List of endangered languages in Russia

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An endangered language is a language that is at risk of falling out of use, generally because it has few surviving speakers. If it loses all of its native speakers, it becomes an extinct language. A language may be endangered in one area but show signs of revitalisation in another, as with the Irish language.

Endangered language language that is at risk of falling out of use

An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking other languages. Language loss occurs when the language has no more native speakers and becomes a "dead language". If no one can speak the language at all, it becomes an "extinct language". A dead language may still be studied through recordings or writings, but it is still dead or extinct unless there are fluent speakers. Although languages have always become extinct throughout human history, they are currently dying at an accelerated rate because of globalization, imperialism, neocolonialism, and linguicide.

Language Capacity to communicate using signs, such as words or gestures

Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; a language is any specific example of such a system.

Extinct language language that no longer has any speakers

An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants. In contrast, a dead language is "one that is no longer the native language of any community", even if it is still in use, like Latin. Languages that currently have living native speakers are sometimes called modern languages to contrast them with dead languages, especially in educational contexts.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization defines five levels of language endangerment between "safe" (not endangered) and "extinct": [1]

The list below includes the findings from the third edition of Atlas of the World's Languages in Danger (2010; formerly the Red Book of Endangered Languages), as well as the online edition of the aforementioned publication, both published by UNESCO. [2]

Russian Federation
LanguageStatusNationsISO 639-3
Abaza language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia, Turkey
Abkhaz language [1] VulnerableGeorgia, Russia, Turkey
Adyge language [1] VulnerableIraq, Israel, Jordan, Macedonia, Russia, Syria, Turkey
Agul language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Akhvakh language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Alabugat Tatar language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Aleut language (Western, Commander Islands) [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Alutor language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Andi language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Archi language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Avar language [1] VulnerableRussia
Bagvalal language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Baraba Tatar language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Bashkir language [1] VulnerableRussia
Belarusian language [1] VulnerableBelarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Ukraine
Bezhta language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Bohtan Neo-Aramaic language [1] Severely endangeredGeorgia, Russia
Botlikh language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Buryat language (Cis-Baikal) [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Buryat language (Trans-Baikal) [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Central Selkup language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Central Siberian Yupik language (Chukotka) [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Chamalal language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Chechen language [1] VulnerableRussia
Chukchi language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Chulym Turk language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Chuvash language [1] VulnerableRussia
Copper Island Aleut language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Dargwa language [1] VulnerableRussia
Dolgan language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
East Cape Yupik language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Eastern Khanty language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Eastern Mansi language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Eastern Mari language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Erzya language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Even language (Kamtchatka) [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Even language (Siberia) [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Evenki language (Northern Siberia) [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Evenki language (Sakhalin) [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Evenki language (Southern Siberia) [1] Severely endangeredMongolia, Russia
Forest Enets language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Forest Nenets language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Forest Yukagir language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Godoberi language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Hinukh language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Homshetsma dialect (Caucasus) [1] Severely endangeredGeorgia, Russia
Hunzib language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Ingrian language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Ingush language [1] VulnerableRussia
Inkhokvari dialect [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Itelmen language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Juhuri language(Judeo-Tat) (Caucasus) [1] Definitely endangeredAzerbaijan, Israel, Russia
Kabard-Cherkes language [1] VulnerableRussia, Turkey
Kalmyk language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Karachay-Balkar language [1] VulnerableRussia
Karagash language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Karata language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Karelian language (Karelia) [1] Definitely endangeredFinland, Russia
Karelian language (Tikhvin) [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Karelian language (Tver) [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Ket language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Khakas language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Khamnigan Mongol language [1] Definitely endangeredChina, Mongolia, Russia
Khvarshi language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Kildin Saami language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Kilen language [1] Critically endangeredChina, Russia
Kili language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Komi language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Koryak language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Kumyk language [1] VulnerableRussia
Lak language [1] VulnerableRussia
Latgalian language [1] VulnerableLatvia, Russia
Lezgian language [1] VulnerableAzerbaijan, Russia
Low Saxon language [1] VulnerableDenmark, Germany, Netherlands, Poland, Russia
Lude language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Moksha language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Nanay language [1] Severely endangeredChina, Russia
Negidal language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Nganasan language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Nivkh language (Amur) [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Nivkh language (Sakhalin) [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Nogay language (Caucasus) [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
North Saami language [1] Definitely endangeredFinland, Norway, Russia, Sweden
Northern Altay language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Northern Khanty language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Northern Mansi language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Northern Selkup language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Olonetsian language [1] Definitely endangeredFinland, Russia
Oroch language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Orok language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Ossete language [1] VulnerableGeorgia, Russia
Permyak language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Pontic Greek language [1] Definitely endangeredArmenia, Georgia, Greece, Russia, Turkey, Ukraine
Romani language [1] Definitely endangeredAlbania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Montenegro, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom
Rutul language [1] Definitely endangeredAzerbaijan, Russia
Shor language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Siberian Tatar language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Skolt Saami language [1] Severely endangeredFinland, Norway, Russia
Southern Altay language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Southern Selkup language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Tabasaran language [1] VulnerableRussia
Tazy language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Ter Saami language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Tindi language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Tofa language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Trukhmen language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia, Turkmenistan
Tsakhur language [1] Definitely endangeredAzerbaijan, Russia
Tsez language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Tundra Enets language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Tundra Nenets language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Tundra Yukagir language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Tuvan language [1] VulnerableChina, Mongolia, Russia
Udege language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Udmurt language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia
Ulcha language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Urum language [1] Definitely endangeredGeorgia, Russia, Ukraine
Veps language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Vôru-Seto language [1] Definitely endangeredEstonia, Russia
Vote language [1] Critically endangeredRussia
Western Mari language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Yakut language [1] VulnerableRussia
Yazva Komi language [1] Severely endangeredRussia
Yiddish language (Europe) [1] Definitely endangeredAustria, Belarus, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Moldova, Norway, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom
Yurt Tatar language [1] Definitely endangeredRussia

Related Research Articles

The following lists of endangered languages are mainly based on the definitions used by UNESCO. In order to be listed, a language must be classified as "endangered" in a cited academic source. Researchers have concluded that in less than one hundred years, almost half of the languages known today will be lost forever.

Language death Process in which a language eventually loses its last native speaker

In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker. By extension, language extinction is when the language is no longer known, including by second-language speakers. Other similar terms include linguicide, the death of a language from natural or political causes, and rarely glottophagy, the absorption or replacement of a minor language by a major language.

Jeju language dialect

Jeju is a Koreanic language spoken at Jeju Island which forms the Jeju Province of South Korea. It differs greatly from the Korean dialects of the mainland. Standard Korean is the most common form of communication in Korea, whereas the Jeju dialect is considered a very local language. The Jeju language is mainly understood and spoken by the older generation. As of October 2014, the Jeju National University Foreign Language Institute has made efforts to save the fading language. Currently, only a relatively small group, consisting of around, or even fewer than, ten thousand individuals actively speak the language.

Language preservation is the effort to prevent languages from becoming unknown. A language is at risk of being lost when it no longer is taught to younger generations, while fluent speakers of the language die.

Parya is a Central Indo-Aryan language spoken in parts of Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan especially on Dushanbe city. Tajuzbeki was an alternative name coined by Bholanath Tivari for the same language. Much of the academic research in documenting and characterizing this isolated Indo-Aryan language was done by prominent Soviet linguist I. M. Oranski.

Alabat Island Alabat island

Alabat Island is an island of the Philippine archipelago, in the Quezon Province of the CALABARZON region, situated just off the east coast of Southern Luzon. The island has an area of 192 square kilometres (74 sq mi) and a population of 41,822.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 Moseley, Christopher, ed. (2010). Atlas of the World’s Languages in Danger. Memory of Peoples (3rd ed.). Paris: UNESCO Publishing. ISBN   978-92-3-104096-2 . Retrieved 2015-04-11.
  2. For the online atlas version see here

See also