Maryport

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Maryport
Fleming Square, Maryport - geograph.org.uk - 527440.jpg
Fleming Square, Maryport
Location map United Kingdom Allerdale.svg
Red pog.svg
Maryport
Location in Allerdale
Cumbria UK location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Maryport
Location within Cumbria
Population11,262 (2011) [1]
OS grid reference NY038363
Civil parish
  • Maryport
District
Shire county
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town MARYPORT
Postcode district CA15
Dialling code 01900
Police Cumbria
Fire Cumbria
Ambulance North West
UK Parliament
List of places
UK
England
Cumbria
54°42′46″N3°29′33″W / 54.7128°N 3.4926°W / 54.7128; -3.4926 Coordinates: 54°42′46″N3°29′33″W / 54.7128°N 3.4926°W / 54.7128; -3.4926

Maryport is a town and civil parish in the Allerdale borough of Cumbria, England, historically in Cumberland.

Contents

The town is situated just outside the Lake District National Park, at the northern end of the former Cumberland Coalfield.

Location

Maryport is located on the A596 road 6 miles (10 km) north of Workington, 21.1 miles (34 km) west of Keswick and 26 miles (42 km) south-west of Carlisle. The town of Silloth is 12.6 miles (20 km) to the north on the B5300 coast road, which passes through the villages of Allonby, Mawbray, Beckfoot and Blitterlees.

It's the southernmost town on the Solway Firth, where the River Ellen skirts the grounds of Netherhall School before flowing through Maryport into the Solway Firth.

Maryport railway station is on the Cumbrian Coast Line.

History

Roman and medieval times

Maryport Castle Hill Motte Hill, Maryport.jpg
Maryport Castle Hill

The town was established around 122 as one of several Roman localities called Alauna . It was a command and supply base for the coastal defences at the western extremity of Hadrian's Wall. The town contains substantial remains of the Roman fort, which was the last in a series that stretched southwards along the coast from the wall to prevent it being avoided by crossing the Solway Firth. Geomagnetic surveys have revealed a large Roman town surrounding the fort. An archaeological dig discovered evidence of an earlier, larger fort next to, and partially under the present remains. After the Roman withdrawal from Britain the town would have diminished in size and importance without a military presence.

The Senhouse Roman Museum adjoins the site of Alauna, and has a replica wooden watch-tower overlooking the fort and the sea. The museum houses a remarkable collection of 17 Roman altars found at the site, believed to be one of the finest such collections in the whole Roman Empire.

On Castle Hill are the earthworks and buried remains of a 12th-century motte-and-bailey castle. On the summit are the foundations of a World War II gun emplacement.

To the north are the ruins of Netherhall Estate. The only remains of this once grand manor are stables and a 14th-century Peel tower, formerly part of a large house of later date which was demolished in 1979 following a fire.

Georgian times

For many years the town was named Ellenfoot but the name was changed by Humphrey Senhouse as he began developing the town as a port, following the example of Whitehaven. In 1749 an Act of Parliament was passed to allow the creation of the present town. Humphrey Senhouse named the new town after his wife Mary. The Senhouse family were landowners in the area and responsible for the development of the town and excavation of its Roman past. The family also had interests in the West Indies. In 1770, Humphrey Senhouse's son, William, was appointed Surveyor General of Customs in Barbados where he purchased a sugar plantation and managed another for Sir James Lowther of Whitehaven. William's brother, Joseph, had a coffee plantation in Dominica. Both men were considerable slave-owners. [2]

It was during this period that the town's lighthouse was built.

Victorian times

The town quickly developed as an industrial centre throughout the 19th century. An iron foundry opened and the port developed as did shipyards, such as Wood's yard and Ritson's yard, which was famous for launching ships broadside into the River Ellen because it was not wide enough to allow ships to be launched the usual way. By this time, coal mines were operating all around the town, at Ellenborough, Dearham, Broughton Moor, Gilcrux and Birkby.

The Maryport and Carlisle Railway, opened in the 1840s, with George Stephenson as its engineer, made the transport of coal much easier. Large new mines were sunk in the Aspatria area and almost all their production passed through the port. In 1846, 213,152 tons of coal were shipped from Maryport and by 1857 this had risen to more than 340,000 tons. Much of the coal produced in the area was turned into coke for the local iron and steel industry. By 1890, the Allerdale Coal Company had thirty Beehive coke ovens working on its site at Buckhill, Broughton Moor.

In 1874, the owners announced a cut of 10% in the miners' wages. A strike began in the Aspatria pits and then the owners made a further cut of 15%. By December, the strike had spread to the whole area with 2,000 men involved. The strike lasted until March 1875. There was violence when some 'blacklegs' were assaulted and many colliers left the area to seek work elsewhere. In 1894, John Osmaston who operated the Dearham Colliery became insolvent and the bank took over his pits. Two groups of local miners formed co-operatives and leased the mines at Crosshow and Townhead from the Lowthers. They found it impossible to compete with the other wealthy coal-owners in a tight market and also had serious problems with drainage. This unique experiment ended in 1903 when both companies went into liquidation. [3]

Modern times

During the early years of the 20th century, trade in the docks remained steady but was badly affected by the 1926 General Strike. Then, in 1927, a new deep-water dock was opened in Workington. Previously, the Workington Iron and Steel works had imported much of their raw material through Maryport but all of this trade was immediately transferred to the new facility. The local Solway Blast Furnaces also closed. [4]

Maryport became a ghost town. The government declared West Cumberland a ‘Special Area' but, by 1933, 57.3% of the town's insured workforce was unemployed. 1,684 men were out of work. Maryport was “for the most part, living on public funds” [5] In 1936 twenty unemployed men marched from Maryport to join the Jarrow Crusade to London. Known as the Maryport Marchers, they were joined by two marchers from Cleator Moor and two marchers from Frizington. The Maryport Marchers Council organised this. [6]

Despite a minor boom during the Second World War, when coal from North East England was diverted to the port, Maryport never recovered. The docks were closed to cargo ships in the 1960s. The last deep pit in the area, at Risehow, closed in 1966 and open-cast mining ended in 2000.

Today, after a series of major regeneration projects such as the yacht marina in the local harbour, prospects for the town are starting to look better, it is expected that tourism will play a major role in the future of the town. [7]

Closure of the Netherhall swimming pool, in October 2018 it was announced that the Netherhall School community swimming pool is to close. [8]

Maryport Lighthouse

The town has a small lighthouse, formerly run by Trinity House, the general lighthouse authority for England. It is a Grade II listed building. [9]

In 2010 Trinity House transferred responsibility for the new light to the Maryport Harbour Authority. [10] The old lighthouse was restored and repainted in 2017 as part of a government-funded initiative for the refurbishment of seaside towns. [11]

Governance

The town is part of the parliamentary constituency of Workington. In the December 2019 general election, the Tory candidate for Workington, Mark Jenkinson, was elected the MP, overturning a 9.4 per cent Labour majority from the 2017 election to eject shadow environment secretary Sue Hayman by a margin of 4,136 votes. [12] Until the December 2019 general election The Labour Party has won the seat in the constituency in every general election since 1979.The Conservative Party has only been elected once in Workington since World War II, at the 1976 by-election. [13] The town historically has been a Labour supporting area.

Before Brexit, it was in the North West England European Parliamentary Constituency.

For Local Government purposes it is in both the Maryport North Ward and the Maryport South Ward of Allerdale Borough Council and the Maryport North Division and the Maryport South Division of Cumbria County Council.

Maryport has its own parish council, Maryport Town Council. [14]

Economy

The economy of the area and the emergence of the industrial capacity of the town itself developed largely because of mining and sea trade, but these industries have since declined and the town now relies on tourism as the basis of its economy. There is an aquarium, a maritime museum and a Roman museum. The last houses numerous Roman artefacts, most notably a series of altars to Jupiter Optimus Maximus, which were excavated in the vicinity of the Roman fort. In July 2008, a new tourism venue, the Wave Centre, opened its doors. The Wave Centre is a theatre and conference facility, an interactive heritage exhibition on the local history of Maryport, the Tourist Information Centre for Maryport and a gift shop and bistro.

The town has two industrial estates, the Glasson Industrial Estate and the Solway Industrial Estate, which are home to many small local businesses. It was formerly home to a factory belonging to the Bata company this closed in the early 1980s.

Culture

The town is a major name on the blues music scene, holding the popular "Maryport Blues Festival" every summer. This has previously attracted names such as Jools Holland, Dionne Warwick, Elkie Brooks, Buddy Guy, Jethro Tull, Van Morrison, Robert Cray and Chuck Berry. The three-day event usually takes place on the last weekend of July, attracting both local and international artists. The 2018 Maryport Blues Festival was cancelled. [15]

The town has a Scout Group (2nd Maryport) that has been in the town for over 70 years and incorporates most sections within the Scouting Movement. The group was visited by the Bishop of Carlisle to mark the centenary of Scouting in 2008.

Maryport Golf Club was formed on 21 January 1905 and is now a well established 18-hole course. [16]

Education

Maryport has five local primary schools, and one secondary school, Netherhall School.

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Workington Coastal town in Cumbria, England

Workington is a coastal town and civil parish at the mouth of the River Derwent on the west coast of Cumbria, England, historically in Cumberland. At the 2011 census it had a population of 25,207.

Cumberland Historic county of England

Cumberland is a historic county of North West England that had an administrative function from the 12th century until 1974. It is bordered by the historic counties of Northumberland to the northeast, County Durham to the east, Westmorland to the southeast, Lancashire to the south, and the Scottish counties of Dumfriesshire and Roxburghshire to the north. It formed an administrative county from 1889 to 1974 and now forms part of Cumbria.

Aspatria Human settlement in England

Aspatria is a civil parish in the non-metropolitan district of Allerdale, and is currently embraced in the Parliamentary constituency of Workington, Cumbria, England. Historically within Cumberland the town rests on the north side of the Ellen Valley, overlooking a panoramic view of the countryside, with Skiddaw to the South and the Solway Firth to the North. Its developments are aligned approximately east-west along the A596 Carlisle to Workington road and these extend to approximately 2 miles (3 km) in length. It lies about 8 miles (12 km) northeast of Maryport, a similar distance to the Southwest of Wigton, about 9 miles (14 km) north of Cockermouth and 5 miles (8 km) from the coast and Allonby. It comprises the townships of Aspatria and Brayton, Hayton and Mealo, and Oughterside and Allerby, the united area being 8,345 acres (3,377 ha); while the township takes up an area of 1,600 acres (647 ha). In earlier days a Roman road leading from "Old Carlisle" to Ellenborough passed through the hamlet.

Allerdale Borough in England

Allerdale is a non-metropolitan district of Cumbria, England, with borough status. Its council is based in Workington and the borough has a population of 93,492 according to the 2001 census, increasing to 96,422 at the 2011 Census.

The Maryport & Carlisle Railway (M&CR) was an English railway company formed in 1836 which built and operated a small but eventually highly profitable railway to connect Maryport and Carlisle in Cumbria, England. There were many small collieries in the area and efficient access to the harbour at Maryport was important.

Workington (UK Parliament constituency)

Workington is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2019 by Mark Jenkinson, a Conservative.

Allonby A village on the Cumbrian coast in England

Allonby is a village on the coast of the Allerdale district in Cumbria, England. The village is on the B5300 road 5 miles (8.0 km) north of Maryport and 8 miles (13 km) south of Silloth. The village of Mawbray is 3 miles (4.8 km) to the north, and 3.5 miles (5.6 km) to the east is the village of Westnewton. The county town of Carlisle is located 26 miles (42 km) to the north east. Other nearby settlements include Crosscanonby, Edderside, Hayton, and Salta.

Bromfield, Cumbria Human settlement in England

Bromfield is a village and civil parish in the Allerdale district of Cumbria, in the north of England.

Broughton Moor Village in Cumbria, England

Broughton Moor is a village and civil parish in the Borough of Allerdale in Cumbria, England. It is situated on an extensive moor about 2 miles (3.2 km) north of Broughton, 5 miles (8.0 km) north west of Cockermouth, 2.5 miles (4.0 km) south of Maryport and 4.5 miles (7.2 km) north of Workington.

River Ellen

The Ellen is a river in the English county of Cumbria, flowing from Skiddaw in the Northern Fells to the Solway Firth at Maryport. It was historically in the county of Cumberland. It is approximately 25 miles (40.2 km) miles in length.

Alauna (Maryport) Roman fort and settlement on the site of present-day Maryport in Cumbria, England

Alauna was a castrum or fort in the Roman province of Britannia. It occupied a coastal site just north of the town of Maryport in the English county of Cumbria.

Mealsgate Human settlement in England

Mealsgate is a village in Cumbria England, historically within Cumberland.

Dearham Village in Cumbria, England

Dearham is a village and civil parish in the Allerdale district of Cumbria, historically part of Cumberland, near the Lake District National Park in England. It lies about 2 miles (3.2 km) east of Maryport and 5 miles (8.0 km) west of Cockermouth.

Mawbray A village on the Cumbrian coast in England

Mawbray is a village in the civil parish of Holme St Cuthbert in Cumbria, England, historically part of Cumberland. It is located on the Solway Plain, 5.2 miles (8.4 km) south west of Silloth, 7.9 miles (12.7 km) north of Maryport, and 25 miles (40 km) west of Carlisle. The B5300, known locally as the "coast road" runs to the west of the village.

B5300 road A road on the Cumbrian coast in England.

The B5300 is a B road which runs for approximately twelve miles between the towns of Silloth and Maryport in the Allerdale borough of Cumbria, United Kingdom. From north to south, it passes through the villages of Blitterlees, Beckfoot, Mawbray, Dubmill, and Allonby. It runs through the Solway Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, passes close to the Salta Moss Site of Special Scientific Interest, Milefortlet 21, a Roman archaeological site, the salt pans, a remnant of the Solway plain's medieval saltmaking industry, and the village of Crosscanonby. It is an important route for carrying goods to and from Silloth docks and Maryport harbour. It is also the major road connecting smaller coastal settlements with Maryport and Silloth, from where other roads lead to Workington, Whitehaven, Wigton, and Carlisle. A short section of the road between Dubmill and Mawbray was closed in February 2019 due to coastal erosion, and reopened in June 2019.

Crosby Villa A village in Cumbria, England

Crosby Villa is a hamlet in the civil parish of Crosscanonby in Cumbria, United Kingdom. It is located on the A596 road, 3.75 miles (6.04 km) north-east of Maryport and 3.75 miles (6.04 km) south-west of Aspatria. The village of Crosby is 1.5 miles (2.4 km) to the south-west, and the hamlet of Oughterside is 2.25 miles (3.62 km) to the north-east. Cumbria's county town, Carlisle, is 24 miles (39 km) to the north-east.

Ewanrigg Human settlement in England

Ewanrigg is a suburb of the town of Maryport, Cumbria, England, historically within Cumberland. Ewanrigg is a residential area and has a post office, a school and a few places of worship.

Netherhall School is a secondary school in Maryport, Cumbria. Built in the 1950s, it has a catchment area that covers Maryport, Allerby, Bullgill, Crosby, Crosby Villa, Dearham, Allonby, Flimby, Broughton Moor and other surrounding villages.

Oughterside and Allerby

Oughterside and Allerby is a civil parish in Allerdale district, Cumbria, England. In the 2011 census it had a population of 619. The north western boundary of the parish is a short stretch of coast, then, working clockwise, the parish is bordered by Hayton and Mealo to the north, Aspatria to the north east, Plumbland to the south east, Gilcrux to the south and Crosscanonby to the south west. The A596 road from Aspatria to Maryport passes through the parish, and the B5300 road follows its coastline in the north west. The main settlements in the parish are Allerby in the west and Oughterside and Prospect, in the east.

References

  1. "Town population 2011" . Retrieved 17 June 2015.
  2. Richard B. Sheridan: Material relating to the West Indies from the Senhouse Papers, University of Kansas, 1977.
  3. Oliver Wood: West Cumberland Coal 1600–1982 (Cumberland and Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 1988)
  4. J.Y. Lancaster & D.R. Wattleworth: The Iron and Steel Industry of West Cumberland (British Steel Corporation, 1977)
  5. John Jewkes and Allan Winterbottom: An Industrial Survey of Cumberland & Furness (Manchester University Press, 1933)
  6. West Cumberland Times
  7. "Regeneration projects – Allerdale Borough Council". Allerdale.gov.uk. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  8. Netherhall School community swimming pool is to close
  9. Historic England. "The Lighthouse, The Harbour, Maryport, Cumbria (1144649)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  10. Trinity House annual report 2010 Archived 4 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  11. "Maryport Lighthouse restoration unveiled". ITV News. Retrieved 1 June 2019.
  12. "Workington parliamentary constituency – Election 2019".
  13. "A vision of Britain website – general elections section" . Retrieved 27 April 2012.
  14. "Maryport Town Council".
  15. Maryport Blues Festival cancellation
  16. "Welcome to Maryport Golf Club". Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2017.
  17. "Maryport". Barry Hugman's Footballers.

Further reading