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In geology, a claypan is a dense, compact, slowly permeable layer in the subsoil having a much higher clay content than the overlying material, from which it is separated by a sharply defined boundary. Claypans are usually hard when dry, and plastic and sticky when wet. They limit or slow the downward movement of water through the soil.
Geology is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time. Geology can also refer to the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.
Subsoil is the layer of soil under the topsoil on the surface of the ground. Like topsoil it is composed of a variable mixture of small particles such as sand, silt and/or clay, but with a much lower percentage of organic matter and humus. Below the subsoil is the substratum, which can be residual bedrock, sediments, or aeolian deposits. As it is lacking in dark humus, subsoil is usually paler in color than the overlying topsoil. It may contain the deeper roots of some plants,such as trees,but a majority of plant roots lie within the topsoil.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are mostly composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, and become hard, brittle and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red.
Claypans provide homes to a variety of flora and fauna. One such species is the Dawson's Burrowing Bee, located in Australia. This species uses claypans as the sites for their underground nests, where individuals will they lay their broods post-mating.
Amegilla dawsoni, sometimes called the Dawson's burrowing bee is a species of bee that nests by the thousands in arid claypans in Western Australia. It is a long tongued bee, of the tribe Anthophorini and genus Amegilla, the second largest genus in Anthophorini.
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Munga-Thirri National Park, formerly known as the Simpson Desert National Park, is the largest national park in Queensland, Australia, 1,495 km west of Brisbane. The park covers an area of more than 10,000 km2 in the Simpson Desert surrounding Poeppel Corner west of Birdsville and Bedourie in the Central West region of the state.
The black-fronted dotterel is a small, slender plover that is widespread throughout most of Australia, and is native to New Zealand.
Slow lorises are a group of several species of nocturnal strepsirrhine primates that make up the genus Nycticebus. Found in Southeast Asia and bordering areas, they range from Bangladesh and Northeast India in the west to the Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines in the east, and from Yunnan province in China in the north to the island of Java in the south. Although many previous classifications recognized as few as a single all-inclusive species, there are now at least eight that are considered valid: the Sunda slow loris (N. coucang), Bengal slow loris (N. bengalensis), pygmy slow loris (N. pygmaeus), Javan slow loris (N. javanicus), Philippine slow loris (N. menagensis), Bangka slow loris (N. bancanus), Bornean slow loris (N. borneanus), and Kayan River slow loris (N. kayan). The group's closest relatives are the slender lorises of southern India and Sri Lanka. Their next closest relatives are the African lorisids, the pottos, false pottos, and angwantibos. They are less closely related to the remaining lorisoids, and more distantly to the lemurs of Madagascar. Their evolutionary history is uncertain since their fossil record is patchy and molecular clock studies have given inconsistent results.
Grand River National Grassland is a National Grassland in northwestern South Dakota, United States. It is named for the Grand River. The North and South forks of the rivers meet in the grassland. It has a land area of 154,783 acres (62,638 ha). In descending order of acreage it lies in parts of Perkins, Corson, and Ziebach counties. The portion in Corson County also lies within the Standing Rock Indian Reservation. The portion in Ziebach County also lies within the Cheyenne River Indian Reservation.
Neobatrachus is a genus of burrowing ground frogs native to Australia. They occur in every state except Tasmania, however this genus is absent from the far north of Australia and most of Queensland. Most of the species in this genus occur in south-west Western Australia. They are often found in arid areas and burrow underground to avoid dehydration. They are typically found in temporary claypan and flooded grassland habitats. All species have a similar body shape, they are rounded and squat with large eyes and the pupils constrict vertically. The limbs are short and the hands are free from webbing while the feet are partially webbed. Males lack a vocal sac. Approximately 1000 eggs are laid in a chain in still water.
Newhaven Sanctuary, once known as Newhaven station, lies 363 kilometres (226 mi) north-west of Alice Springs at the junction of three distinct bioregions: the Great Sandy Desert, MacDonnell Ranges and Burt Plain in the Northern Territory of Australia.
The New Holland frog, or wide-mouthed frog is a large species of burrowing frog native to northern New South Wales and the eastern three-quarters of Queensland, Australia.
The Main's frog is a species of frog in the family Hylidae. It is endemic to Australia.
The Australian pratincole is a species of bird in the family Glareolidae. It breeds in Australia's interior; it winters to northern and eastern parts of the island, Indonesia and New Guinea. It is a medium-sized nomadic shorebird which is commonly found in arid inland Australia. It breeds predominantly from south-western Queensland to northern Victoria and through central Australia to the Kimberley region in Western Australia. The Australian population is estimated at 60 000. They are a migratory species that generally move to the southern parts of their distribution range to breed during spring and summer. During winter they migrate to northern Australia, New Guinea, Java, Sulawesi and southern Borneo to over-winter. Although they are common, their occurrence is unpredictable and varies in location.
The Ewaninga Conservation Reserve is a protected area in the Northern Territory of Australia consisting of an area of low sand dunes, rocky outcrops and a claypan about 35 kilometres (22 mi) south of Alice Springs. The conservation reserve was gazetted on 20 November 1996. The claypan is a slightly concave surface approximately 100m across. It retains water after even light rain, thus attracting many birds and animals. The claypan and surrounding outcrops are also a significant archaeological site.
Mount Gibson Sanctuary is a 1,305-square-kilometre (504 sq mi) nature reserve on the northern edge of the Wheatbelt and the southern margin of uncleared rangeland country, 350 kilometres (220 mi) north-east of Perth in mid-west Western Australia. The nearest large town is Dalwallinu. It is in the Avon-Wheatbelt Bioregion and is owned and managed by the Australian Wildlife Conservancy (AWC).
The Drummond Nature Reserve is an A class nature reserve 10 kilometres west of Bolgart, Western Australia. Named after the botanist James Drummond, the reserve has 439 species of vascular plants within its boundaries, including two rare and seven priority species.
The Edmund River is a river in the Gascoyne region of Western Australia.
Mandora Marsh, also known as Mandora Salt Marsh, is a complex and diverse wetland system in Western Australia close to Eighty Mile Beach, and included in the Eighty Mile Beach Ramsar Site. It lies at the western edge of the Great Sandy Desert bioregion and within the Mandora Station pastoral lease. The marsh is part of the 3337 km2 Mandora Marsh and Anna Plains Important Bird Area, identified as such by BirdLife International because of its importance for supporting large numbers of waders and waterbirds.
The fawn hopping mouse is a rodent native to the central Australian desert. Like all hopping mice it has strong front teeth, a long tail, dark eyes, big ears, well-developed haunches and very long, narrow hind feet. It weighs between 30 and 50 g.
Lake Wooleen is a DIWA-listed intermittent freshwater lake system located in the Mid West region of Western Australia. The lake is situated on Wooleen Station, approximately 148 kilometres (92 mi) north of Yalgoo and 176 kilometres (109 mi) west of Cue.
Rainbow Valley Conservation Reserve is a protected area located south of Alice Springs, Northern Territory in Australia. The reserve was established in 1990 to protect the unique sandstone formations and the Aboriginal art, artifacts and sacred natural objects within an area of 24.83 km2 (9.59 sq mi) around a large sandstone bluff. The sandstone layers in the main formation resemble the colored stripes of a rainbow, with the red-orange hues of sandstone that is rich with iron creating a strong contrast with the lighter shaded sandstone that turns pale yellow or gold in the late day sun as it shines on the northwest-facing cliffs.
Claypans is a locality in the Murray Mallee region of South Australia. Claypans had a Methodist church in 1928. The school opened in 1907 and closed in 1947. The name refers to the claypan at which the settlers camped on their first night.
Centrolepis humillima, commonly known as dwarf centrolepis, is a species of plant in the Restionaceae family and is found in Western Australia.
Ctenophorus salinarum, commonly known as the Claypan dragon or Saltpan Ground-dragon is a species of agamid lizard occurring in arid to semi-arid chenopod shrublands around salt lakes and claypans and in adjacent sandy heaths in southern Western Australia.