List of rulers of Bosnia

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This is a list of rulers of Bosnia, containing bans and kings of Medieval Bosnia.

Ban (title) Noble title used in Central and Southeastern Europe

Ban was a noble title used in several states in Central and Southeastern Europe between the 7th century and the 20th century, primarily in medieval Croatia and Hungary and their respective predecessor states. In English, a common term for the province governed by the ban is banate and term for the office of the ban is banship.

Contents

Early rulers (1082–1136)

PictureTitleNameHouseReignOverlordshipNotes
South-Eastern Europe, ca. 1090, by User-Hxseek.png Duke
Stephen
Vojislavljević dynasty fl.
1082–1101
Constantine Bodin
Duklja
He was appointed governor of Bosnia by King Constantine Bodin of Dioclea (r. 1081–1101), his kinsman, sometime between 1082-5. [1] [2]
Annexed by the Vukanović dynasty (1101–1136)[ citation needed ]

Banate of Bosnia (1136–1377)

PictureTitleNameHouseReignOverlordshipNotes
Conquered by Béla II of Hungary in 1136; Ladislaus II of Hungary first held the title Duke of Bosnia 1137–1154
Ban
Borić
Boričević 1154–1163
Beloš (1154–1158)
Géza II (1158–1162)
Stephen IV (1162–1163)
Hungary
1167: Bosnia claimed by the Byzantine Empire [3]
1180s: Bosnia claimed by the Kingdom of Hungary
Ban
Kulin
Kulinić 1180–1204
Manuel I Comnenus (1180–1183)
Byzantine
Emeric I (1183–1204)
Hungary
Ban
Stephen
Kulinić1204–1232
Seal of Ban Matej Ninoslav, 1240.jpg Ban
Matej Ninoslav (Matthew Ninoslaus)
Kulinić1232–1253
Ban
Prijezda I
Kotromanić 1254–1287
Michael of Bosnia (1262–1266)
Béla of Macsó (1266–1272)
Stephen Gutkeled (1272–1273)
Ban
Prijezda II
Kotromanić1287–1290
In 1299, Paul I Šubić of Bribir took the title Lord of Bosnia (Bosniae dominus) and named his brother Mladen I Šubić of Bribir as the Bosnian Ban. Mladen was Bosnian Ban from 1299–1304. From 1299 Mladen I was at war with Stephen I.
Ban
Stephen I
Kotromanić1287–1314
In 1305, Paul Šubić took the title Lord of all of Bosnia (totius Bosniae dominus). Paul was from 1305–1312 Lord of all of Bosnia.
Paul I Subic of Bribir.JPG
Ban
Paul
Šubić 1305–1312
Ban
Mladen II
Šubić1312–1322
Paul's eldest son Mladen II Šubić of Bribir was Lord of all of Bosnia from 1312–1322. In 1314, Mladen II appoints Stephen II Kotromanić, his former enemy, as vassal in Bosnia
Stephen II of Bosnia.jpg
Ban
Stephen II
Kotromanić 1322–1353
Seal of Tvrtko I of Bosnia.jpg
Ban
Tvrtko I
Kotromanić1353–1366
Tvrtko i Vuk.png
Ban
Vuk
Kotromanić1366–1367
Ban
Tvrtko I (2nd time)
Kotromanić1367–1377

Kingdom of Bosnia (1377–1463)

All Bosnian kings added the honorific Stephen to their baptismal name upon accession.

Stephen (honorific)

The name Stephen, long popular among South Slavic monarchs, was used as an honorific or as a royal title by various rulers of Serbia and claimants to the Serbian throne, most notably the Nemanjić kings of Serbia and the Kotromanić kings of Bosnia.

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Tvrtko I
26 October 1377 – 10 March 1391
1338
son of Vladislav Kotromanić and Jelena Šubić
Dorothea of Bulgaria
Ilinci
8 December 1374
no children
10 March 1391
aged 53
Dabiša
10 March 1391 – 8 September 1395
after 1339
illegitimate son of Vladislav Kotromanić
Jelena Gruba
one daughter
8 September 1395
Kraljeva Sutjeska
Jelena Gruba
8 September 1395 – 1398
born to the House of Nikolić Stephen Dabiša
one daughter
after 1399
Ostoja
13981404
14091418
illegitimate son of Tvrtko I (1) Vitača
no children
(2) Kujava
one son
(3) Jelena Nelipčić
no children
after 23 March 1418
Stephen Ostojić
14181421
son of Stephen Ostoja and Kujava never married1421
Tvrtko II
1404–1409
1421 – November 1443
illegitimate son of Tvrtko I Dorothy Garai
no children
November 1443
Radivoj
anti-king 1432–1435
illegitimate son of Stephen Ostoja Catherine of Velika
three sons
June 1463
Thomas
1443 – 10 July 1461
Stjepan tomas.jpg illegitimate son of Stephen Ostoja (1) Vojača
one son
(2) Katarina Kosača
two children
10 July 1461
Stephen Tomašević
10 July 1461 – 5 June 1463
Stjepan Tomasevic.jpg son of Stephen Thomas and Vojača Jelena Branković
Smederevo
1 April 1459
no children
5 June 1463
beheaded

Pretenders and titular kings

Nominal
Nicholas of Ilok "King of Bosnia" (1471–1477)appointed by the King of Hungary
Matthias of Bosnia (House of Kotromanić)"King of Bosnia" (1465–1471)son of Radivoj of Bosnia, appointed by the Sultan
Matija Vojsalić (House of Hrvatinić)"King of Ottoman Bosnia" (1472–1476)appointed by the Sultan, removed for conspiring against the Ottomans

See also

History of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes referred to simply as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. It has had permanent settlement since the Neolithic Age. By the early historical period it was inhabited by Illyrians and Celts. Christianity arrived in the 1st century, and by the 4th century the area became part of the Western Roman Empire. Germanic tribes invaded soon after, followed by Slavs in the 6th Century. In 1136, Béla II of Hungary invaded Bosnia and created the title "Ban of Bosnia" as an honorary title for his son Ladislaus II of Hungary. During this time, Bosnia became virtually autonomous, and was eventually proclaimed a kingdom in 1377. The Ottoman Empire followed in 1463 and lasted over 400 years. They wrought great changes to the political and administrative system, introduced land reforms, and class and religious distinctions. A series of uprisings began 1831, which culminated in the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875. The conflict eventually forced the Ottomans to cede administration of the country to Austria-Hungary through the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929 brought the redrawing of administrative regions into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, and removed any trace of Bosnian identity. The kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, and Bosnia was ceded to the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), which led to widespread persecution and genocide. Three years of war began in 1992 which caused around 100,000 deaths and 2 million refugees.

Grand Duke of Bosnia

The title Grand Duke of Bosnia was a court title in the Kingdom of Bosnia, bestowed by the King to highest military commanders, usually reserved for most influential and most capable among highest Bosnian nobility. To interpret it as an office post rather than a court rank could be more accurate.

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References

  1. Edgar Hösch, The Balkans: a short history from Greek times to the present day, Vol 1972, Part 2, pages 68 and 83. Google Books
  2. Vjekoslav Kljaic, Geschichte Bosniens von den ltesten Zeiten bis zum Verfalle des K nigreiches, p. 61 (in German)
  3. Fine's The Late Medieval Balkans, p. 17

Sources

Sima Ćirković Serbian historian and member of Serbian Academy of Science and Arts

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Florin Curta is a Romanian-born American historian, medievalist and archaeologist on Eastern Europe. He works in the field of the Balkan history and is a Professor of Medieval History and Archaeology at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida. He is an Orthodox Christian.

John V. A. Fine Jr. is an American historian and author. He is professor of Balkan and Byzantine history at the University of Michigan and has written several books on the subject.