Fort Garry

Last updated
Fort Garry
At the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers in what is now downtown Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
Fort Garry 1884.jpg
Fort Garry in 1884
Type Hudson's Bay Company trading post
Site information
Controlled by Hudson's Bay Company
Occupied by the Métis in 1869-70
Site history
Battles/wars Red River Rebellion
Official nameForts Rouge, Garry, and Gibraltar National Historic Site of Canada

Fort Garry, also known as Upper Fort Garry, was a Hudson's Bay Company trading post at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers in what is now downtown Winnipeg. It was established in 1822 on or near the site of the North West Company's Fort Gibraltar established by John Wills in 1810 and destroyed by Governor Semple's men in 1816 during the Pemmican War. [1] Fort Garry was named after Nicholas Garry, deputy governor of the Hudson's Bay Company. It served as the centre of fur trade within the Red River Colony. In 1826, a severe flood destroyed the fort. It was rebuilt in 1835 by the HBC and named Upper Fort Garry to differentiate it from "the Lower Fort," or Lower Fort Garry, 32 km downriver, which was established in 1831. [2] Throughout the mid-to-late 19th century, Upper Fort Garry played a minor role in the actual trading of furs, but was central to the administration of the HBC and the surrounding settlement. The Council of Assiniboia, the administrative and judicial body of the Red River Colony mainly run by Hudson's Bay Company officials, met at Upper Fort Garry.


In 1869, the Hudson's Bay Company agreed to surrender its monopoly in the North-West, including Upper Fort Garry. In late 1869 and early 1870, the fort was seized by Louis Riel and his Métis followers during the Red River Rebellion. After the Rebellion, the area around the fort continued to grow. In 1873, the city of Winnipeg was established and the name Fort Garry was no longer used. In 1881-1884 the majority of the fort was demolished to straighten Main Street (it was at Main Street and Assiniboine Avenue [3] ).

Although only the main gate of the fort remains today, the name "Fort Garry" lives on through various institutions and businesses. An area or division of Winnipeg running along the Red River south of the original fort is called Fort Garry. The hotel beside the fort is called the Fort Garry Hotel, which was originally constructed for the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway company. Fort Street and Garry Street are on either side of the hotel. Many companies have adopted the name, such as Fort Garry Industries and the Fort Garry Brewing Company. The Fort Garry Horse has been a component of the Winnipeg military garrison throughout the 20th and into the 21st centuries.

National Historic Site

Fort Garry, along with the sites of nearby Forts Rouge and Gibraltar, were collectively designated a National Historic Site in 1924, under the name "Forts Rouge, Garry, and Gibraltar National Historic Site". Together, the three sites are illustrative of the evolution of the fur trade in Western Canada, from exploration and expansion westward (Fort Rouge, established in 1738 by the French), to the dominance of the North West Company (Fort Gibraltar, established in 1807) and finally the ascendancy of the Hudson's Bay Company (Fort Garry). The gate at Fort Garry constitutes the only above-ground remains of this succession of forts. [4]


On 15 June 1938 Canada Post issued 'Fort Garry Gate, Winnipeg', a 20¢ stamp. [5] G

Provincial Heritage Park

Upper Fort Garry Provincial Heritage Park (2015) Upper Fort Garry Heritage Park.jpg
Upper Fort Garry Provincial Heritage Park (2015)

Work has begun on a project to establish a heritage park in the area surrounding what remains of the Upper Fort Garry. In the spring of 2010, a bill passed the House in the Manitoba Legislature, entitled The Upper Fort Garry Heritage Provincial Park Act.

In 2007, a development company, Crystal Developers, sought to build an apartment complex next to the fort's original "footprint". However, the Friends of Upper Fort Garry, a group dedicated to developing an historical interpretive park at the site, was convened to oppose them. [6] [7] The plan called for an interpretive centre just outside the old fort's walls, and a large surface parking lot that would have been placed closer to the walls than the apartment itself. After a City of Winnipeg-imposed deadline to raise funds to build a park on the site was nearing, Crystal Developers decided to grant the Friends an additional two years to finish raising the needed funds. [8] Crystal ultimately bowed out of its proposed development plans. Two years later the City of Winnipeg approved the construction by Crystal Developers of a 25-storey apartment tower just west of the original location, on Assiniboine Ave. [9]

Enough funds were raised by the Friends to purchase the buildings already on the site of their proposed heritage park, including a Petro-Canada gas station. [10] The only building that was allowed to stay untouched was the current home of the Manitoba Club, [11] which started as an organization in 1874, [12] only one year after the incorporation of Winnipeg. The existing Manitoba Club building was completed in 1905. The historic Fort Garry Hotel across the street was built shortly thereafter, in 1913.

The plans for the future heritage park at the site of Upper Fort Garry were officially unveiled in May 2010. [13]

From the Hansard Records of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, dated Monday, June 14, 2010, [14] it is clear that the boundaries of the proposed Upper Fort Garry Provincial Heritage Park, described in Bill 27–The Upper Fort Garry Heritage Provincial Park Act then under consideration, would not include the Manitoba Club building. In the meeting referenced above, Mr. Jerry Gray (Friends of Upper Fort Garry), referring to the future park boundaries, states that the property is "bordered by Main Street on the east side, Assiniboine on the south side and Fort Street on the west side and then goes up to the back where the gate property is." Evidently, the Manitoba Club property on Broadway is excluded from the proposed heritage park, aside from being located on the same city block. [15] According to the records of the Thirty-Ninth Legislature, Bill 27 received Royal Assent on June 17, 2010, by Proclamation of the Lieutenant-Governor Philip S. Lee. [16]

The park opened to the public on August 6, 2015, with development still to come. [17] [18]

See also

Further reading

Coordinates: 49°53′16″N97°08′07″W / 49.887883°N 97.135320°W / 49.887883; -97.135320

Related Research Articles

Winnipeg City in Manitoba, Canada

Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. It is centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, near the longitudinal centre of North America.

Fort Douglas (Canada) Human settlement in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Fort Douglas was the Selkirk Settlement fort and the first fort associated with the Hudson's Bay Company near the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers in today's city of Winnipeg. Named for Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk, founder of the Selkirk Settlement, the fort was built by Scottish and Irish settlers beginning in 1813. Completed in 1815, it was in the immediate vicinity of the North West Company establishment, Fort Gibraltar.

Tuxedo, Winnipeg Suburb of Winnipeg, Canada

Tuxedo is a residential suburb of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Prior to 1972, the community was incorporated as the Town of Tuxedo. Today, it is the wealthiest area of Winnipeg, with the highest property values.

Rural Municipality of St. Andrews Rural Municipality in Manitoba, Canada

St. Andrews is a rural municipality in Manitoba, Canada. It lies west Red River; its southern border is approximately 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) north of Winnipeg.

Fort Garry Hotel Downtown Winnipeg historic hotel

The Fort Garry Hotel is a historic hotel in downtown Winnipeg, Manitoba, that opened for the first time on December 11, 1913. It is one of Canada's grand railway hotels and was designated as a National Historic Site of Canada in 1981. A national heritage park connected to the hotel and to the remains of Upper Fort Garry was completed in 2017-18.

Fort Gibraltar Historic trading outpost in present-day Manitoba, Canada

Fort Gibraltar was founded in 1809 by Alexander Macdonell of Greenfield of the North West Company in present-day Manitoba, Canada. It was located at the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers in or near the area now known as The Forks in the city of Winnipeg. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry after the merger of North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, and became Upper Fort Garry in 1835.

Fort Rouge, Winnipeg

Fort Rouge is a district of Winnipeg, Manitoba. Located in the south-central part of the city, it is bounded on the north by the Assiniboine River, on the east and south by the Red River, and on the west by Stafford Street and Pembina Highway.

Fort Garry, Winnipeg Suburb of Winnipeg, Canada

Fort Garry is a community area and neighbourhood of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, located in the southwestern part of the city, south of the district of Fort Rouge and east of the Tuxedo area. It composes parts of the city wards of River Heights - Fort Garry, Fort Rouge - East Fort Garry, Waverly West, and St. Norbert - Seine River.

Metropolitan Corporation of Greater Winnipeg was a governing body that served as part of the leadership for the metropolitan area of Winnipeg. It was established by Premier Douglas Campbell after he was given a commission to do so by the Greater Winnipeg Investigating Commission. It was dissolved when its component municipalities were amalgamated into one "unicity" in 1972. Winnipeg is a city in Manitoba, Canada.

Downtown Winnipeg Neighbourhood in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Downtown Winnipeg is an area of Winnipeg located near the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers. It is the oldest urban area in Winnipeg, and is home to the city's commercial core, city hall, the seat of Manitoba's provincial government, and a number of major attractions and institutions.

The Forks, Winnipeg Historic meeting place / Neighbourhood in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

The Forks is a historic site, meeting place, and green space in downtown Winnipeg located at the confluence of the Red River and the Assiniboine River.

Fort Rouge was a fort located on the Assiniboine River in Manitoba, Canada, on the site of what is now the city of Winnipeg. Its exact location is unknown. Its name in English means "red fort".

St. Norbert, Winnipeg Suburb of Winnipeg

St. Norbert is a bilingual neighbourhood and the southernmost suburb of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. While outside the Perimeter Highway, it is still part of the city. As of the 2016 Census, the population of St. Norbert is 5,850.

Route 52 is a major north-south arterial route in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It comprises all of Main Street, Queen Elizabeth Way, and St. Mary's Road.

History of Winnipeg

The history of Winnipeg comprises its initial population by Aboriginal peoples through its settlement by Europeans to the present day. The first forts were built on the future site of Winnipeg in the 1700s, followed by the Selkirk Settlement in 1812. Winnipeg was incorporated as a city in 1873 and experienced dramatic growth in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Following the end of World War I, the city's importance as a commercial centre in Western Canada began to wane. Winnipeg and its suburbs experienced significant population growth after 1945, and the current City of Winnipeg was created by the unicity amalgamation in 1972.

This is a timeline of the history of Winnipeg.

Armstrongs Point Neighbourhood in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Armstrong's Point is a neighbourhood in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is located in the West End of the city and in a large bend in the Assiniboine River. The land was developed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries as a residential district.

Fur trading on the Assiniboine River and the general area west of Lake Winnipeg began as early as 1731.

Broadway is a street in the city of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. It is one of the city's oldest and most historic routes and forms the Trans-Canada Highway route through the city's downtown.


  1. Barkwell, Lawrence J. (2018) Historic Metis settlements in Manitoba and geographical place names. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Louis Riel Institute, 2018. ISBN   978-1-927531-1-81
  2. A Short Pictorial History On Upper Ft. Garry. Lincoln Park Gallery website. Retrieved 16 Oct 2010.
  3. Martin Kavanagh, "The Assoboine Basin", 1946, map page 89
  4. Forts Rouge, Garry, and Gibraltar . Canadian Register of Historic Places . Retrieved 20 May 2012.
  5. "Canada Post stamp". Archived from the original on 2016-02-03. Retrieved 2019-12-19.
  6. History buffs fight development near Upper Fort Garry. CBC News-Manitoba, May 29, 2007. Retrieved 16 Oct 2010.
  7. Dig uncovers more of Winnipeg's Upper Fort Garry. CBC News-Manitoba, Oct. 11, 2007. Retrieved 16 Oct 2010.
  8. Deadline Extended for Upper Fort Garry [ permanent dead link ]. Friends of Upper Fort Garry, 28 March 2008. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
  9. Green light given to downtown high-rise apartment tower. Archived article from Winnipeg Free Press, June 10, 2010. Retrieved 16 Oct 2010.
  10. Gas station site added to heritage park at city's birthplace. Winnipeg Free Press, June 1, 2010. Retrieved 17 Oct 2010.
  11. Even losers must celebrate Upper Fort Garry. Winnipeg Free Press, June 2, 2009. Retrieved 17 Oct 2010.
  12. Virtual Heritage Winnipeg - Manitoba Club. Retrieved 17 Oct 2010.
  13. Plans for Upper Fort Garry park unveiled. Winnipeg Free Press, May 12, 2010. Retrieved 17 Oct 2010.
  14. Legislative Assembly of Manitoba. Debate of the Standing Committee on Justice, June 14, 2010. Retrieved 17 Oct 2010.
  15. Plans for Upper Fort Garry park and interpretive centre unveiled. Winnipeg Free Press, May 15, 2010. Retrieved 17 Oct 2010.
  16. Manitoba Laws - The Upper Fort Garry Heritage Provincial Park Act. Bills of the Fourth Session, Thirty-Ninth Legislature, Legislative Assembly of Manitoba (Printed copies of bills). Updated to Nov. 15, 2010. Retrieved 24 Nov 2010.
  17. "Upper Fort Garry Provincial Park Open to Public: Construction Fence Coming Down Archived 2015-08-09 at the Wayback Machine ", press release.
  18. David Lipnowski, "Upper Fort Garry open for visitors" in the Winnipeg Free Press, 2015-08-07.