List of Burmese royal consorts

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This is a list of the queen consorts of the major kingdoms that existed in present-day Myanmar. Only the senior queens—i.e. those with the rank of Nan Mibaya ("Queen of the Palace")—are listed.



Rankings of consorts

Prior to the Konbaung period (1752–1885), the consorts of the Burmese monarchs were organized in three general tiers: Nan Mibaya (နန်းမိဖုရား, lit. "Queen of the Palace", senior queen), Mibaya (Nge) (မိဖုရား (ငယ် ), "(Junior) Queen"), and Kolottaw (ကိုယ်လုပ်တော် , concubine). [note 1] Starting in the late 18th century, the Konbaung kings inserted the tiers of Hsaungdaw Mibaya (ဆောင်တော် မိဖုရား, lit. "Queen of the Royal Apartment") and Shwe-Yay Hsaung Mibaya (ရွှေရေးဆောင် မိဖုရား, lit. "Queen of the Gilded Chamber") between the tiers of senior queen and junior queen. [1]

Each tier had further rankings within it. The order of precedence within the topmost tier was: [1]

1.Nanmadaw Mibaya Khaunggyi (နန်းမတော် မိဖုရား ခေါင်ကြီး) or
Taung Nan Mibaya (တောင်နန်း မိဖုရား)
Chief Queen or
Queen of the Southern Palace
2.Myauk Nan Mibaya (မြောက်နန်း မိဖုရား)Queen of the Northern Palace
3.Ale Nan Mibaya (အလယ်နန်း မိဖုရား)Queen of the Central Palace
4.Anauk Nan Mibaya (အနောက်နန်း မိဖုရား)Queen of the Western Palace

Aside from a few rare exceptions, the Queen of the Southern Palace was the official chief queen consort. [note 2] In theory, the chief queen consort alone had the right to a white umbrella and to sit with the King on the royal throne. [2]


The names of the queens, if known, are given according to their most well known common name, which often happens to be the primary name used by the royal chronicles. The chronicle reported names of the queens may be their popular/commonly known name (e.g., Pwa Saw, Nanmadaw Me Nu); formal title (e.g., Agga Mahethi, Sanda Dewi); personal name (e.g., Shin Bo-Me, Yun San); or generic name of the office (Hanthawaddy Mibaya, "Queen of Hanthawaddy"; or Myauk Pyinthe, "Queen of the Northern Palace"). Finally, the names of the queens with no known records are given as "(Unknown)".

Duration of consortship

The "Became consort" and "Ceased to be consort" dates indicate the period in which a given queen was in the role of royal consort—not the duration of marriage.

Pagan dynasty

Early Pagan

ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Taung Pyinthe Chief?1001 Saw Rahan II [3]
Myauk Pyinthe North
Ale Pyinthe Center
Taung Pyinthe Chief1001c. 1014 Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu [3] [4]
Myauk Pyinthe North
c. 10141021
Ale Pyinthe Center1001?
(Unknown)Chief1021c. 1 April 1038 Kyiso
(Unknown)Chiefc. 1 April 103811 August 1044 Sokkate [5]
Myauk Pyinthe North?August 1044

Pagan Empire

ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Agga Mahethi Chiefc. 1048c. 1077 Anawrahta [note 3]
Saw Mon Hla Northc. 1058c. 1071
Manisanda Northc. 1070s11 April 1077
Usaukpan Chief11 April 1077c. 1077/78 Saw Lu [6]
Manisanda North
Chiefc. 1077/78c. April 1084
Apeyadana Chief21 April 108412th century Kyansittha [note 4]
Manisanda Northc. 1112/1113
Khin Tan Center
Thanbula Chiefc. 12th century
Yadanabon I Chief1112/13c. 1050s Sithu I [note 5]
Ti Lawka Sanda Dewi Center
Chiefc. 1050s1167
Yazakumari West1112/13?
Taung Pyinthe (Sithu I) South
Taung Pyinthe (Narathu) Chief1167c. February 1171 Narathu [note 6]
Myauk Pyinthe (Narathu) North
Min Aung Myat Chiefc. February 1171c. May 1174 Naratheinkha [note 7]
Saw Lat North
Saw Ahlwan Center
Weluwaddy Westc. April 1174
Chiefc. May 11741186 Sithu II [note 8]
Min Aung Myat South1185?
Saw Lat North1190s?
Saw Ahlwan Center
Taung Pyinthe II (Sithu II) Chiefc. 1190s18 August 1211
Myauk Pyinthe II (Sithu II) North
Wadanthika Centerc. 1190s
Saw Mya Kan Center18 August 1211
Pwadawgyi Chief18 August 1211c. 1231–35 Htilominlo [7]
Myauk Pyinthe (Htilominlo) North
Saw Mi Pyan Center
Shin Saw Chiefc. 1231c. 1235 Naratheinga Uzana [note 9]
Saw Min Waing North
Yaza Dewi Chief19 July 1235c. May 1251 Kyaswa [8]
Thonlula Chiefc. May 1251c. May 1256 Uzana [9]
Yadanabon II Chief6 May 12561262 Narathihapate [note 10]
Pwa Saw North
Chief12621 July 1287
Pwa Saw of Thitmahti Chief30 May 128917 December 1297 Kyawswa [note 11]
Saw Soe North
Mi Saw U Center

Small kingdoms


ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Saw U Chief17 December 129713 April 1310 Athinkhaya [10]
(Unknown)Chiefc. 1312/13 Yazathingyan
Mi Saw U Chiefc. 17 December 12977 February 1313 Thihathu [11]
Yadanabon Northc. 1300


ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Mi Saw U Chief7 February 1313c. February 1325 Thihathu [11]
Yadanabon North
Atula Maha Dhamma Dewi Chiefc. February 13251 September 1340 Uzana I [12]
Saw Htut Chief1 September 134029 March 1344 Sithu [13]
Atula Sanda Dewi Chief29 March 134412 December 1350 Kyawswa I [14]
Mway Medaw North
Saw Omma Chief12 December 135019 March 1359 Kyawswa II [15]
19 March 1359May 1364 Narathu
June 1364September 1364 Uzana II
Saw Sala NorthJune 1364 [16]


ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Saw Hnaung Chief15 May 13155 February 1327 Saw Yun [8]
5 February 13271335/36 Tarabya I
(Unknown)Chief1335/36c. August 1339 Anawrahta I
Saw Pa Oh Chiefc. August 1339c. March 1349 Kyaswa [16]
(Unknown)Chiefc. March 1349c. November 1349 Anawrahta II
(Unknown)Chiefc. November 134923 February 1352 Tarabya II
Soe Min Kodawgyi Chief23 February 1352April 1364 Thihapate [16]


House of Myinsaing

ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Saw Omma of Pinya ChiefSeptember 1364c. 3 September 1367 Thado Minbya [17]
Khame Mi Chief5 September 1367c. 1390s Swa Saw Ke [18]
Shin Saw Gyi North
Chiefc. 1390sApril 1400
Saw Omma of Sagaing Center5 September 1367c. 1390s
Northc. 1390sApril 1400
Saw Taw Oo West5 September 1367c. 1390s
Centerc. 1390sApril 1400
Min Hla Myat ChiefApril 140025 November 1400 Tarabya [19]
Shin Saw Chief25 November 1400c. February 1422 Minkhaung I [note 12]
Saw Khway North
Min Pyan Center
Shin Mi-Nauk West25 November 1400July 1408
Shin Bo-Me c. August 1408c. October 1421
Saw Min Hla Chiefc. October 1421August 1425 Thihathu [20]
Shin Bo-Me North
Shin Sawbu Centerc. January 1423
Shin Bo-Me ChiefAugust 1425November 1425 Min Hla [21]
November 142516 May 1426 Min Nyo [22]
Shin Myat Hla Chief16 May 1426c. May 1439 Mohnyin Thado [23]
Shin Bo-Me North
Shin Sawbu Centerby 31 August 14261429 [24]
Min Hla Nyet Chiefc. May 1439January 1442 Minye Kyawswa I [25]
Atula Thiri Maha Yaza Dewi Chief25 April 144224 July 1468 Narapati I [26]
Ameitta Thiri Maha Dhamma Dewi Chief24 July 1468c. August 1480 Thihathura I [27]
Atula Thiri Dhamma Dewi Chiefc. August 14807 April 1501 Minkhaung II [note 13]
Tanzaung Mibaya (Minkhaung II) North
Salin Minthami Chiefc. 1485/864 March 1501 Thihathura II [note 14]
18 April 150114 March 1527 Narapati II [note 15]
Salin Minthami Lat Northc. June 1501
Min Taya Hnamadaw NorthJuly 150114 March 1527
Dhamma Dewi CenterFebruary 1502
Taungdwin Mibaya West

Confederation of Shan states

ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
(Unknown)Chief14 March 1527c. January 1533 Sao Long I [note 16]
(Unknown)Chiefc. January 1533May 1542 Sao Hung Hpa
(Unknown)ChiefJune 1542c. September 1545 Sao Hkun Mong
(Unknown)Chiefc. September 1545c. October 1551 Narapati III
Narapati Mibaya Chiefc. October 155122 January 1555 Narapati IV [28]


ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Saw Myat Lay Chief1482? Thado Minsaw [29]
Shwe Zin Gon Chief1526c. December 1532 Bayin Htwe [30]
Chit Mi North
Thiri Hpone Htut Chiefc. December 1532c. February 1539 Narapati [31]
c. February 153919 May 1542 Minkhaung [32]


ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
May Hnin Thwe-Da Chief30 January 1287c. 14 January 1307 Wareru [33]
Shin Saw Hla North?c. 1293 [34]
(Unknown)Chiefby 28 January 1307March 1311 Hkun Law
May Hnin Htapi Chief10 April 1311September 1323 Saw O [35]
Sanda Min Hla I Chiefby 28 September 1323April 1330 Saw Zein [36]
May Hnin Htapi North
(Unknown)ChiefApril 1330April 1330 Zein Pun
Sanda Min Hla I ChiefApril 1330May 1330 Saw E [37]
May 13301348 Binnya E Law [37]
Tala Shin Saw Bok NorthMay 13301348
Sanda Min Hla II Chief1348c. 1365 Binnya U [note 17]
Hnin An Daung North
Chiefc. 13652 January 1384
Sanda Dewi Center1348c. 1365
Northc. 13652 January 1384
Thiri Yaza Dewi West1348c. 1365
Centerc. 13652 January 1384
Thiri Maya Dewi I Westc. 1365c. 28 January 1368
Piya Yaza Dewi Chief5 January 1384c. April 1392 Razadarit [note 18]
Tala Mi Daw Northc. March 1390
Yaza Dewi Chiefc. April 1392c. 1421
Lawka Dewi North
Thiri Maya Dewi II Center
Mi Ta-Lat Principal (Chief?)14211424 Binnya Dhammaraza [38]
Yaza Dewi Chiefc. 1424c. 1446? Binnya Ran I [39] [40]
Soe Min Wimala Dewi Principal14311446
Ye Mibaya Chief144630 May 1451 Binnya Waru [39]
(Unknown)Chief30 May 1451June 1453 Binnya Kyan
(Unknown)ChiefJune 1453c. January 1451 Leik Munhtaw
NoneN/Ac. January 14511471 Shin Sawbu [note 19]
Yaza Dewi II Chief14711492 Dhammazedi [41]
Wihara Dewi Chief
Agga Thiri Maya Dewi Chief1492?1526? Binnya Ran II [note 20]
Maha Yaza Dewi North
Atula Dewi Principal
Yaza Dewi III Principal
(Unknown)Chief15261539 Taka Yut Pi [note 21]
Minkhaung Medaw North?by 1535
(Unknown)ChiefJune 1550August 1550 Smim Sawhtut
(Unknown)ChiefAugust 155012 March 1552 Smim Htaw


House of Launggyet

ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Saw Sit ChiefMay 14299 May 1433 Saw Mon [42]
Saw Paba Chief9 May 1433c. January 1459 Khayi [43]
Saw Pyinsa North
Saw Yin Mi Center1437
Saw Nandi Chiefc. January 14595 August 1482 Saw Phyu [44]
Saw Htin North
Thu Rakhaing Chief5 August 1482c. February 1492 Dawlya [45]
Shwe Einthe North
Saw Htwe Me Chiefc. February 1492c. January 1494 Saw Nyo [45]
Saw Nandi North
Min Gahna Center
Saw Shin Saw Chiefc. January 1494c. July 1494 Ran Aung [45]
Saw Mi Saw Chiefc. July 1494February 1502 Salingathu [46]
Saw Thuba ChiefFebruary 1502c. November 1513 Raza I [46]
Shin Pwa North
Shin Pyo Center
Saw Thuza Chiefc. November 1513January 1515 Gazapati [47]
Taung Nan Mibaya ChiefJanuary 1515July 1515 Saw O [48]
Saw Nanzet ChiefJuly 1515c. April 1421 Thazata [48]
c. April 142127 May 1531 Minkhaung
Saw Min Hla Chief27 May 153111 January 1554 Min Bin [note 22]
Saw Kauk Ma I North
Minkhaung Medaw Center?by 1540
Saw Thanda Chief11 January 15546 March 1556 Dikkha [49]
Saw Mi Lat North
Saw Kauk Ma II Center
Saw Hpone Htut Chief6 March 155624 July 1564 Saw Hla [note 23]
Saw Thanda North
Dhamma Dewi I Chief24 July 15641565–68 Sekkya [note 24]
Saw Thanda North
Chief1565–687 February 1572
Saw Mi Taw Chief7 February 15724 July 1593 Phalaung [note 25]
Saw Thanda South
Shin Lat I Center
Saw U North
Wizala Dewi Chief4 July 15934 July 1612 Raza II [note 26]
Pyinsala Sanda North?
Thupaba Dewi Center
Zalaka Dewi West
Khin Ma Hnaung North?19 December 15994 July 1612?
Saw Phyu Center?c. 17th century
Dhamma Dewi II Chief4 July 161214 May 1622 Khamaung [50]
Shin Htwe North
Thupaba Dewi Center
Natshin Me Chief14 May 162229 May 1638 Thiri Thudhamma I [51]
Hmauk Taw Ma I North
Win Lon Center1630s?
Chief29 May 163817 June 1638 Sanay [52]

Late Mrauk-U

ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Natshin Me Chief17 June 163813 December 1645 Narapati [53]
Yadana I Chief13 December 1645May 1652 Thado [note 27]
Shin Lat II South
Saw Bo-Me North
Saw Phyu West
Yadana II ChiefMay 165211 June 1674 Sanda Thudhamma [54]
Thuwana Kalaya Chief11 June 167416 April 1685 Thiri Thudhamma II [55]
Thukomma Chief16 April 168520 June 1692 Wara Dhamma [note 28]
Thubara Chief20 June 16927 November 1693 Mani Thudhamma [note 29]
Thukomma Chief7 November 16933 February 1694 Wara Dhamma
Thubara Chief20 December 169417 February 1695 Sanda Thuriya I
Thukomma Chief17 February 169511 April 1696 Wara Dhamma
Thubara Chief11 April 16964 August 1696 Sanda Thuriya I
Thukhuma Chief4 August 169618 August 1696 Nawrahta [56]
Eindama Chief18 August 169613 May 1697 Marompiya [56]
Pwa Me Chief13 May 16975 June 1698 Kalamandat [57]
Nan Htet Mibaya I Chief5 June 169817 June 1700 Naradipati I [57]
Pwa Saw Chief17 June 170030 March 1707 Sanda Wimala I [57]
Pwa Thway Chief3 April 1707August 1710 Sanda Thuriya II [58]
Shwe Ku ChiefAugust 1710October 1719 Sanda Wizaya I [59]
(Unknown)ChiefOctober 1719April 1731
Hmauk Taw Ma II ChiefApril 17311734 Sanda Thuriya III [60]
Nan Htet Mibaya II Chief17341735 Naradipati II [61]
1735August 1737 Narapawara
August 173725 March 1738 Sanda Wizaya II
Shwe Yi Chief28 March 17386 February 1743 Madarit [62]
Saw Thanda II Chief6 February 174328 October 1761 Nara Apaya [62]
Tanzaung Mibaya Chief28 October 17613 February 1762 Thirithu [63]
Aung Kyawt San Chief3 February 17621 May 1764 Sanda Parama [63]
Saw Shwe Kya Chief1 May 176417 January 1774 Apaya [64]
Pan Thuza Chief17 January 177422 April 1777 Sanda Thumana [65]
Ma Me Gyi North27 August 1775
Da Phyu Chief23 April 17772 June 1777 Sanda Wimala II [66]
Sein Khaing Center?
Chief2 June 1777June 1778 Sanda Thaditha [67]
Aung Me South3 November 1782
Chi Me Chief11 June 1778
Saw Me Pon Chief4 November 17822 January 1785 Maha Thammada [68]

Toungoo Dynasty

House of Toungoo

ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Soe Min Hteik-Tin Chief16 October 151024 November 1530? Mingyi Nyo [69]
Thiri Maha Sanda Dewi North
Yadana Dewi Center
Maha Dewi West
Dhamma Dewi Chief24 November 153030 April 1550 Tabinshwehti [note 30]
Khin Myat North
Khay Ma Naw Co-chiefc. May 1545
Atula Thiri Chief30 April 155015 June 1568 Bayinnaung [70]
Sanda Dewi NorthApril 1553
Chief15 June 156810 October 1581
Yaza Dewi Center17 March 156313 September 1564
Hanthawaddy Mibaya Chief10 October 158119 December 1599 Nanda [note 31]
Min Phyu Southc. 5 May 15834 May 1596
Thiri Yaza Dewi North19 December 1599
Min Htwe Center
Min Taya Medaw Westc. 1583

House of Nyaungyan

ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Khin Hpone Myint Chief19 December 15995 November 1605 Nyaungyan [70]
Atula Sanda Dewi I Chief8 February 16099 July 1628 Anaukpetlun [71]
Khin Hnin Paw Chief9 July 162819 August 1629 Minye Deibba [note 32]
Khin Myo Sit Chief19 August 162927 August 1648 Thalun [72]
Atula Sanda Dewi II Chief27 August 16483 June 1661 Pindale [73]
Min Phyu Chief3 June 166114 April 1672 Pye [74]
NoneN/A14 April 167227 February 1673 Narawara [note 33]
Atula Thiri Maha Dewi Chief27 February 16734 May 1698 Minye Kyawhtin [75]
Sanda Dewi North
Yaza Dewi Center
Maha Dewi Chief4 May 169822 August 1714 Sanay [76]
Thiri Dewi North
Nanda Dewi Center
Thiri Maha Mingala Dewi Chief22 August 171414 November 1733 Taninganway [77]
Thiri Sanda Dewi North
Thiri Dhamma Dewi Center
Maha Nanda Dipadi Dewi Chief14 November 173322 March 1752 Maha Dhamma Yaza Dipadi [78]
Maha Yaza Dipadi Dewi North
Maha Dipadi Dewi Center

Restored Hanthawaddy

ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Thiri Seitta Chiefc. January 1741January 1747 Smim Htaw [note 34]
Hanthawaddy Mibaya II ChiefJanuary 17476 May 1757 Binnya Dala [note 35]
Thiri Zeya Mingala Dewi North22 March 175229 December 1756

Konbaung Dynasty

ConsortRankBecame consortCeased to be consortSpouseNotes
Yun San Chief29 February 175211 May 1760 Alaungpaya [79]
Maha Mingala Yadana Dewi Chief11 May 176028 November 1763 Naungdawgyi [80]
Mingala Dewi North
Thiri Atula Maha Yadana Padomma Dewi Chief28 November 176310 June 1776 Hsinbyushin [81]
Thiri Thuriya Nanda Maha Mingala Dewi North
Maha Mingala Sanda Dewi I Center
Maha Yadana Sanda Dewi Chief10 June 17765 February 1782 Singu [82]
Thiri Maha Mingala Dewi I Northc. 20 May 1777
Thiri Maha Nanda Dewi Center
Northc. 20 May 17775 February 1782
Maha Mingala Sanda Dewi II Center
Thiri Sanda Mahay West
Shin Paik Thaung Chief5 February 178211 February 1782 Phaungka [ citation needed ]
Thiri Nanda Dewi North
Mingala Yadana Dewi Chief11 February 178224 February 1807 Bodawpaya [83]
Thiri Maha Sandabi Yadana Dewi I North4 January 1807
Thiri Maha Nandabi Yadana Dewi I Center3 September 1789
Thiri Maha Mingala Dewi II Center3 September 17895 June 1819
Thiri Maha Yadana Dewi I North4 January 180710 July 1812
Nanmadaw Me Nu Chief5 June 181915 April 1837 Bagyidaw [84]
Thiri Kalaya Sanda Dewi North3 November 181923 February 1824
Thiri Paba Malla Dewi Center15 April 1837
Thiri Maha Mingala Dewi III North23 February 1824
Thiri Maha Sanda Dewi West3 November 1819
Thiri Pawara Ti Lawka Maha Yadana Padomma Dewi Chief15 April 183717 November 1846 Tharrawaddy [85]
Thiri Maha Nandabi Yadana Dewi II North
Thiri Maha Sandabi Yadana Dewi II Center
Thiri Thu Yadana Dewi II Westc. 16 October 1845
Thiri Ti Lawka Maha Yadana Dewi Chief17 November 184618 February 1853 Pagan [86]
Thiri Maha Yadana Dewi II North
Thiri Ti Lawka Atula Yadana Dewi Center
Thiri Thu Yadana Mingala Dewi Center
Thiri Pawara Maha Yazeinda Yadana Dewi Chief26 March 185312 November 1876 Mindon [87]
Thiri Maha Yadana Mingala Dewi North3 May 1872
Maha Yazeinda Dipadi Padomma Yadana Dewi Center1 October 1878
Thiri Maha Thu Sanda Dewi West26 July 1855
Thiri Maha Yadana Dewi West26 July 18551 October 1878
Supayagyi Chief30 October 187812 April 1879 Thibaw [note 36]
Supayalat North18 November 1878
Chief12 April 187929 November 1885

See also


  1. (Than Tun 1964: 129): The Pagan period (849–1297) term for Nan Mibaya was Pyinthe (ပြင်သည် ), and the term Usaukpan (ဦးဆောက်ပန်း) also meant the chief queen. (Harvey 1925: 327): Usaukpan was an Old Burmese direct translation of Pali Vatamsaka, an artificial flower of silver or gold used as a hair ornament.
  2. In Burma Proper, it was extremely rare for a queen of the Southern Palace to not also be the chief queen. According to the rankings reported in the chronicles, Sithu II (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 287) and Nanda (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 107) had South Queens who were not their chief queen. In the Mrauk-U Kingdom on the west coast, three kings—Min Khamaung (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 87, 89), Thado (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 115), Sanda Thaditha (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 147, 149)—had South Queens who were not their chief queen.
  3. Chronicles (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 267–268) mention Agga Mahethi and Manisanda as Anawrahta's two senior queens towards the end of his reign. Per (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 255–256), Queen Saw Mon Hla was sent back to her native land about six years before his death.
  4. See (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 279) for Kyansittha's four senior queens. (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 283) says Thanbula showed up with Kyansittha's son at the palace after the king had anointed Sithu I as heir apparent, and that the king raised her to queen with the title of Usaukpan, which meant the chief queen. Since Sithu I was born in 1090, she could have come in the 1090s at the earliest. Her getting the title probably meant the first chief queen Apeyadana had died. But Queen Apeyadana was still alive in 1102; it means Thanbula probably came to the palace in the 1100s.
  5. (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 287): All four of Sithu's senior queens (not just the chief queen) participated in his coronation ceremony. The South Queen, Taung Pyinthe, technically should have been the chief queen but the royal chronicles list her fourth in line behind Yadanabon, Ti Lawka Sanda Dewi and Yazakumari. Later, Sanda Dewi succeeded Yadanabon as chief queen. (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 287, 302): Late in his regin, Sithu II raised two other queens: Khin U and Princess Pabhavati of Padeikkaya. Though the chronicles do not explicitly say they were senior queens, they probably graduated to the rank, especially toward the end of the reign. His remaining three senior queens probably might not have lived as long as the king who lived to 77.
  6. None of the main chronicles has a record of the names of the queens of Narathu. Yazawin Thit (Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 122) explicitly says no records of his queens could be found. Yazawin Thit and Hmannan (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 312) mention only that Naratheinkha and Sithu II had the same mother. Per scholarship, (Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 124, footnote 2, citing Than Tun), their mother was the North Queen. It means there was a South Queen.
  7. See (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 312) and (Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 124) for the names of the Chief and North queens; and (Than Tun 1964: 129) for Saw Ahlwan (Saw Hteikhta in Modern Burmese per Than Tun).
  8. Per (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 317), Sithu II took all his brother's senior queens as his at the start of his reign. Per inscriptional evidence (Than Tun 1964: 129), the king had at least six senior queens during his reign. Queen Weluwaddy died in 1186 per (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 321). Sithu II kept separate chief and South queens at least with Weluwaddy and Min Aung Myat.
  9. Chronicles do not mention Naratheinga Uzana as king at all. Per (Than Tun 1964: 131–132), contemporary inscriptions say that Uzana, who was crown prince, was now the ruler or at least the regent. Some historians such as Htin Aung (Htin Aung 1970: 43) and Michael Aung-Thwin (Aung-Thwin and Aung-Thwin 2012: 99) do not accept that Uzana was king.
  10. Chronicles (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 358) mention Pwa Saw as the only senior queen and the rest as junior queens. Per inscriptional evidence (Ba Shin 1982: 37), Pwa Saw's sister Yadanabon was the first chief queen of Narathihapate.
  11. Chronicles (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 360) mention only Saw Soe as the senior queen. But inscriptional evidence (Ba Shin 1982: 41–43) shows Saw Thitmahti was the chief queen, certainly by 1296.
  12. (Than Tun 1959: 125–126): An inscription dated 28 February 1409 by Queen Saw says she was a granddaughter of King Swa Saw Ke by Shin Saw Gyi. Per (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 440), Shin Saw (known as Hsinbyushin), Saw Khway and Min Pyan were sisters.
  13. (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 111): Yazawin Thit gives Mi Pongyi of Prome as the third senior queen but Hmannan rejects it.
  14. Salin Minthami became co-chief queen in c. 1485/86 per (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 111), and chief queen in 1501 per (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 120).
  15. (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 120): Min Taya Hnamadaw of Yamethin became queen soon after her father Minye Kyawswa's death in Waso 863 ME (15 June 1501 to 14 July 1501). (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 121): Dhamma Dewi of Pakhan and Taungdwin Mibaya became queens in Tabaung 863 ME (6 February 1502 to 7 March 1502). See (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 136–137) for the complete list of senior queens and issue.
  16. The main royal chronicles do not have any record of the chief queens of Ava between 1527 and 1551. The title of the chief queen of Shan states was Maha Dewi, certainly by the Toungoo period.
  17. See (Pan Hla 2005: 44–45, 47) for a list of Binnya U's queens. (Pan Hla 2005: 57): Queen Sanda Min Hla II died during the rebellion by Byattaba during the 1360s. (Pan Hla 2005: 61): Thiri Maya Dewi died soon after having given birth to Razadarit.
  18. (Pan Hla 2005: 158–160): Tala Mi Daw, the first wife of Razadarit, was never his chief queen. Per (Pan Hla 2005: 193), she committed suicide soon after Razadarit's coronation ceremony c. March 1391.
    According to Razadarit Ayedawbon (Pan Hla 2005: 203), Piya Yaza Dewi died, and Razadarit raised Yaza Dewi, Lawka Dewi and Thiri Maya Dewi as queens c. Kason 755 ME (11 April 1393 to 10 May 1393) soon after King Swa Saw Ke's campaign near Tharrawaddy. But Hmannan Yazawin (Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 432) says Swa's campaign took place a year earlier.
    (Pan Hla 2005: 241, 266): Razadarit also raised two other queens Saw Pyei Chantha and her mother Shin Mi-Nauk in 1408 in addition to Saw Pyei Chantha's aunt Thupaba Dewi who was sent over to Razadarit in a marriage of state in 1403.
  19. Shin Sawbu was the country's only historically verifiable queen regnant. According to Arakanese history (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 18–19), Saw Yin Mi was queen regent of Sandoway (Thandwe) in the 1430s.
  20. Ran's most senior queens in April 1495 per (Aung-Thwin 2017: 278–279). It is unclear if any of the queens lasted his entire reign.
  21. The only known queen of Taka Yut Pi in the chronicles was Minkhaung Medaw (known as Pegu Mibaya). But she most likely could not have been the chief queen. Per Hmannan (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 195–196), Minkhaung Medaw was sent to Pegu (Bago) as part of the formation of an alliance between Prome and Pegu against Toungoo.
  22. See (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 29, 34) for Saw Min Hla and Saw Kauk Ma. Rakhine Razawin Thit (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 33) says Minkhaung Medaw was presented by King Tabinshwehti on 27 February 1547. But per (Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 195–196), she was sent to Mrauk-U c. 1540 by King Minkhaung of Prome.
  23. (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 46): Saw Thanda's official title during Saw Hla's reign was Tanzaung Mibaya.
  24. (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 47): Dhamma Dewi died sometime between Thadingyut 927 (5 October to 2 November 1565) and Thadingyut 930 (1 October to 29 October 1568), and was succeeded by Saw Thanda.
  25. Phalaung's queens apparently were not ranked according to tradition. Per (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 48), Saw Mi Taw was the chief queen, followed by Saw Thanda the South Queen. The third ranked queen Shin Lat was officially "Nan Htet Mibaya" (နန်းထက် မိဖုရား), "Queen of the Exalted Palace"), followed by Saw U the North Queen.
  26. The chronicle Rakhine Razawin Thit (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 87) says Raza II had nine senior queens during his reign but gives only six names. "Nine" was most likely a typographical/copying error since Burmese numerals six () and nine () are very similar. Khin Ma Hnaung's official title was Tanzaung Mibaya (တန်ဆောင်း မိဖုရား, "Queen of the Royal Hall"), which was likely the title of the second ranked queen. (Saw Thanda, the second ranked queen, during Saw Hla's reign was also Tanzaung Mibaya per (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 46). Similarly, Nan Htet Mibaya apparently was the title of the third ranked queen; Thupaba Dewi, the third ranked queen of Raza II, was Nan Htet Mibaya. Furthermore, the chronicle does not mention if any of the queens lived to the end of Raza II's reign. The chief queen presumably made it since there is no mention of other chief queens.
  27. Another case of the South Queen not being the chief per (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 115)
  28. (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 118): Several people, including queens, concubines and their attendants, died during a major fire at the palace on 16 February 1686. Presumably, Thukomma survived the fire since the chronicle reports no other chief queen of Wara.
  29. (RRT Vol. 2 1999: 119–120): The Palace Guards installed and removed their puppet kings Wara Dhamma, Mani Thudhamma and Sanda Thuriya I, as they pleased.
  30. (Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 127, footnote 2): According to Sein Lwin Lay, Tabinshwehti may not have had a chief queen in the formal sense that he never formally had a formal coronation ceremony with any of his queens; and Khay Ma Naw, whom the king married at the 1545 coronation, nonetheless was not mentioned as his chief queen either.
  31. This is a rare instance where the South Queen was not the chief queen. The two standard chronicles Maha Yazawin (Maha Yazawin Vol. 3 2006: 103) and Hmannan Yazawin (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 107) both say that Min Phyu, Min Htwe and Min Pu were South, Center and North Queens, respectively, while Hanthawaddy was the chief queen. Yazawin Thit (Yazawin Thit Vol. 2 2012: 239) omits the ranks of Min Phyu and Min Htwe, and confirms only that Thiri Yaza Dewi was the North Queen. All chronicles list Min Taya Medaw as the fifth senior queen but do not say when she became a senior queen. She certainly should have become a senior queen after the death of Min Phyu in 1596.
  32. Chronicles, which regard Minye Deibba as a usurper, do not list any of his "queens". Per (Hmannan Vol. 3: 189), Khin Hnin Paw was his lover. Presumably, she was his "queen" during his short reign.
  33. (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 289): Narawara had no queens or concubines whatsoever.
  34. (Lieberman 1984: 215–216): Smim Htaw came to power on 8 December [ O.S. 27 November] 1740. Hmannan (Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 373) says the Lord of Chiang Mai sent his daughter soon after.
  35. Chronicles (Konbaung Set Vol. 1 simply call Binnya Dala's chief queen Hanthawaddy Shin Mibaya (lit. Queen of Hanthawaddy). Her title or personal name is not known. (Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 187): Thiri Zeya Mingala Dewi, Princess of Manipur, became Binnya Dala's queen after the fall of Ava (Inwa) on 22 March 1752. She came along with Gen. Dalaban who submitted to Alaungpaya on 9th waxing of Pyatho 1118 ME (29 December 1756). She later became a concubine of Alaungpaya per (Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 197).
  36. (Konbaung Set Vol. 3 2004: 323, 344–345): Su Paya Gyi's nominal reign as chief queen officially ended at the coronation ceremony held at the start of Thingyan (new year's festival) of 1241 ME.

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  2. Scott 1900: 122
  3. 1 2 Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 227
  4. Yazawin Thit Vol. 1 2012: 93
  5. Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 228
  6. Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 274
  7. Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 330
  8. 1 2 Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 360
  9. Than Tun 1964: 134
  10. Than Tun 1964: 277
  11. 1 2 Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 371–372
  12. Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 377
  13. Than Tun 1959: 124
  14. Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 380
  15. Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 384–385
  16. 1 2 3 Than Tun 1959: 127
  17. Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 400
  18. Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 404
  19. Hmannan Vol. 1 2003: 437
  20. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 53–54, 57
  21. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 58
  22. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 59
  23. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 62
  24. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 63
  25. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 61, 80
  26. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 83
  27. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 100
  28. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 153
  29. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 83–84, 113
  30. Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 80, 88
  31. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 140
  32. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 195, 213
  33. Pan Hla 2005: 19
  34. Pan Hla 2005: 30
  35. Pan Hla 2005: 38
  36. Pan Hla 2005: 39
  37. 1 2 Pan Hla 2005: 42
  38. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003:48
  39. 1 2 Pan Hla 2005: 368, footnote 1
  40. Hmannan Vol. 2 2003: 74
  41. Shwe Naw 1922: 65
  42. Rakhine Razawin Thit Vol. 2 1999: 12
  43. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 18–19
  44. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 23
  45. 1 2 3 RRT Vol. 2 1999: 25
  46. 1 2 RRT Vol. 2 1999: 26
  47. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 27
  48. 1 2 RRT Vol. 2 1999: 28
  49. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 35, 46
  50. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 87, 89
  51. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 92
  52. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 96
  53. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 99
  54. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 116
  55. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 117
  56. 1 2 RRT Vol. 2 1999: 121
  57. 1 2 3 RRT Vol. 2 1999: 123
  58. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 126
  59. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 127–128
  60. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 132
  61. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 133–134
  62. 1 2 RRT Vol. 2 1999: 135
  63. 1 2 RRT Vol. 2 1999: 138
  64. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 140
  65. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 141, 145
  66. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 146–147
  67. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 147, 149
  68. RRT Vol. 2 1999: 153
  69. Sein Lwin Lay 2006: 89
  70. 1 2 Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 68
  71. Hmannan Vol. 3: 150, 189
  72. Hmannan Vol. 3: 249
  73. Hmannan Vol. 3: 250, 268
  74. Hmannan Vol. 3: 250, 286
  75. Hmannan Vol. 3: 321
  76. Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 353–354
  77. Hmannan Vol. 3 2003: 364–365
  78. Hmannan Vol. 3: 395
  79. Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 247
  80. Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 264
  81. Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 367–368
  82. Konbaung Set Vol. 1 2004: 371
  83. Konbaung Set Vol. 2 2004: 157–158
  84. Konbaung Set Vol. 2 2004: 168–169
  85. Konbaung Set Vol. 2 2004: 405–406
  86. Konbaung Set Vol. 3 2004: 56
  87. Konbaung Set Vol. 3 2004: 306