Mittwoch aus Licht

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Mittwoch aus Licht
Opera by Karlheinz Stockhausen
St. im Garten Mai 2005 RGB.jpg
Stockhausen in his garden in Kürten on Wednesday, 20 April 2005
LibrettistStockhausem
LanguageGerman
Premiere
August 22, 2012 (2012-08-22)

Mittwoch aus Licht (English: Wednesday from Light) is an opera by Karlheinz Stockhausen in a greeting, four scenes, and a farewell. It was the sixth of seven to be composed for the opera cycle Licht: die sieben Tage der Woche (Light: The Seven Days of the Week), and the last to be staged. It was written between 1995 and 1997, and first staged in 2012.

Contents

History

Rupert Huber, conductor of the premieres of Welt-Parlament and Michaelion in 1996 and 1998, respectively RupertHuber.jpg
Rupert Huber, conductor of the premieres of Welt-Parlament and Michaelion in 1996 and 1998, respectively

The four component scenes were separately commissioned and premiered:

The staged premiere of Mittwoch was given by the Birmingham Opera Company on what would have been the composer's 84th birthday, Wednesday 22 August 2012 at the Argyle Works, a former factory in Digbeth, Birmingham, as part of the London 2012 Festival, with further performances on 23, 24, and 25 August. [4] [5] [6] The director was Graham Vick, music director Kathinka Pasveer, designer Paul Brown, lighting Giuseppe di Iorio, and choreography Ron Howell. The production went on to win the 2012 Royal Philharmonic Society Award for Opera and Music Theatre.

Roles (staged premiere)

Interior of the Argyle Works, shortly before the dress rehearsal of Mitwoch on 21 August 2012 Stockhausen Mittwoch Argyle Works 21Aug2012.png
Interior of the Argyle Works, shortly before the dress rehearsal of Mitwoch on 21 August 2012
Director Graham Vick Birmingham Opera Company Graham Vick coaches chorus.jpg
Director Graham Vick
Music director Kathinka Pasveer Kathinka Pasveer October 1983.tif
Music director Kathinka Pasveer
Roles, voice types/performer, premiere cast
RolePerformerPremiere cast, August 2012
World Parliament
The Representativeschorus Ex Cathedra,
Jeffrey Skidmore (chorus master)
President tenor Ben Thapa
Substitute President/Coloratura Eve soprano Elizabeth Drury
JanitoractorKhalid Butt
sound projection Kathinka Pasveer
Orchestra Finalists
Oboist oboe Dan Bates
Cellist cello Jonathan Rees
Clarinetist clarinet Vicky Wright
Bassoonist bassoon Amy Harman
Violinist violin Debs White
Tubist tuba Ian Foster
Flutist flute Karin de Fleyt
Trombonist trombone Andrew Connington
Violist viola Bridget Carey
Trumpeter trumpet Bruce Nockles
Bassist double bass Jeremy Watt
Hornist horn Mark Smith
Mummy percussion David Waring
actorAnnice Boparai
actorJulie James
actorLuke Elliott
actorVicki Taylor
actorNathan Queeley-Dennis
dancer/actorNathan Lafayette
actorTanisha Parmer
actorHarry Sidhu
actorBeth Dyson
actorSara
actorSultan DiMaggio Hussain
actorThom Udall
actorEmma O'Brien
actorClaire Eggison
actorLeonard Finch
sound projectionKathinka Pasveer
Helicopter String Quartet
First ViolinistviolinEmma Smith (Elysian Quartet)
Second ViolinistviolinJennymay Logan (Elysian Quartet)
ViolistviolaVincent Sipprell (Elysian Quartet)
CellistcelloLaura Moody (Elysian Quartet)
helicopter pilotMiles Fletcher
helicopter pilotWill Samuelson
helicopter pilotAlistair Badman
helicopter pilotNigel Barton
helicopter pilotChris Holland (alternate)
Moderatormoderator DJ Nihal
sound projectionIan Dearden
Michaelion
OperatorbassMichael Leibundgut
LucicamelactorsNathan Lafayette,
Marie Louise Crawley,
Emma Hollick (cover)
FlutistfluteChloé l'Abbé
Basset Hornistbasset hornFie Schouten
Trumpetertrumpet Marco Blaauw
TrombonuttromboneStephen Menotti
SynthesizersynthesizerAntonio Pérez Abellán
The Delegateschorus London Voices,
Ben Parry (chorus master)
DelegateactorNadia Kemp-Sayfi
DelegateactorLiam Hall
DelegateactorLizzie Hodges
DelegateactorJake Dorrell
DelegateactorArmond Kurti
DelegateactorRushaun Cookhorn
sound projectionKathinka Pasveer

Synopsis

Setting for scene 1, Welt-Parlament, at the world premiere, 22 August 2012 Stockhausen Mittwoch vor Welt-Parlament 22Aug2012.png
Setting for scene 1, Welt-Parlament, at the world premiere, 22 August 2012
Two bactrian camels during an intermission in the dress rehearsal for Mittwoch (Birmingham Opera, 21 August 2012) Stockhausen Mittwoch Birmingham Kamele 21Aug2012.png
Two bactrian camels during an intermission in the dress rehearsal for Mittwoch (Birmingham Opera, 21 August 2012)

Wednesday is the day of cooperation and reconciliation among Michael, Eve, and Lucifer, and its exoteric colour is bright yellow. [7] The following list of 24 "scenic features" of the whole opera is found in the preface to the score of its final scene: [8]

  1. Light spirits: Eve, Michael, and Lucifer
  2. Divine principles: intuition and harmony
  3. Theme: love, friendship, and cosmic solidarity
  4. Ritual: beauty and art
  5. Beings: humans and the guardian angel Raphael
  6. Element: air
  7. Sound: singing
  8. Voices: soprano, tenor, and bass
  9. Instruments: basset horn with flute, trumpet, trombone
  10. Organ: brain, speech organ
  11. Sense: sight (especially the right eye), pure reason
  12. Centre: between the eyes, face, clairvoyance
  13. Awareness: understanding, vision, spiritual comprehension
  14. Colour: bright yellow, iridescence of all colours.
  15. Scents: mastic and frankincense
  16. Precious stones: yellow zircon, topaz
  17. Metal: mercury
  18. Flower: golden yellow rudbeckia
  19. Shrub: forsythia
  20. Tree: maple, Japanese maples
  21. Animals: dove, camel
  22. Number: 8
  23. Planet: Mercury
  24. Symbol: Mercury symbol.svg

Mittwoch is in four scenes, which are preceded by a greeting and followed by a farewell.

Mittwochs-Gruß

The Wednesday Greeting consists of the electronic music from the fourth scene, Michaelion, and is played in the foyer amidst flues, winds, blowers, kites, balloons, and flying doves. [8]

Scene 1: Welt-Parlament

The President (Ben Thapa) convenes the World Parliament (Birmingham Opera production, 24 August 2012) Stockhausen Welt-Parlament (Anfang) 24August2012.png
The President (Ben Thapa) convenes the World Parliament (Birmingham Opera production, 24 August 2012)

The World Parliament convenes in a session above the clouds, and the subject for debate is love. As the parliamentarians arrive via transparent elevators at the top floor of the skyscraper or floating glass dome, helicopters and doves occasionally pass by in the blue sky beyond. The debate is carried on in unknown languages, with occasional lapses into intelligibility in the local language. Delegates rise to present their interpretations of love, with the President commenting on each view. When a janitor interrupts with the news that an illegally parked car is about to be towed away, the President realises it is his, and rushes out. A coloratura soprano is elected temporary President, and the debate is continued. After a final large vowel spiral, the parliamentarians synchronously declare the central theme of the opera: "World parliament Wednesday from Light, day of reconciliation, love". The session is adjourned, all rise and exit while singing further attributes of Wednesday ("day of spaces", "day of women's rights", "day of Mercury", "day of reconciliation", "day of flying", "day of new languages", etc.) on a G. Unsure where he should exit, the fattest bass stops, turns to the audience in embarrassment, and before leaving stutters, "Now the next scene would follow".

Scene 2: Orchester-Finalisten

Orchester-Finalisten: during the cello solo, oboe (Dan Bates) and double-bass (Jeremy Watt) above an airport at the sea (Birmingham Opera production, 21 August 2012). Stockhausen Orchester-Finalisten Flugplatz 21Aug2012.png
Orchester-Finalisten: during the cello solo, oboe (Dan Bates) and double-bass (Jeremy Watt) above an airport at the sea (Birmingham Opera production, 21 August 2012).

Eleven instrumentalists compete for posts in an orchestra, while floating high in the air. Telescopic observation reveals a variety of airborne scenes: a cathedral roof, aeroplanes flying over the sea, ships in a harbour, etc. In the last solo, the double-bass player becomes convulsed in an obsessive-compulsive fit of scraping and groaning, until the appearance of the mysterious figure of a mummy who, with a stroke on a Chinese gong, releases the bassist from his affliction. [9] After all auditions have been completed, a horn player unexpectedly enters the hall, playing a signal, after which all of the players fly upward in a tutti finale.

The solos are accompanied by electronic and concrete music in octophonic spatial projection, and each is associated with a particular image:

The mummy (David Waring) releases the bassist (Jeremy Watt) from his obsessive-compulsive fit (Birmingham Opera, 23 August 2012) Stockhausen Orchester-Finalisten Mumie 23Aug2012.png
The mummy (David Waring) releases the bassist (Jeremy Watt) from his obsessive-compulsive fit (Birmingham Opera, 23 August 2012)

Scene 3: Helikopter-Streichquartett

DJ Nihal (back to camera) introduces the Elysian Quartet before they perform the Helicopter String Quartet on 23 August 2012 (Birmingham Opera) Stockhausen Helikopter-Quartett Vorstellung 23Aug2012.png
DJ Nihal (back to camera) introduces the Elysian Quartet before they perform the Helicopter String Quartet on 23 August 2012 (Birmingham Opera)

The four musicians of a string quartet are first introduced to the audience by a moderator, who describes the technical details of the performance. The players then walk or are driven to four waiting helicopters, followed by video cameras transmitting back to television monitors in the auditorium.

They are then carried into the air by the helicopters, from where they play a synchronized, polyphonic composition while reacting to the sounds of the rotor blades. Their playing is also influenced by the movements chosen by the pilots. From time to time their playing comes together in the same rhythms and bowings, even though it is plain they are isolated and kilometers apart. Video cameras and microphones transmit their images (including views through the glass cockpits of the world below) and sounds to four towers of video monitors and loudspeakers in the auditorium on the ground.

After returning to the ground and concluding the composition, the musicians and pilots disembark and return to the auditorium, still followed by the video cameras. Once in the auditorium, the moderator introduces the pilots to the audience, and asks players and pilots about their experiences. Questions are also taken from the audience.

Scene 4: Michaelion

The Michaelion is a galactic headquarters where a meeting of delegates from different stars has been called in order to elect a new President. He or she must be a "galaxy operator" who can translate universal messages no one else can understand. The scene consists of three sub-scenes.

Präsidium
As the delegates arrive, the word goes round that the favourite candidate is named Lucicamel. In the auditorium, someone is listening to a short-wave radio, occasionally mimicking the sounds. After a while, he leaves.

"Kakabel" from Michaelion: choir members hold up the seven globes and comment (Birmingham Opera, 24 August 2012) Stockhausen Michaelion Kakabel 24Aug2012.png
"Kakabel" from Michaelion: choir members hold up the seven globes and comment (Birmingham Opera, 24 August 2012)

Luzikamel
Lucicamel, who is a Bactrian camel, arrives accompanied by a trombonist dressed in white, and is greeted by the delegates. In a series of events, he presents himself to the assembly.

Trombonut (Stephen Menotti) and Lucicamel in the Camel Dance from Michaelion (Birmingham Opera, 24 August 2012) Stockhausen Michaelion Kameltanz 24Aug2012(1).png
Trombonut (Stephen Menotti) and Lucicamel in the Camel Dance from Michaelion (Birmingham Opera, 24 August 2012)
Luca (Michael Leibundgut), with his short-wave radio, emerges from Lucicamel (Birmingham Opera, 24 August 2012) Stockhausen Michaelion Moment50 24Aug2012.png
Luca (Michael Leibundgut), with his short-wave radio, emerges from Lucicamel (Birmingham Opera, 24 August 2012)

Operator
As Michael's Operator, Luca listens to broadcasts received on a short-wave radio in order to provide reports in response to problems successively posed by eleven delegates, who imitate him, poorly but humorously.

  • Thinki. An alto delegate's question (in German) is accompanied by a flautist in an ornate cadenza, and the Operator replies (in English), that "Leo lion galaxies ask Michael if God wants Michael, Eve, Lucifer to work together for cosmic solidarity".
Just before the Space Sextet, a soprano (Ruth Kerr, accompanied by Chloe l'Abbe, flute) sings "I see ... a clarinet above a harbour, a bassoon above a steam train, ..." (Birmingham Opera, 24 August 2012) Stockhausen Michaelion Moment72 24Aug2012.png
Just before the Space Sextet, a soprano (Ruth Kerr, accompanied by Chloé l'Abbé, flute) sings "I see … a clarinet above a harbour, a bassoon above a steam train, …" (Birmingham Opera, 24 August 2012)
  • Bassetsu Trio (Carousel). Trombonut and the trumpeter are now joined by a basset-horn player. Together they play and dance in a stylized, rotating choreography as the choir receives instruction from the Operator in various styles of singing and languages (Noh, Kabuki, American, Russian, Swedish, Italian, Kölsch, French, Zulu, Bavarian, Greek, Dutch, North German, and Chinese). A soprano from the choir sings about her home, the sun of planet Earth—"terra magica"—describing moments from Orchester-Finalisten ("I see oboes above cathedrals, I see a cello gently floating above an airport by the sea ..."). The tenors enter slowly, each holding a small book and softly singing the text "Litanei" from Stockhausen's 1968 composition cycle Aus den sieben Tagen .
  • "Menschen, hört" ("Mankind, Hear")—Space-Sextet. The delegates are sent out to the distant corners of the universe. Six of them are each presented with one of the planet-globes to take along, and come out into the auditorium to sing a concluding sextet as they rotate clockwise around the audience. As they leave the hall, the Operator is alone on the stage and gradually fades from sight, still transforming short-wave sounds, until only the nocturnal firmament is left shining above.

Mittwochs-Abschied

Mittwochs-Abschied, Birmingham, 23 August 2012 Stockhausen Mittwochs-Abschied Birmingham 23Aug2012.png
Mittwochs-Abschied, Birmingham, 23 August 2012

The Wednesday Farewell is the electronic music from scene 2 which, like the electronic music for act 2 of Dienstag , is projected octophonically through speakers arranged at the corners of a cube surrounding the audience. Here, however, it is played "beyond mirrored visions", in the form of video projections of the eleven space-events of Orchester-Finalisten, in the foyer as the audience departs. [8]

Press reception (staged premiere)

The premiere performances were sold out. The venue's capacity was 500 with the audience moving between the two massive halls of Argyle Works. Birmingham Opera Company fielded a 100 strong acting company of "Vick's wonderful army of talented volunteers", [10] a trademark of the company, who performed alongside the singers and instrumentalists, and sometimes also amongst the audience, "holding the fulcrum between humour and mystery on which the whole production was so skilfully balanced". [11] Writing in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , Jörn Florian Fuchs cited Kathinka Pasveer's musical direction as a "truly brilliant realization of the score". [12] Agreeing with this assessment of Pasveer's accomplishment, David Fallows added that "one of the important details of any live performance of Stockhausen has always been the sheer gorgeousness of the sound projection, making its impact right from the first moments of the magically lucid Wednesday Greeting". [13] Anna Picard concluded in The Independent that it was an "unhurried, ecstatic promenade production" and that "Stockhausen's dream was realised wittily and lovingly". [14]

Rupert Christiansen gave the production 4 out of 5 stars in The Telegraph , but he dismissed its third scene Helicopter String Quartet which he felt was "a banal gimmick, wasting an obscene amount of money and fuel to generate only a hideous amount of pointless noise". Christiansen cited Stockhausen's "bonkers sense of humour" as "a saving grace" of the production. [15] Nick Richardson, writing in the London Review of Books, disagreed about the Helicopter Quartet, describing it as "fantastic on Thursday night, particularly at take-off, the strings' vigorous tremolos locking with the throb of the rotor blades and the warm, bass hum of engine". [16]

Gisela Schwarz wrote in the Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger that Graham Vick had ably captured Stockhausen's diverse religious views without dismissing them as merely esoteric. [17] Stephen Pritchard's review for The Observer concluded that the production was "undoubtedly" worth the reported £920,000 expense of the production:

This repertoire pushes the musicians to their absolute limits; the score may appear random but it's extraordinarily controlled and tightly organised, with passages of exquisite tranquillity. The message is resolutely warm, heartfelt and loving, moving in and out of language, space and time. It's a major achievement. [10]

Mark Swed summed up his view of the production in the Los Angeles Times by writing, "the event was astonishing for the soul and simply beyond belief". [18]

Auxiliary works

In addition to the opera itself, various parts of which may be performed separately, there are four independent pieces made in different ways from versions of the Mittwoch formula:

Discography

No integral recording of Mittwoch aus Licht has yet been released, although all of the components have now appeared. The SWR broadcast the whole opera in October 2003 using selections from the first six of the following CD releases plus the 1998 Bayerischer Rundfunk recording of the dress rehearsal of Michaelion.

Filmography

Related Research Articles

Karlheinz Stockhausen German composer

Karlheinz Stockhausen was a German composer, widely acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but also controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. He is known for his groundbreaking work in electronic music, for introducing controlled chance into serial composition, and for musical spatialization.

<i>Licht</i>

Licht (Light), subtitled "Die sieben Tage der Woche", is a cycle of seven operas composed by Karlheinz Stockhausen between 1977 and 2003. The composer described the work as an "eternal spiral" because "there is neither end nor beginning to the week." Licht consists of 29 hours of music.

<i>Helikopter-Streichquartett</i> Musical composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen

The Helikopter-Streichquartett is one of Karlheinz Stockhausen's best-known pieces, and one of the most complex to perform. It involves a string quartet, four helicopters with pilots, as well as audio and video equipment and technicians. It was first performed and recorded in 1995. Although performable as a self-sufficient piece, it also forms the third scene of the opera Mittwoch aus Licht.

<i>Tierkreis</i> (Stockhausen)

Tierkreis (1974–75) is a musical composition by the German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen. The title is the German word for Zodiac, and the composition consists of twelve melodies, each representing one sign of the zodiac.

<i>Klang</i> (Stockhausen)

KlangDie 24 Stunden des Tages is a cycle of compositions by Karlheinz Stockhausen, on which he worked from 2004 until his death in 2007. It was intended to consist of 24 chamber-music compositions, each representing one hour of the day, with a different colour systematically assigned to every hour. The cycle was unfinished when the composer died, so that the last three "hours" are lacking. The 21 completed pieces include solos, duos, trios, a septet, and Stockhausen's last entirely electronic composition, Cosmic Pulses. The fourth composition is a theatre piece for a solo percussionist, and there are also two auxiliary compositions which are not part of the main cycle. The completed works bear the work (opus) numbers 81–101.

<i>Montag aus Licht</i>

Montag aus Licht is an opera by Karlheinz Stockhausen in a greeting, three acts, and a farewell, and was the third of seven to be composed for the opera cycle Licht: die sieben Tage der Woche. The libretto was written by the composer.

Suzanne Stephens American musician

Suzanne Stephens is an American clarinetist, resident in Germany, described as "an outstanding performer and tireless promoter of the clarinet and basset horn".

Kathinka Pasveer Dutch flautist

Kathinka Pasveer is a Dutch flautist.

<i>In Freundschaft</i>

In Freundschaft is a composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen, number 46 in his catalogue of works, which is playable on a wide variety of solo instruments. It was first performed on a clarinet on 28 July 1977.

<i>Sonntag aus Licht</i>

Sonntag aus Licht is an opera by Karlheinz Stockhausen in five scenes and a farewell, to a libretto written and compiled by the composer. It is the last-composed of seven operas that comprise the cycle Licht (Light). Its stage premiere in 2011 was posthumous, more than three years after the composer's death.

<i>Samstag aus Licht</i>

Samstag aus Licht is an opera by Karlheinz Stockhausen in a greeting and four scenes, and was the second of seven to be composed for the opera cycle Licht: die sieben Tage der Woche. It was written between 1981 and 1983, to a libretto written by the composer and incorporating a text by Saint Francis of Assisi, and was first staged in Milan in 1984.

<i>Donnerstag aus Licht</i>

Donnerstag aus Licht is an opera by Karlheinz Stockhausen in a greeting, three acts, and a farewell, and was the first of seven to be composed for the opera cycle Licht: die sieben Tage der Woche. It was written between 1977 and 1980, with a libretto by the composer.

<i>Dienstag aus Licht</i>

Dienstag aus Licht is an opera by Karlheinz Stockhausen in a greeting and two acts, with a farewell, and was the fourth of seven to be completed for the opera cycle Licht: Die sieben Tage der Woche. It was begun in 1977 and completed from 1988 to 1991, to a libretto by the composer.

<i>Strahlen</i>

Strahlen (Rays) for a percussionist and ten-channel sound recording is a composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen, and is Nr. 80½ in his catalog of works. Its performing duration is 35 minutes.

<i>Oktophonie</i>

Oktophonie (Octophony) is a 1991 octophonic electronic-music composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen. A component layer of act 2 of the opera Dienstag aus Licht, it may also be performed as an independent composition. It has a duration of 69 minutes.

Unsichtbare Chöre is an eight-channel electronic-music composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen. A component part of the opera Donnerstag aus Licht, it may also be performed as an independent composition, in which form it is designated "ex 49" in the composer's catalog of works.

<i>Rotary</i> Wind Quintet Chamber music composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen

The Rotary Wind Quintet is a chamber music composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen, the last of his three wind quintets and is Nr. 70½ in his catalogue of works. A performance lasts about 8½ minutes.

<i>Europa-Gruss</i>

Europa-Gruss is a composition by Karlheinz Stockhausen for wind ensemble with optional synthesizers, and is assigned Number 72 in the composer's catalogue of works. It has a duration of about twelve-and-a-half minutes.

<i>Trumpetent</i>

Trumpetent is a quartet for four trumpets by the German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, written in 1995. It is Number 73 in his catalogue of works and one of four independent compositions related to his opera, Mittwoch aus Licht. A performance lasts about 16 minutes.

References

  1. Stockhausen 1996a, I and VI.
  2. Fallows 2012, 1284.
  3. Stockhausen 2002, VII and XV.
  4. Anon. 2012.
  5. Brown 2012.
  6. Clements 2012.
  7. Stockhausen 1989b, 200.
  8. 1 2 3 Stockhausen 2002, III and V.
  9. Kohl 2008.
  10. 1 2 Pritchard 2012.
  11. Griffiths 2012, 19.
  12. Fuchs 2012.
  13. Fallows 2012, 1284–1285.
  14. Picard 2012.
  15. Christiansen 2012.
  16. Richardson 2012.
  17. Schwarz 2012b.
  18. Swed 2012.

Cited sources

  • Anon. 2012. "Helicopters Get Part in Olympic Opera Event". The Telegraph (13 March).
  • Brown, Mark. 2012. "Stockhausen Opera to be Staged in Full for First Time—Helicopters and All". The Guardian (13 March).
  • Christiansen, Rupert. 2012. "Mittwoch aus Licht: Stockhausen, Birmingham Opera Company, Argyle Works, Birmingham, Review". The Telegraph (23 August).
  • Clements, Andrew. 2012. "Mittwoch aus Licht: Review". The Guardian (23 August).
  • Fallows, David. 2012. "Mittwoch aus Licht: Birmingham Opera Company at the Argyle Works, Birmingham, August 22". Opera (October): 1284–1286. (Excerpt)
  • Fuchs, Jörn Florian. 2012. "Luft von anderen Kamelen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (24 August).
  • Griffiths, Paul. 2012. "Son et lumière: Karlheinz Stockhausen, Mittwoch aus Licht, Argyle Works, Birmingham". The Times Literary Supplement , no. 5712 (21 September): 18–19.
  • Kohl, Jerome. 2008. "Orchester-Finalisten". In Klang: A Tribute to Karlheinz Stockhausen (1–9 November 2008) (programme book), 16. London: Southbank Centre.
  • Picard, Anna. 2012. "Mittwoch aus Licht, Argyle Works, Birmingham". The Independent (26 August).
  • Pritchard, Stephen. 2012. "Mittwoch aus Licht; BBC Proms 50 & 51—review" The Observer (25 August) (accessed 1 September 2012).
  • Richardson, Nick. 2012. "White Camels Can't Dance". London Review of Books (24 August).
  • Schwarz, Gisela. 2012b. "Spielwitz in der galaktischen Zentrale" Kölner Stadt-Anzeiger (24 August).
  • Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1989b. Texte zur Musik, vols. 6, edited by Christoph von Blumröder. DuMont Dokumente. Cologne: DuMont Buchverlag. ISBN   3-7701-2249-6.
  • Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 1996a. Welt-Parlament für Chor a cappella (vom Mittwoch aus Licht). Werk Nr. 66. Kürten: Stockhausen-Verlag.
  • Stockhausen, Karlheinz. 2002. Michaelion: 4. Szene vom Mittwoch aus Licht, für Chor, Baß mit Kurzwellen-Empfänger, Flöte, Bassetthorn, Trompete, Posaune, Einen Synthesizer-Spieler, Tonband, 2 Tänzer, Klangregisseur. Werk Nr. 70. Kürten: Stockhausen-Verlag.
  • Swed, Mark. 2012. "Stockhausen's 'Mittwoch' Is Otherworldly in Birmingham". Los Angeles Times (27 August).

Further reading