Impatiens balsamina

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Impatiens balsamina
Impatiens balsamina 28 08 2009.JPG
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Balsaminaceae
Genus: Impatiens
Species:
I. balsamina
Binomial name
Impatiens balsamina
L.
Fruits Seed pod fung sin.jpg
Fruits

Impatiens balsamina, commonly known as balsam, garden balsam, rose balsam, touch-me-not [1] or spotted snapweed, [2] is a species of plant native to India and Myanmar. [1]

Contents

It is an annual plant growing to 20–75 cm tall, with a thick, but soft stem. The leaves are spirally-arranged, 2.5–9 cm long and 1–2.5 cm broad, with a deeply toothed margin. The flowers are pink, red, mauve, lilac, or white, and 2.5–5 cm diameter; they are pollinated by bees and other insects, and also by nectar-feeding birds. [3] The ripe seed capsules undergo explosive dehiscence. [4]

Human use

Different parts of the plant are used as traditional remedies for disease and skin afflictions. Juice from the leaves is used to treat warts and snakebite, and the flower is applied to burns. [5] This species has been used as indigenous traditional medicine in Asia for rheumatism, fractures, and other ailments. [6] In Korean folk medicine, this impatiens species is used as a medicine called bongseonhwa dae (봉선화대) for the treatment of constipation and gastritis. [7] Chinese people used the plant to treat those bitten by snakes or who ingested poisonous fish. [8] Juice from the stalk, pulverised dried stalks, and pastes from the flowers were also used to treat a variety of ailments. [8] Vietnamese wash their hair with an extract of the plant to stimulate hair growth. [8] One in vitro study found extracts of this impatiens species, especially of the seed pod, to be active against antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori . [6] It is also an inhibitor of 5α-reductases, enzymes that reduce testosterone levels. [9]

In Korea, the flowers are crushed and mixed with alum to produce an orange dye that can be used to dye fingernails. Unlike common nail varnish, the dye is semi-permanent, requiring dyed nails to grow off over time in order to remove any traces of color. [10] [11]

Chemistry

The naphthoquinones lawsone, or hennotannic acid, and lawsone methyl ether and methylene-3,3'-bilawsone are some of the active compounds in I. balsamina leaves. [12] It also contains kaempferol and several derivatives. [13] Baccharane glycosides have been found in Chinese herbal remedies made from the seeds. [14]

Ecology

It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant, and has become naturalised and invasive on several Pacific Ocean islands. [4]

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<i>Impatiens</i> genus of plants

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<i>Impatiens glandulifera</i> Species of plant

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<i>Impatiens capensis</i> jewelweed

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Lawsone chemical compound

Lawsone (2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), also known as hennotannic acid, is a red-orange dye present in the leaves of the henna plant as well as in the flower of water hyacinth. Humans have used henna extracts containing lawsone as hair and skin dyes for more than 5000 years. Lawsone reacts chemically with the protein keratin in skin and hair, in a process known as Michael addition, resulting in a strong permanent stain that lasts until the skin or hair is shed. The darker colored ink is due to more lawsone-keratin interactions occurring, which evidently break down as the concentration of lawsone decreases and the tattoo fades. Lawsone strongly absorbs UV light, and aqueous extracts can be effective sunless tanning and sunscreens. Chemically, lawsone is similar to juglone, which is found in walnuts.

<i>Barringtonia acutangula</i> Species of plant

Barringtonia acutangula is a species of Barringtonia native to coastal wetlands in southern Asia and northern Australasia, from Afghanistan east to the Philippines and Queensland. Common names include freshwater mangrove, itchytree and mango-pine.

<i>Styphnolobium japonicum</i> species of plant

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<i>Acalypha indica</i> species of plant

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<i>Terminalia macroptera</i> species of plant

Terminalia macroptera is a species of flowering plant in the Combretaceae known by the Hausa common name kwandari. It is native to Africa, where it can be found in Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Senegal, Sudan, Uganda, and Nigeria.

Alpinia nigra is a medium-sized herb belonging to the ginger family. The rhizome is well known in many Asian cultures as a medicinal and culinary item. In many Asian tribal communities it is a part of the diet along with rice.

<i>Echinops echinatus</i> species of plant

Echinops echinatus, the Indian globe thistle, is a species of globe thistle, found in India Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Indian Globe Thistle is an erect branched herb about 100 cm high. It has short, stout stems, branching from the base, covered with white cottony hair. Alternately arranged oblong, deeply pinnatifid leaves are 7–12 cm long. Flower heads occur in solitary white spherical balls, 3–5 cm across. Petals of the tiny white disc florets are 5 mm long. Flowers are surrounded by straight, strong, white bristles.

References

  1. 1 2 "Impatiens balsamina". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  2. "Impatiens balsamina". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA . Retrieved 20 April 2019.
  3. Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN   0-333-47494-5.
  4. 1 2 Impatiens balsamina. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER).
  5. Plants for a Future: Impatiens balsamina
  6. 1 2 Wang YC, Wu DC, Liao JJ, Wu CH, Li WY, Weng BC (2009). "In vitro activity of Impatiens balsamina L. against multiple antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori". Am. J. Chin. Med. 37 (4): 713–22. doi:10.1142/S0192415X09007181. PMID   19655409.
  7. Park JH, Kim JM, Do WI (2003). "Pharmacognostical studies on the folk medicine bong seon wha dae". Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy. 34 (3): 193–96.
  8. 1 2 3 Christopher Cumo. "Impatiens". Encyclopedia of Cultivated Plants: From Acacia to Zinnia. Christopher Cumo, ed. ABC-CLIO, 2013. p. 523. ISBN   9781598847758
  9. Ishiguro K, Oku H, Kato T (February 2000). "Testosterone 5α‐reductase inhibitor bisnaphthoquinone derivative from Impatiens balsamina". Phytother Res. 14 (1): 54–6. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(200002)14:1<54::AID-PTR540>3.0.CO;2-Q. PMID   10641051.
  10. "Naturally dyed red nails". JoongAng Daily . 12 September 2004. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  11. "Summer, the Way It Used to Be..." The Korea Times . 16 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 June 2008. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  12. Sakunphueak A, Panichayupakaranant P (2010). "Simultaneous determination of three naphthoquinones in the leaves of Impatiens balsamina L. by reversed‐phase high‐performance liquid chromatography". Phytochem Anal. 21 (5): 444–50. doi:10.1002/pca.1216. PMID   20931623.
  13. Hua L, Peng Z, Chia LS, Goh NK, Tan SN (February 2001). "Separation of kaempferols in Impatiens balsamina flowers by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection". J Chromatogr A. 909 (2): 297–303. doi:10.1016/S0021-9673(00)01102-X. PMID   11269529.
  14. Li HJ, Yu JJ, Li P (March 2011). "Simultaneous qualification and quantification of baccharane glycosides in Impatientis Semen by HPLC–ESI-MSD and HPLC–ELSD". J Pharm Biomed Anal. 54 (4): 674–80. doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2010.10.014. PMID   21075577.