|Category 3 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)|
|Formed||August 14, 1969|
|Dissipated||August 25, 1969|
|Highest winds|| 1-minute sustained:120 mph (195 km/h)|
|Lowest pressure||951 mbar (hPa); 28.08 inHg|
|Areas affected||Newfoundland, Bermuda|
|Part of the 1969 Atlantic hurricane season|
Hurricane Debbie was an intense and long-lived hurricane that formed during August 1969. The fifth tropical cyclone, fourth named storm, third hurricane and second major hurricane of the 1969 Atlantic hurricane season, Debbie formed on August 14 in the southern Atlantic Ocean and took a general northwesterly path until turning northward into the central Atlantic. The storm was characterized by numerous fluctuations in intensity, and it reached winds corresponding to Category 3 status on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale on four separate occasions. The hurricane bypassed the island of Bermuda to the southeast on August 22, before ultimately brushing southeastern Newfoundland with strong winds. It dissipated over the cold waters east of Greenland. Although Debbie had little effect on land, it was extensively researched and was subject to a weather modification experiment by Project Stormfury, in which it was seeded with silver iodide.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".
The 1969 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season since 1933 as well as the fourth most active Atlantic hurricane season on record, and was also the final year of the most recent positive Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO) era. The hurricane season officially began on June 1, and lasted until November 30. The season had the highest number of systems reach hurricane status – twelve – in a single season, until that record was surpassed in 2005. Activity began with a series of five tropical depressions, the first of which developed on May 29. The third system in that series, Tropical Depression Seven, caused extensive flooding in Cuba and Jamaica in early June. The final in the series formed on July 25, the same day that Tropical Storm Anna developed. Neither the former nor latter caused significant impact on land. Later in the season, Tropical Depression Twenty-Nine caused severe local flooding in the Florida Panhandle and southwestern Georgia in September. Hurricane Blanche was a small and short-lived tropical cyclone in mid-August that resulted in minimal effects.
Newfoundland is a large Canadian island off the east coast of the North American mainland, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It has 29 percent of the province's land area. The island is separated from the Labrador Peninsula by the Strait of Belle Isle and from Cape Breton Island by the Cabot Strait. It blocks the mouth of the Saint Lawrence River, creating the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the world's largest estuary. Newfoundland's nearest neighbour is the French overseas community of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.
A disturbance associated with a tropical wave strengthened into a tropical depression on August 14. 15 mph (24 km/h) and it was predicted to gradually gain power. It attained Category 1 hurricane strength on August 16 as it turned toward the northwest. It continued to mature, and at around 1200 UTC the next day, it achieved winds corresponding to Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. On August 18, Debbie further intensified to Category 3 status, making it a major hurricane.The system had significantly organized by August 15, and it intensified into a tropical storm at 1200 UTC that day. Upon its designation, Debbie was moving west-northwestward at approximately
Tropical waves, easterly waves, or tropical easterly waves, also known as African easterly waves in the Atlantic region, are a type of atmospheric trough, an elongated area of relatively low air pressure, oriented north to south, which moves from east to west across the tropics, causing areas of cloudiness and thunderstorms. West-moving waves can also form from the tail end of frontal zones in the subtropics and tropics, and may be referred to as easterly waves, but these waves are not properly called tropical waves; they are a form of inverted trough sharing many characteristics with fully tropical waves. All tropical waves form in the easterly flow along the equatorward side of the subtropical ridge or belt of high pressure which lies north and south of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Tropical waves are generally carried westward by the prevailing easterly winds along the tropics and subtropics near the equator. They can lead to the formation of tropical cyclones in the north Atlantic and northeastern Pacific basins. A tropical wave study is aided by Hovmöller diagrams, a graph of meteorological data.
However, the storm quickly downgraded, and by August 19 it was once again at minimal hurricane force. At roughly the same time, it turned more to the west, although it maintained a general northwesterly path. mph (195 km/h); shortly thereafter, its lowest recorded barometric pressure fell to 951 millibars.The abrupt weakening may have been the result of a seeding experiment carried out on the storm in an attempt to deteriorate it. By later in the day, Debbie had begun to restrengthen. It resumed Category 3 intensity on August 20, despite a minor oscillation in magnitude during the day. At this point, the cyclone acquired peak winds of 120
Project Stormfury was an attempt to weaken tropical cyclones by flying aircraft into them and seeding with silver iodide. The project was run by the United States Government from 1962 to 1983.
The storm turned northward on August 21,and eventually curved northeastward. Debbie weakened to Category 2 strength but, for the fourth time, restrengthened to major hurricane intensity. The hurricane then passed well to the southeast of Bermuda, although it is believed that if not for the presence of nearby Hurricane Camille which emerged into the Atlantic from the United States on August 20, Debbie would have likely ended up further west, closer to the island. It maintained its severity through August 22 as it continued generally toward the northeast.
Hurricane Camille was the second most intense tropical cyclone on record to strike the United States. The most intense storm of the 1969 Atlantic hurricane season, Camille formed as a tropical depression on August 14 south of Cuba from a long-tracked tropical wave. Located in a favorable environment for strengthening, the storm quickly intensified into a Category 2 hurricane before striking the western part of Cuba on August 15. Emerging into the Gulf of Mexico, Camille underwent another period of rapid intensification and became a Category 5 hurricane the next day as it moved northward towards the Louisiana–Mississippi region. Despite weakening slightly on August 17, the hurricane quickly re-intensified back to a Category 5 hurricane before it made landfall in Pass Christian, Mississippi early on August 18, at peak intensity, with a minimum pressure of 900 mbar (26.58 inHg). This was the second-lowest pressure recorded for a US landfall. Only the 1935 Labor Day hurricane had a lower pressure at landfall. As Camille pushed inland, it quickly weakened and was a tropical depression by the time it was over the Ohio Valley. Once it emerged offshore, Camille was able to restrengthen to a strong tropical storm, before it became extratropical on August 22. Camille was subsequently absorbed by a frontal storm over the North Atlantic on the same day.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
On August 23, the storm began a weakening trend and it turned towards the north.The next day, the storm—having weakened to Category 1 status—skirted the southeastern tip of Newfoundland. Debbie began to lose its tropical characteristics as it accelerated towards the northeast, and it weakened into a tropical storm early on August 25. As it moved over increasingly cold waters, it dissipated east of Greenland.
Greenland is an autonomous constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for more than a millennium. The majority of its residents are Inuit, whose ancestors began migrating from the Canadian mainland in the 13th century, gradually settling across the island.
Debbie was subject to an experiment called Project Stormfury, which attempted to weaken tropical cyclones by seeding them with silver iodide.The storm provided an excellent opportunity to test the underpinnings of Project Stormfury. In many ways it was the perfect storm for seeding: it did not threaten any land; it passed within range of seeding aircraft; and was intense with a distinct eye. On August 18 and again on August 20, thirteen planes flew out to the storm to monitor and seed it. On the first day, windspeeds fell by 31%. On the second day, windspeeds fell by 18%. Both changes were consistent with Stormfury's working hypothesis. The results were so encouraging that "a greatly expanded research program was planned." Among other conclusions was the need for frequent seeding at close to hourly intervals.
Cloud seeding is a type of weather modification that aims to change the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the cloud. The usual intent is to increase precipitation, but hail and fog suppression are also widely practised in airports where harsh weather conditions are experienced.
Silver iodide is an inorganic compound with the formula AgI. The compound is a bright yellow solid, but samples almost always contain impurities of metallic silver that give a gray coloration. The silver contamination arises because AgI is highly photosensitive. This property is exploited in silver-based photography. Silver iodide is also used as an antiseptic and in cloud seeding.
Debbie remained predominately at sea throughout its 3,000 mi (4,800 km) path, and as a result, it caused little damage. The storm had little or no impact on the island of Bermuda as it passed to the south. Later, winds of 50 to 65 mph (80 to 105 km/h) were recorded over eastern Newfoundland.
Hurricane Danielle resulted in minor damage throughout its duration as a tropical cyclone in late August and early September 1998. The fourth named storm and second hurricane of the annual hurricane season, Danielle originated from a tropical wave that emerged off the western coast of Africa on August 21. Tracking generally west-northwestward, the disturbance was initially disorganized; under favorable atmospheric conditions, shower and thunderstorm activity began to consolidate around a low-pressure center. Following a series of satellite intensity estimates, the system was upgraded to Tropical Depression Four during the pre-dawn hours of August 24, and further to Tropical Storm Danielle that afternoon. Moving around the southern periphery of the Azores High located in the northeastern Atlantic, quick intensification to hurricane status occurred early on August 25. By 0600 UTC the following day, Danielle reached an initial peak intensity of 105 mph (165 km/h), a Category 2 hurricane. Increased wind shear from a nearby trough encroached on further development later that day, and subsequently led to slight weakening. By 1200 UTC on August 27, despite continued unfavorable conditions, Danielle reached a second peak intensity equal to the first. Weakening once ensued late on August 27 in addition to the days following, and Danielle was a low-end Category 1 hurricane by August 31 as its forward speed slowed.
The 2003 Atlantic hurricane season was a very active Atlantic hurricane season with tropical activity before and after the official bounds of the season—the first such occurrence since the 1964 season. The season produced 21 tropical cyclones, of which 16 developed into named storms; seven cyclones attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. With sixteen storms, the season was tied for the sixth-most active Atlantic hurricane season on record. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Isabel, which reached Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale northeast of the Lesser Antilles; Isabel later struck North Carolina as a Category 2 hurricane, causing $5.5 billion in damage and a total of 51 deaths across the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.
The 2001 Atlantic hurricane season was a fairly active Atlantic hurricane season that produced 17 tropical cyclones, 15 named storms, nine hurricanes, and four major hurricanes. The season officially lasted from June 1, 2001, to November 30, 2001, dates which by convention limit the period of each year when tropical cyclones tend to form in the Atlantic Ocean basin. The season began with Tropical Storm Allison on June 4, and ended with Hurricane Olga, which dissipated on December 6. The most intense storm was Hurricane Michelle, which attained Category 4 strength on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale.
The 1990 Atlantic hurricane season was the most active Atlantic hurricane season since 1969. It officially began on June 1, 1990, and lasted until November 30, 1990. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. One tropical depression did form before the season officially started, however.
Hurricane Faith reached the northernmost latitude and had the longest track of any Atlantic tropical cyclone. The sixth named storm and fifth hurricane of the 1966 Atlantic hurricane season, Faith developed from an area of disturbed weather between Cape Verde and the west coast of Africa on August 21. Tracking westward, the depression gradually intensified and became Tropical Storm Faith on the following day. Moving westward across the Atlantic Ocean, it continued to slowly strengthen, reaching hurricane status early on August 23. About 42 hours later, Faith reached an initial peak with winds of 105 mph (165 km/h), before weakening slightly on August 26. Located near the Lesser Antilles, the outer bands of Faith produced gale force winds in the region, especially Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Antigua. Minor coastal damage occurred as far south as Trinidad and Tobago.
The 2006 Atlantic hurricane season was the least active since 1997 as well as the first season since 2001 in which no hurricanes made landfall in the United States, and was the first since 1994 in which no tropical cyclones formed during October. Following the intense activity of 2005, forecasters predicted that the 2006 season would be only slightly less active. Instead activity was slowed by a rapidly forming moderate El Niño event, the presence of the Saharan Air Layer over the tropical Atlantic, and the steady presence of a robust secondary high-pressure area to the Azores high centered on Bermuda. There were no tropical cyclones after October 2.
The 1929 Atlantic hurricane season was among the least active hurricane seasons in the Atlantic on record – featuring only five tropical cyclones. Of these five tropical systems, three of them intensified into a hurricane, with one strengthening further into a major hurricane. The first tropical cyclone of the season developed in the Gulf of Mexico on June 27. Becoming a hurricane on June 28, the storm struck Texas, bringing strong winds to a large area. Three fatalities were reported, while damage was conservatively estimated at $675,000 (1929 USD).
The 2008 Atlantic hurricane season was the most disastrous Atlantic hurricane season since 2005, causing over 1,000 deaths and nearly $50 billion in damages. It was an above-average season, featuring sixteen named storms, eight of which became hurricanes, and five which further became major hurricanes, the highest number since the record-breaking 2005 season. It officially started on June 1 and ended on November 30. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. However, the formation of Tropical Storm Arthur caused the season to start one day early. This season is the fifth most costly on record, behind only the 2004, 2005, 2012 and 2017 seasons, with over $49.5 billion in damage. It was the only year on record in which a major hurricane existed in every month from July through November in the North Atlantic.Bertha became the longest-lived July tropical cyclone on record for the basin, the first of several long-lived systems during 2008.
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Hurricane Dean was the fourth named storm and second hurricane of the 1989 Atlantic hurricane season. Dean formed on July 31 and reached tropical storm status the following day east of the Leeward Islands. Dean brushed the northern Leeward Islands as a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, bringing light rain but producing no damage, before turning northward and striking Bermuda as a Category 2 hurricane. Dean continued northward before making landfall in southeastern Newfoundland.
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Hurricane Inga is the third longest-lived Atlantic hurricane on record. The 11th tropical cyclone and 9th named storm of the 1969 Atlantic hurricane season, Inga developed on September 20 in the central Atlantic and tracked westward. After attaining tropical storm status, the system deteriorated into a depression, but once again intensified several days later. The storm eventually peaked in strength on October 5, with winds corresponding to Category 3 on the modern-day Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Throughout its path, Inga underwent several changes in direction and oscillations in strength, before dissipating on October 15, 25 days after it formed. Despite its duration, Inga caused little damage, and mostly remained over open waters.
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Hurricane Ella was the strongest hurricane on record in Canadian waters. It formed on August 30, 1978 to the south of Bermuda, and quickly intensified as it tracked west-northwestward. By September 1, Ella reached winds of 125 mph (205 km/h), and it was expected to pass close to the Outer Banks of North Carolina during the busy Labor Day Weekend. The hurricane became stationary for about 24 hours, and later turned to the northeast away from the coast. On September 4, Ella reached Category 4 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale off the coast of Nova Scotia. It subsequently weakened, passing southeast of Newfoundland before being absorbed by a large extratropical cyclone.
Hurricane Ophelia was the most intense hurricane of the 2011 Atlantic hurricane season. The seventeenth tropical cyclone, sixteenth tropical storm, fifth hurricane, and third major hurricane, Ophelia originated in a tropical wave in the central Atlantic, forming approximately midway between the Cape Verde Islands and the Lesser Antilles on September 17. Tracking generally west-northwestward, Ophelia was upgraded to a tropical storm on September 21, and reached an initial peak of 65 mph (100 km/h) on September 22. As the storm entered a region of higher wind shear it began to weaken, and was subsequently downgraded to a remnant low on September 25. The following day, however, the remnants of the system began to reorganize as wind shear lessened, and on September 27, the National Hurricane Center once again began advisories on the system. Moving northward, Ophelia regained tropical storm status early on September 28, and rapidly deepened to attain its peak intensity with maximum sustained winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) several days later. The system weakened as it entered cooler sea surface temperatures and began a gradual transition to an extratropical cyclone, a process it completed by October 3.
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