeting at NASA Headquarters in Washington D.C. His last day would be January 19, and Robert M. Lightfoot Jr. was announced as acting NASA Administrator.

Personal life

Bolden lives in Houston, and is married to Alexis (née Walker); the couple have two children. [26] Bolden is a Christian, stating in a question and answer session in May 2010:

"You know, the universe is a big place. I'm a practicing Christian, so in my faith, I learn about omnipotent, omnipresent God, which means he's everywhere. He's all-knowing. He does everything. And I just cannot bring my little pea brain to believe that a God like that would pick one planet of one of millions of suns and say that's the only place in the vast universe that I'm going to put any kind of life. And so the problem is I haven't been far enough away." [27]

Awards

En-NavAstro.jpg
Defense Distinguished Service Medal ribbon.svg   US Defense Superior Service Medal ribbon.svg  
1 golden star.svg
Legion of Merit ribbon.svg
Distinguished Flying Cross ribbon.svg
Bronze oakleaf-3d.svg
Defense Meritorious Service ribbon.svg
Air Medal ribbon.svg Award star (gold).png Award numeral 8.png Navy Unit Commendation ribbon.svg
NASA Outstanding Leadership Ribbon.png
1 golden star.svg
1 golden star.svg
USA - NASA Excep Rib.png
1 golden star.svg
1 golden star.svg
1 golden star.svg
SpaceFltRib.gif
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
National Defense Service Medal ribbon.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
Bronze-service-star-3d-vector.svg
Vietnam Service Medal ribbon.svg
Marine Corps Recruiting Ribbon.svg Vietnam gallantry cross unit award-3d.svg Vietnam Campaign Medal ribbon with 60- clasp.svg
Navy Astronaut Badge
Defense Distinguished Service Medal Defense Superior Service Medal Legion of Merit
w/ 1 award star
Distinguished Flying Cross Defense Meritorious Service Medal
w/ 1 oak leaf cluster
Air Medal
w/ 1 award star & Strike/Flight numeral 8
Navy Unit Commendation
NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal NASA Exceptional Service Medal
w/ 2 award stars
NASA Space Flight Medal
w/ 3 award stars
National Defense Service Medal
w/ 1 service star
Vietnam Service Medal
w/ 2 service stars
Marine Corps Recruiting Ribbon Vietnam Gallantry Cross
Unit Citation with Palm
Vietnam Campaign Medal

Honors

See also

Related Research Articles

STS-3 1982 NASA Space Shuttle mission

STS-3 was NASA's third Space Shuttle mission, and was the third mission for the Space Shuttle Columbia. It launched on 22 March 1982, and landed eight days later on 30 March. The mission involved extensive orbital endurance testing of the Columbia itself, as well as numerous scientific experiments. STS-3 was the first shuttle launch with an unpainted external tank, and the only mission to land at the White Sands Space Harbor near Alamogordo, New Mexico. The shuttle was forced to land at White Sands due to flooding at its originally planned landing site, Edwards Air Force Base.

STS-61-C

STS-61-C was the 24th mission of NASA's Space Shuttle program, and the seventh mission of Space Shuttle Columbia. It was the first time that Columbia, the first space-rated Space Shuttle orbiter to be constructed, had flown since STS-9. The mission launched from Florida's Kennedy Space Center on 12 January 1986, and landed six days later on 18 January. STS-61-C's seven-person crew included 2 future NASA Administrators: the second African-American shuttle pilot, Charles Bolden, the second sitting politician to fly in space, Representative Bill Nelson (D-FL), and the first Costa Rican-born astronaut, Franklin Chang-Diaz. It was the last shuttle mission before the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, which occurred just ten days after STS-61-C's landing.

Kathryn D. Sullivan American geologist and a former NASA astronaut

Kathryn Dwyer Sullivan is an American geologist and a former NASA astronaut. A crew member on three Space Shuttle missions, she was the first American woman to walk in space on October 11, 1984. On June 7, 2020, she became the first woman to dive to the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, the deepest part of the Earth's oceans. She was Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere and Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration after being confirmed by the U.S. Senate on March 6, 2014. Sullivan's tenure ended on January 20, 2017, with the swearing in of President Donald Trump. Following completion of her service at NOAA, she was designated as the 2017 Charles A. Lindbergh Chair of Aerospace History at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum, and has also served as a Senior Fellow at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies.

Henry Hartsfield American astronaut and test pilot

Henry Warren "Hank" Hartsfield Jr. was a United States Air Force Colonel and a USAF and NASA astronaut who logged over 480 hours in space. He was inducted into the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame in 2006.

Robert F. Overmyer US Navy pilot and NASA astronaut

Colonel Robert Franklyn "Bob" Overmyer was an American test pilot, naval aviator, aeronautical engineer, physicist, United States Marine Corps officer and USAF/NASA astronaut. Overmyer was selected by the Air Force as an astronaut for its Manned Orbiting Laboratory in 1966. Upon cancellation of this program in 1969, he became a NASA astronaut and served support crew duties for the Apollo program, Skylab program and Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. In 1976, he was assigned to the Space Shuttle program and flew as pilot on STS-5 in 1982 and as commander on STS-51-B in 1985. He was selected as a lead investigator into the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster and retired from NASA in 1986. Ten years later, Overmyer died in Duluth, Minnesota while testing the Cirrus VK-30 composite homebuilt aircraft.

Norman Thagard American astronaut, scientist, and Marine Corps officer

Norman Earl Thagard, , is an American scientist and former U.S. Marine Corps officer and naval aviator and NASA astronaut. He is the first American to ride to space on board a Russian vehicle, and can be considered the first American cosmonaut. He did this on March 14, 1995, in the Soyuz TM-21 spacecraft for the Russian Mir-18 mission.

Daniel Brandenstein Retired American astronaut and test pilot

Daniel Charles Brandenstein is the Executive Vice President and Chief Operating Officer of United Space Alliance. He is a former Naval Aviator, test pilot and NASA astronaut, who flew four Space Shuttle missions. He also served as Chief of the Astronaut Office from 1987 to 1992.

Robert L. Gibson

Robert Lee "Hoot" Gibson, , is a former American naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and aeronautical engineer. A retired NASA astronaut, he also served as Chief of the Astronaut Office from 1992 to 1994. Today Gibson is active as a professional pilot, racing regularly at the annual Reno Air Races. He was inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame in 2003 and the National Aviation Hall of Fame in 2013, and has received several military decorations throughout his career.

Andrew M. Allen American astronaut (born 1955)

Andrew Michael "Andy" Allen is a retired American astronaut. A former Marine aviator and lieutenant colonel, he worked as a test pilot before joining NASA in 1987. He flew three Space Shuttle missions before retiring in 1997.

Daniel W. Bursch

Daniel Wheeler Bursch is a former NASA astronaut, and Captain of the United States Navy. He had four spaceflights, the first three of which were Space Shuttle missions lasting 10 to 11 days each. His fourth and final spaceflight was a long-duration stay aboard the International Space Station as a crew member of Expedition 4, which lasted from December 2001 to June 2002. This 196-day mission set a new record for the longest duration spaceflight for an American astronaut, a record simultaneously set with his crew mate Carl Walz. Their record has since been broken, and as of 2016 it is held by Scott Kelly, who flew a 340-day mission during Expeditions 43, 44 and 45.

Robert D. Cabana

Robert Donald Cabana is the Associate Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a NASA astronaut, and a veteran of four Space Shuttle flights. He served as Chief of the Astronaut Office from 1994 to 1997 and as director of the John F. Kennedy Space Center from 2008 to 2021. He is also a former naval flight officer and naval aviator in the United States Marine Corps.

Charles D. Gemar

Charles Donald "Sam" Gemar is an American former astronaut with NASA and a lieutenant colonel in the United States Army. Gemar has flown on three Space Shuttle missions. Gemar has completed 385 orbits of the Earth and over 581 hours in space. He has also served in different positions in NASA, including as a CAPCOM for Shuttle missions. Gemar was the first astronaut to be born in the state of South Dakota.

Frederick D. Gregory American astronaut

Frederick Drew Gregory is a former United States Air Force pilot, military engineer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut as well as former NASA Deputy Administrator. He also served briefly as NASA Acting Administrator in early 2005, covering the period between the departure of Sean O'Keefe and the swearing in of Michael Griffin.

David C. Hilmers

David Carl Hilmers, M.D. is a former NASA astronaut who flew four Space Shuttle missions. He was born in Clinton, Iowa, but considers DeWitt, Iowa, to be his hometown. He has two grown sons. His recreational interests include playing the piano, gardening, electronics, spending time with his family, and all types of sports. His parents are deceased. With five academic degrees, he is the second most formally educated U.S. astronaut, behind Story Musgrave with six.

Frank L. Culbertson Jr.

Frank Lee Culbertson Jr. is an American former naval officer and aviator, test pilot, aerospace engineer, NASA astronaut, graduate of the US Naval Academy, and member of the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame. He served as the Commander of the International Space Station for almost four months in 2001 and was the only U.S. citizen not on Earth when the September 11 attacks occurred.

Bryan D. OConnor

Bryan Daniel O'Connor is a retired United States Marine Corps Colonel and former NASA astronaut. He was inducted into the United States Astronaut Hall of Fame in 2008.

Charles J. Precourt

Charles Joseph Precourt is a retired NASA astronaut. His career in flight began at an early age, and spans his entire lifetime. He served in the US Air Force, piloted numerous jet aircraft, and piloted and commanded the Space Shuttle. Notably, he piloted or commanded several missions which involved docking with the Russian Mir space station and was heavily involved in Russian/US Space relations as well as the International Space Station collaboration. He also served as Chief of the Astronaut Office from 1998 to 2002. He retired from the USAF with the rank of colonel.

Doug Hurley American astronaut

Douglas Gerald Hurley is an American engineer, former Marine Corps pilot and former NASA astronaut. He piloted space shuttle missions STS-127 and STS-135, the final flight of the space shuttle program. He launched into space for the third time as commander of Crew Dragon Demo-2, the first crewed spaceflight from American soil since STS-135 and became one of the first two astronauts, together with Bob Behnken, launching aboard a commercial orbital spacecraft in spaceflight history. He was also the first Marine to fly the F/A-18 E/F Super Hornet. His call sign is "Chunky", and he was sometimes referred to by this name on the communication loops.

Space policy of the Barack Obama administration

The space policy of the Barack Obama administration was announced by U.S. President Barack Obama on April 15, 2010, at a major space policy speech at Kennedy Space Center. He committed to increasing NASA funding by $6 billion over five years and completing the design of a new heavy-lift launch vehicle by 2015 and to begin construction thereafter. He also predicted a U.S.-crewed orbital Mars mission by the mid-2030s, preceded by the Asteroid Redirect Mission by 2025. In response to concerns over job losses, Obama promised a $40 million effort to help Space Coast workers affected by the cancellation of the Space Shuttle program and Constellation program.

References

  1. "Bolden, Charles F. Jr.". Current Biography Yearbook 2010. Ipswich, MA: H.W. Wilson. 2010. pp.  50–53. ISBN   9780824211134.
  2. "Major General Charles Bolden". www.usna.edu.
  3. 1 2 "Retired General Picked to Lead NASA", by Kenneth Chang, The New York Times, May 24, 2009
  4. "Bolden and Garver Confirmed by U.S. Senate". NASA. July 15, 2009.
  5. "Bolden and Garver Confirmed By Senate for Top NASA Posts". SpaceRef. July 15, 2009.
  6. 1 2 "First Black NASA Administrator Charles Bolden 'Pleaded' To Get Into Naval Academy". NPR.org.
  7. 1 2 Mars, Kelli (February 11, 2015). "Johnson Space Center Home". NASA.
  8. Wilson, Jim (January 23, 2015). "Former Administrator Charles F. Bolden". NASA.[ dead link ]
  9. "LBJ Space Center Roundup" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. June 2007. Retrieved May 29, 2016.
  10. "Shuttle Launch Experience | Kennedy Space Center". www.kennedyspacecenter.com.
  11. Ex-astronaut Bolden to lead Nasa, BBC.co.uk, July 19, 2009.
  12. "NASA Video Gallery". Nasa.gov. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  13. "A New Era of Innovation and Discovery - President Obama's Plan for NASA". YouTube. 2013-11-21. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  14. "Bolden Urges Work Force To Back NASA's New Direction". SpaceNews.com. 2010-05-03. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  15. "Charles Bolden: The Nasa administrator and astronaut in conversation with Al Jazeera's Imran Garda". Al Jazeera English. June 30, 2010. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
  16. "NASA Chief: Next Frontier Better Relations With Muslim World". Fox News. July 5, 2010.
  17. Zobel, Jen (July 10, 2011). "NASA Administrator: President Obama Wants Americans On Mars". Ozarksfirst.com. Archived from the original on October 3, 2011. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
  18. O'Neill, Ian (July 13, 2011). "James Webb Space Telescope Closer to the Axe". Discovery News. Retrieved 2012-05-27.
  19. Mullen, Jethro (2012-08-28). "Human voice makes giant leap in space thanks to Curiosity". CNN.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  20. "NASA to beam new will.i.am song from Mars". NBC News. 2012-08-27. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
  21. "NASA Celebrates National Aerospace Week – Former NASA Administrator Charles Bolden". blogs.nasa.gov.
  22. Staff (October 28, 2015). "Human Space Exploration: The Next Steps". Center for American Progress . Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  23. Staff (October 28, 2015). "NASA: "Human Space Exploration - The Next Steps" - Video (55:48)". Center for American Progress . Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  24. Staff (October 8, 2015). "REPORT: NASA's Pioneering Next Steps in Space Exploration" (PDF). NASA . Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  25. Gipson, Lillian (October 8, 2015). "Follow Mark Watney's Epic Trek on Mars with New NASA Web Tool". NASA . Retrieved October 29, 2015.
  26. "Charles F. Bolden Jr. (Major General, USMC Ret.) NASA Astronaut" (PDF). NASA. January 2017. Retrieved January 9, 2021.
  27. "A Conversation with Charles F. Bolden Jr., NASA Administrator". Transcript. Archived from the original on 2016-10-06. Retrieved 2016-10-05.
  28. NASA Administrator Charles F. Bolden Jr. to Receive the National Space Trophy, Rotary National Award for Space Achievement; retrieved February 1, 2016.
  29. Bar-Ilan Honorary Doctorate Convocation, 2016 in Bar-Ilan University Facebook page, retrieved 13 June 2016.
  30. Former NASA Chief Bolden Among 5 to Receive Honorary Degrees, retrieved 31 May 2017.
  31. "» Awards". December 15, 2017. Archived from the original on 2017-12-15.
  32. "Alamogordo Hall of Fame Honors 5 Space-Flight Pioneers". El Paso Times. El Paso, Texas. September 2, 1997. p. 9 via Newspapers.com.
Government offices
Preceded by
Christopher Scolese
Acting
Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration
2009–2017
Succeeded by
Jim Bridenstine