List of Syrian monarchs

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The region of Syria SASH D050 Map of ancient syria.jpg
The region of Syria

The Syrian monarchs ruled Syria as kings and queens regnant. The title King of Syria appeared in the second century BC in referring to the Seleucid kings who ruled the entirety of the region of Syria. It was also used to refer to Aramean kings in the Greek translations of the Old Testament; mainly indicating the kings of Aram-Damascus. Following the defeat of the (Ottoman Empire) in World War I, the region came under the rule of France, United Kingdom and prince Faisal of Hejaz who was proclaimed King of Syria on 8 March 1920. Faisal's reign lasted a few months before he was overthrown by France and the title fell out of use.

Contents

Background

The term Syria was first applied by Herodotus in the 5th century BC to indicate a region generally extending between Anatolia and Egypt. [1] [2] With the advent of the Hellenistic period, Greeks and their Seleucid dynasty used the term "Syria" to designate the region between the Mediterranean and the Euphrates. [3] The usage of the name in referring to the region during the Iron Age (ended 586 BC) is a modern practice. [1] [4]

List of monarchs

Seleucid dynasty

The Seleucid king Antiochus III the Great defeated the Ptolemaic Kingdom in the Battle of Panium (200 BC); he annexed the Syrian lands controlled by Egypt and united them with his Syrian lands, thus gaining control of the entirety of Syria. [5] Starting from the 2nd century BC, ancient writers, such as Polybius and Posidonius, began referring to the Seleucid ruler as the king of Syria. [6] [7] The evidence for this title's usage by the kings is provided by the inscription of Antigonus son of Menophilus, who described himself as the "admiral of Alexander, king of Syria" (Alexander refers either to Alexander I Balas or Alexander II Zabinas). [7]

PortraitMonarch
(and lifespan)
ReignConsort
(and tenure)
Parents, co-regents, and notes
Antiochos III coin cropped.jpg Antiochus III the Great
(c. 241–187 BC)
200–187 BC Laodice III
(200–187 BC)
Euboea
(191–187 BC)
Seleucus IV Philopator.png Seleucus IV Philopator
(c. 218–175 BC)
187–175 BC Laodice IV
(187–175 BC)
  • Son of Antiochus III and Laodice III. [12] He married Laodice IV, his brother Antiochus' widow. [13]
Antiochus
(c. 180–170 BC)
175–170 BC
  • Son of Seleucus IV and Laodice IV. [14] The minister Heliodorus held real power, [14] then Antiochus was made co-king by his uncle Antiochus IV. [note 3] [16]
Antiochos IV Epiphanes face.png Antiochus IV Epiphanes
(c. 215–164 BC)
175–164 BCLaodice IV
(c. 175–c. 164 BC)
  • Son of Antiochus III and Laodice III. [17] Married his brother's widow. [13]
Antiochus V.jpg Antiochus V Eupator
(172–161 BC)
164–162 BCUnmarried
  • Son of Antiochus IV Epiphanes and possibly Laodice IV. [18] His regent Lysias held actual power. [19]
Demetrius I.png Demetrius I Soter
(187–150 BC)
162–150 BC
Antiochus of 150 BC.png Antiochus150 BC
  • Known from a coin minted in the same year Demetrius I lost his throne; his identity is left to speculations. [note 4] [25]
Alexander I Syria.jpg Alexander I Balas
( –145 BC)
150–145 BC Cleopatra Thea
(150–145 BC)
  • Claimed to be a son of Antiochus IV. [26] [27] He could have been an illegitimate son of Antiochus by a concubine named Antiochis. [note 5] [29]
DemetriusII, coin, face.jpg Demetrius II Nicator
( –125 BC)
145–138 BC
(first reign)
Cleopatra Thea
(145–138 BC)
  • Son of Demetrius I and possibly Laodice V. [30]
  • First reign; Ptolemy VI Philometor of Egypt divorced his daughter Cleopatra Thea from Alexander I and married her to Demetrius. [26]
AntiochusVI, coin, face.jpg Antiochus VI Dionysus
(148 BC–142/141 BC)
144–142/141 BC
  • Son of Alexander I and Cleopatra Thea. [31] Was proclaimed king against Demetrius II by general Diodotus Tryphon who held actual power and eventually killed Antiochus. [note 6] [31]

Non-dynastic

Diodotus Tryphon, who opposed Demetrius II by raising Antiochus VI to the throne, killed his protege and declared himself king ruling until 138 when the Seleucids unified Syria again. [26]

PortraitMonarch
(and lifespan)
ReignConsort
(and tenure)
Parents, co-regents, and notes
Tryphon.png Diodotus Tryphon
( –138 BC)
142/141–138 BC
  • Last coins date to 138 BC but his reign might have lasted into early 137 BC. [33]

Seleucid dynasty

PortraitMonarch
(and lifespan)
ReignConsort
(and tenure)
Parents, co-regents, and notes
Antiochos VII.jpg Antiochus VII Sidetes
( –129 BC)
138–129 BCCleopatra Thea
(138–129 BC)
  • Son of Demetrius I and possibly Laodice V. [34] Married his brother's wife after Demetrius II was captured by the Parthians. [26]
DemetriusII, coin, face.jpg Demetrius II Nicator
( –125 BC)
129–125 BC
(second reign)
Cleopatra Thea
(129–125 BC)
  • Was released by the Parthians and regained his throne and wife following Antiochus VII's death in a battle against Parthia. [26]
Antiochus VIII face.png Antiochus VIII Grypus
( –96 BC)
128 BC
(first reign)
  • Son of Demetrius II and Cleopatra Thea. [35] He was elevated as king by his mother in an attempt to establish her authority. [36]
Aleksander II Zabinas face.png Alexander II Zabinas
( –123 BC)
128–123 BC
  • Claimed to be of Seleucid heritage. [note 7] [37] Declared himself king in opposition to Demetrius II. [38]

Ptolemaic dynasty

PortraitMonarch
(and lifespan)
ReignConsort
(and tenure)
Parents, co-regents, and notes
Cleopatra Thea face.png Cleopatra Thea
(c. 165–121 BC)
125–121 BC
  • Daughter of Ptolemy VI and Cleopatra II of Egypt. [39]
  • Cleopatra Thea assumed power in her own right; she abandoned her husband Demetrius II and arranged his murder in 125 BC. [35]

Seleucid dynasty

PortraitMonarch
(and lifespan)
ReignConsort
(and tenure)
Parents, co-regents, and notes
Seleucus V Philometor
( –125 BC)
125 BC
  • Son of Demetrius II and Cleopatra Thea. [40]
  • He declared himself king following his father's murder against the wishes of his mother who killed him. [41]
Antiochus VIII face.png Antiochus VIII Grypus
( –96 BC)
125–96 BC
(second reign)
Tryphaena
(124–111 BC)
Cleopatra Selene
(103–96 BC)
  • Due to the discontent arising from her becoming a queen regnant, Cleopatra Thea elevated Antiochus VIII as co-king. [note 8] [46]
Antiochus IX face.png Antiochus IX Cyzicenus
( –95 BC)
114–95 BC Cleopatra IV
(114–112 BC)
Cleopatra Selene
(96–95 BC)
  • Son of Antiochus VII and Cleopatra Thea. [44]
  • He rose against Antiochus VIII with the help of Cleopatra IV. [47]
Antiochus VIII died in 96 BC and Antiochus IX followed him in 95 BC; [48] the country became embroiled in a civil war in which Antiochus VIII's five sons and the descendants of Antiochus IX fought between themselves. [49] The chronology of all those monarchs is problematic and is specially vague regarding Seleucus VI's successors. [50]
DemetriusIII.png Demetrius III Eucaerus
( –88 BC)
96–88 BC
Seleucus VI Epiphanes.png Seleucus VI Epiphanes
( –94/93 BC)
96–94/93 BC
  • Son of Antiochus VIII and Tryphaena. [22] Defeated Antiochus IX but was soon killed. [52]
Antioco X Eusebes.jpg Antiochus X Eusebes
( –92)
95–92 BCCleopatra Selene
(95–92 BC)
  • Son of Antiochus IX and a first wife whose name is lost. [22]
  • Avenged his father and killed Seleucus VI. [note 9] [51] He married his step-mother. [54]
Antiochus 11.png Antiochus XI Epiphanes
( –93 BC)
94–93 BC
  • Son of Antiochus VIII and Tryphaena. [22] Killed by Antiochus X. [55]
Philipus I.png Philip I Philadelphus
( –83 BC)
94–84/83 BC
  • Son of Antiochus VIII and Tryphaena. [22] Took the throne with his twin Antiochus XI. [note 10] [55]
Antiochus XII.jpg Antiochus XII Dionysus
( –84 BC)
87–84/83 BC
  • Son of Antiochus VIII and Tryphaena. [22] Ruled only in Damascus. [58]

Ptolemaic dynasty

PortraitMonarch
(and lifespan)
ReignConsort
(and tenure)
Parents, co-regents, and notes
Obverse of cleopatra selene.png Cleopatra Selene
(c. 135/130–69 BC)
83–69 BC
  • Daughter of Ptolemy VIII and his wife Cleopatra III of Egypt. [59]
  • Cleopatra Selene declared her son Antiochus XIII king following the deaths of both Antiochus XII and Philip I; she seems to have installed herself co-ruler. [60] [61]

Seleucid dynasty

PortraitMonarch
(and lifespan)
ReignConsort
(and tenure)
Parents, co-regents, and notes
Antiochus XIII face.jpg Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
(c. 94–63 BC)
83–69 BC
(first reign)
Tigranes II, the king of Armenia, invaded Syria; the year of the invasion is up to debate and is traditionally given as 83 BC based on the account of Appian. [56] The date of the invasion might actually be later, around 74 BC. [70] The Armenian king captured Cleopatra Selene and killed her in 69 BC, [71] but he was forced by the Romans to evacuate Syria the same year. [72]
Antiochus XIII face.jpg Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
(c. 94–63 BC)
69–67 BC
(second reign)
  • The Roman general Pompey confirmed Antiochus as king following Tigranes departure. [71]
Philip II Philoromaeus
( –after 57 BC)
67–65 BC
Antiochus XIII face.jpg Antiochus XIII Asiaticus
(c. 94–63 BC)
65–64 BC
(third reign)
  • Freed by his captor, he ruled for one year before being deposed by Pompey who annexed Syria as a Roman province. [71]

Antonian dynasty

PortraitMonarch
(and lifespan)
ReignConsort
(and tenure)
Parents, co-regents, and notes
Ptolemy Philadelphus
(36–after 30 BC)
34–30 BC

Hashemite dynasty

On 8 March 1920, prince Faysal of the House of Hashim, supported by the Syrian National Congress, declared himself king of the Arab Kingdom of Syria; the kingdom collapsed on 24 July of the same year. [75]

PortraitName
(and lifespan)
ReignConsort
(and tenure)
StandardNotes
King Faisal I of Syria in July 1920.jpg Faisal
(20 May 1885 – 8 September 1933)
8 March 1920 – 24 July 1920 Huzaima bint Nasser
(8 March 1920 – 24 July 1920)
Royal Standard of the King of Syria (1920).svg

Biblical usage for Aramean kings

In the first translation of the Old Testament into Greek written during the third century BC (called the Septuagint), [78] Aram and Arameans were often translated as Syria and the Syrians; [79] [80] hence, the king was referred to as the king of Syria, [81] and this was carried on by many English translations. [79] Aram in the Hebrew Old Testament and Syria in the translation indicated the kingdom of Aram-Damascus most of the times. [79] Occasionally, other Aramean regions were also referred to as Syria. [79] In the view of W. Edward Glenny, the rendering of Aram by Syria might be explained by an anti-Syrian bias, since at the time of the translation, Syria belonged to the Seleucids, the Jews' main enemy; Aram-Damascus was the Jews' enemy during its Iron Age prime in the 9th century BC. [82]

Aramean kings referred to as "kings of Syria"

PortraitNameReignNotes
Rezon 10th century BC
  • Mentioned as "ruling over Syria" in 1 Kings 11:25. [83]
  • Also named "Ezron", [84] [85] and known only from the Old Testament. [86]
Hezion 10th century BC
  • The name "Hazib" was also used for him. [85] Known only from the Old Testament. [86]
Ben-Hadad I
  • Known only from the Old Testament. [87]
Ben-Hadad II
  • Equated by many Biblical scholars with Adad-Idri who was mentioned in Assyrian sources. [87]
Hazael bust.jpg Hazael c. 842–800 BC
  • Probably a usurper; described in Assyrian records as "the son of a nobody". [88] [89]
Ben-Hadad III
  • The only king mentioned by the name "Ben-Hadad" both in the Old Testament and extra-biblical sources. [87]
Rezin 750s–733 BC
  • Known in Assyrian inscription as Raqyan. [90]

See also

Notes

  1. Antiochus son of Antiochus III was made co-king in 209 BC and died in 193 BC. [10]
  2. There is no reason to believe that Laodice III fell from grace as she survived her husband and was honoured throughout his and his successors reigns. [11] Seleucid monarchs did not engage in polygamy and even the most hostile accounts, aside from the propagandistic work of Polybius, do not accuse Antiochus III with the act. [11] Paul J. Kosmin suggests a solution for the problem of Antiochus' second wife; according to Polybius, Euboea was a name given by Antiochus to his second wife and it is the name of her island. [11] Hence, in the view of Kosmin, by marrying this girl, Antiochus signified that he was marrying the island which the girl became its symbol. [11]
  3. Antiochus was a child of 4 or 5 years when he ascended the throne. [15] Heliodorus might have killed Seleucus IV, [14] before being removed by Antiochus IV who kept his nephew as co-king before killing him in 170 BC. [16]
  4. Fritz Heichelheim proposed three possibilities: Antiochus was Demetrius I's son Antigonus who assumed the dynastic name Antiochus, a pretender, or Demetrius I's youngest son Antiochus VII. [23] Alfred Raymond Bellinger considered the suggestion of Antiochus VII the most credible. [24]
  5. Appian called Balas Alexandros Nothos (Alexander the bastard); this bastardy could have been the reason for the doubts ancient writers showed regarding Alexander's paternity. [28]
  6. Josephus placed Antiochus' murder after the end of Demetrius II's first reign and Diodorus Siculus placed the usurpation of Diodotus Tryphon in the consular year 138 BC. [32] However, the last coins struk in Antiochus' name date to the year142/141 BC indicating that he was murdered around that time. [32]
  7. Alexander fabricated a genealogy that presented him as the son of Alexander I Balas according to Poseidonius, or the adopted son of Antiochus VII according to Justin. [37]
  8. In 124/123 BC, [42] he married Tryphaena who was murdered in 111 BC by Antiochus IX. [43] [44] By 103 BC, he married Tryphaena's sister Cleopatra Selene. [45]
  9. His reign might have actually ended in 89/88 BC. [53]
  10. Philip's death date is unknown but traditionally assumed to be the year 84 or 83 BC. [56] Although there is a possibility that he ruled until 75 BC. [57]
  11. In 2002, numismatist Brian Kritt announced the discovery and decipherment of a coin bearing the portrait of Cleopatra Selene and a co-ruler; [63] [64] Kritt read the name of the ruler as Seleucus Philometor and, based on the epithet "Philometor", meaning mother loving, identified him with Cleopatra Selene's son, unnamed by Cicero. [65] Kritt gave the newly discovered ruler the regnal name Seleucus VII, and considered it very likely that he is identical with Kybiosaktes. [66] The reading of "Seleucus VII" was accepted by some scholars such as Lloyd Llewellyn Jones and Michael Roy Burgess, [67] [68] but Oliver D Hoover rejected Kritt's reading, noting that the coin was badly damaged and some letters were unreadable; Hoover read the king's name as Antiochus and identified him with Antiochus XIII. [64]

Related Research Articles

Seleucid Empire former Hellenistic state

The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state in Western Asia that existed from 312 BC to 63 BC. It was founded by Seleucus I Nicator following the division of the Macedonian Empire established by Alexander the Great. After receiving Babylonia in 321 BC, Seleucus expanded his dominions to include much of Alexander's Near Eastern territories, establishing a dynasty that would rule for over two centuries. At its height, the empire spanned Anatolia, Persia, the Levant, Mesopotamia, and what are now Kuwait, Afghanistan, and parts of Turkmenistan.

This article concerns the period 129 BC – 120 BC.

This article concerns the period 179 BC – 170 BC.

Demetrius II Nicator

Demetrius II, called Nicator, was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter. His mother may have been Laodice V, as was the case with his brother Antiochus VII Sidetes. Demetrius ruled the Seleucid Empire for two periods, separated by a number of years of captivity in Hyrcania in Parthia, first from September 145 BC to July/August 138 BC, and again from 129 BC until his death in 125 BC. His brother Antiochus VII ruled the Seleucid Empire in the interim between his two reigns.

Demetrius III Eucaerus King of Syria

Demetrius III Theos Philopator Soter Philometor Euergetes Callinicus was a Hellenistic Seleucid monarch who reigned as the King of Syria between 96 and 87 BC. He was a son of Antiochus VIII and, most likely, his Egyptian wife Tryphaena. Demetrius III's early life was spent in a period of civil war between his father and his uncle Antiochus IX, which ended with the assassination of Antiochus VIII in 96 BC. After the death of their father, Demetrius III took control of Damascus while his brother Seleucus VI prepared for war against Antiochus IX, who occupied the Syrian capital Antioch.

Antiochus I Soter

Antiochus I Soter was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. He succeeded his father Seleucus I Nicator in 281 BC and reigned until his death on 2 June 261 BC. He is the last known ruler to be attributed the ancient Mesopotamian title King of the Universe.

Antiochus III the Great Basileus Megas

Antiochus III the Great was a Greek Hellenistic king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire. He ruled over the region of Syria and large parts of the rest of western Asia towards the end of the 3rd century BC. Rising to the throne at the age of eighteen in 222 BC, his early campaigns against the Ptolemaic Kingdom were unsuccessful, but in the following years Antiochus gained several military victories and substantially expanded the empire's territory. His traditional designation, the Great, reflects an epithet he assumed. He also assumed the title Basileus Megas, the traditional title of the Persian kings. A militarily active ruler, Antiochus restored much of the territory of the Seleucid Empire, before suffering a serious setback, towards the end of his reign, in his war against Rome.

Alexander II Zabinas King of Syria

Alexander II Theos Epiphanes Nikephoros was a Hellenistic Seleucid monarch who reigned as the King of Syria between 128 BC and 123 BC. His true parentage is debated; depending on which ancient historian, he either claimed to be a son of Alexander I or an adopted son of Antiochus VII. Most ancient historians and the modern academic consensus maintain that Alexander II's claim to be a Seleucid was false. His surname "Zabinas" (Ζαβίνας) is a Semitic name that is usually translated as "the bought one". It is possible, however, that Alexander II was a natural son of Alexander I, as the surname can also mean "bought from the god". The iconography of Alexander II's coinage indicates he based his claims to the throne on his descent from Antiochus IV, the father of Alexander I.

Cleopatra Thea

Cleopatra Thea surnamed Eueteria was the ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire. She was queen consort of Syria from 150 to about 125 BC as the wife of three Syrian kings: Alexander Balas, Demetrius II Nicator, and Antiochus VII Sidetes. She ruled Syria from 125 BC after the death of Demetrius II Nicator, eventually in co-regency with her son Antiochus VIII Grypus until 121 or 120 BC.

Antiochus XII Dionysus King of Syria

Antiochus XII Dionysus Epiphanes Philopator Callinicus was a Hellenistic Seleucid monarch who reigned as King of Syria between 87 and 82 BC. The youngest son of Antiochus VIII and, most likely, his Egyptian wife Tryphaena, Antiochus XII lived during a period of civil war between his father and his uncle Antiochus IX, which ended with the assassination of Antiochus VIII in 96 BC. Antiochus XII's four brothers laid claim to the throne, eliminated Antiochus IX as a claimant, and waged war against his heir Antiochus X.

Antiochus X Eusebes King of Syria

Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator was a Hellenistic Seleucid monarch who reigned as the King of Syria between 95 BC and 92 BC or 89/88 BC. He was the son of Antiochus IX and perhaps his Egyptian wife Cleopatra IV. He lived in a period during which there was a general disintegration of Seleucid Syria characterized by civil wars, foreign interference by Ptolemaic Egypt and incursions by the Parthians. Antiochus IX was killed in 95 BC at the hands of Seleucus VI, the son of his half-brother and rival Antiochus VIII. Antiochus X then went to the city of Aradus where he declared himself king. He avenged his father by defeating Seleucus VI, who was eventually killed.

Philip I Philadelphus King of Syria

Philip I Epiphanes Philadelphus was a Hellenistic Seleucid monarch who reigned as the King of Syria from 94 to either 83 or 75 BC. The son of Antiochus VIII and his wife Tryphaena, he spent his early life in a period of civil war between his father and his uncle Antiochus IX. The conflict ended with the assassination of Antiochus VIII and a quick succession in the Syrian capital Antioch of Antiochus IX then Antiochus VIII's eldest son Seleucus VI.

Antiochus XI Epiphanes King of Syria

Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus was a Seleucid monarch who reigned as King of Syria between 94 and 93 BC, during the Hellenistic period. He was the son of Antiochus VIII and his wife Tryphaena. Antiochus XI's early life was a time of constant civil war between his father and his uncle Antiochus IX. The conflict ended with the assassination of Antiochus VIII, followed by the establishment of Antiochus IX in Antioch, the capital of Syria. Antiochus VIII's eldest son Seleucus VI, in control of western Cilicia, marched against his uncle and had him killed, taking Antioch for himself, only to be expelled from it and driven to his death in 94 BC by Antiochus IX's son Antiochus X.

Seleucus VI Epiphanes King of Syria

Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator was a Hellenistic Seleucid monarch who ruled Syria between 96 and 94 BC. He was the son of Antiochus VIII and his Egyptian wife Tryphaena. Seleucus VI lived in a period of civil war between his father and his uncle Antiochus IX, which ended in 96 BC when Antiochus VIII was assassinated. Antiochus IX then occupied the capital Antioch while Seleucus VI established his power-base in western Cilicia and himself prepared for war. In 95 BC, Antiochus IX marched against his nephew, but lost the battle and was killed. Seleucus VI became the master of the capital but had to share Syria with his brother Demetrius III, based in Damascus, and his cousin, Antiochus IX's son Antiochus X.

Antiochus XIII Asiaticus Asiaticus

Antiochus XIII Philadelphus, known as Asiaticus, was the penultimate ruler of the Seleucid kingdom.

Antiochus VIII Grypus Antiochus VIII Callinicus/Philometor

Antiochus VIII Epiphanes/Callinicus/Philometor, nicknamed Grypus, was the ruler of the Syrian Seleucid Empire from 125 to 96 BC. He was the younger son of Demetrius II and Cleopatra Thea. He may have spent his early life in Athens and returned to Syria after the deaths of his father and brother Seleucus V. At first he was joint ruler with his mother. Fearing her influence, Antiochus VIII had Cleopatra Thea poisoned in 121 BC.

Antiochus IX Cyzicenus Antiochus IX Eusebes Cyzicenus

Antiochus IX Eusebes Cyzicenus was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom. He was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. He left the kingdom in 129 BC and went to the city of Cyzicus, but he returned in 116 BC to challenge his half-brother Antiochus VIII for power.

The Seleucid king Seleucus V Philometor, ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the eldest son of Demetrius II Nicator and Cleopatra Thea. The epithet Philometor means "mother-loving" and in the Hellenistic world usually indicated that the mother acted as co-regent for the prince.

Cleopatra Selene of Syria Monarch of Syria

Cleopatra II Selene was the monarch of Syria from 82 to 69 BC. The daughter of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra III of Egypt, Cleopatra Selene was favoured by her mother and became a pawn in Cleopatra III's political manoeuvres. In 115 BC, Cleopatra III forced her son Ptolemy IX to divorce his sister-wife Cleopatra IV, and chose Cleopatra Selene as the new queen consort of Egypt. Tension between the king and his mother grew and ended with his expulsion from Egypt, leaving Cleopatra Selene behind; she probably then married the new king, her other brother Ptolemy X.

Seleucid Dynastic Wars Wars of succession

The Seleucid Dynastic Wars were a series of wars of succession that were fought between competing branches of the Seleucid royal household for control of the Seleucid Empire. Beginning as a by-product of several succession crises that arose from the reigns of Seleucus IV Philopator and his brother Antiochus IV Epiphanes in the 170s and 160s, the wars typified the final years of the empire and were an important cause of its decline as a major power in the Near East and Hellenistic world. The last war ended with the collapse of the kingdom and its annexation by the Roman Republic in 63 BC.

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  56. Hoover 2007, p. 296.
  57. Hoover 2007, p. 298.
  58. Hoover 2007, pp. 298, 299.
  59. Llewellyn Jones 2013, p. 1572.
  60. Burgess 2004, p. 20, 21.
  61. Bellinger 1949, p. 79.
  62. Burgess 2004, p. 23, 24.
  63. Kritt 2002, p. 25.
  64. Hoover 2005, p. 95.
  65. Kritt 2002, p. 27.
  66. Kritt 2002, p. 28.
  67. Llewellyn Jones 2013, p. 1573.
  68. Burgess 2004, p. 20.
  69. Kritt 2002, p. 27, 28.
  70. Hoover 2007, p. 297.
  71. 1 2 3 4 Burgess 2004, p. 24.
  72. 1 2 Hoover 2007, p. 299.
  73. Whitehorne 2002, p.  209.
  74. Spawforth 2006, p. 6.
  75. Moubayed 2012, p.  20.
  76. Schafer 2013, p.  245.
  77. Salibi 2006, p.  68.
  78. Flesher & Chilton 2011, p.  339.
  79. 1 2 3 4 Greene 1993, p.  44.
  80. McClintock & Strong 1867, p.  353.
  81. Clarke 1851, p.  843.
  82. Glenny 2009, p.  152.
  83. Maxwell Miller & Hayes 1986, p.  214.
  84. Lipiński 2000, p.  369.
  85. 1 2 Galvin 2011, p.  90.
  86. 1 2 Bryce 2012, p.  178.
  87. 1 2 3 Nelson 2014, p.  109.
  88. Dever 2012, p.  363.
  89. Suriano 2007, p. 174.
  90. Kah-Jin Kuan 2016, p.  125.

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