National Museum of American History

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National Museum of American History
Aerial view of National Museum of American History.jpg
Location map Washington, D.C. central.png
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Location in Washington, D.C.
Established1964
Location Washington, D.C., United States
Coordinates 38°53′29″N77°01′48″W / 38.8913°N 77.03°W / 38.8913; -77.03 Coordinates: 38°53′29″N77°01′48″W / 38.8913°N 77.03°W / 38.8913; -77.03
Type History museum
Visitors3.8 million (2017) [1]
Director Anthea M. Hartig
ArchitectMcKim Mead & White
Public transit access WMATA Metro Logo.svg WMATA Blue.svg WMATA Orange.svg WMATA Silver.svg at Federal Triangle
Website americanhistory.si.edu

The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves, and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, political, cultural, scientific, and military history. Among the items on display is the original Star-Spangled Banner. The museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution and located on the National Mall at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW in Washington, D.C.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Star-Spangled Banner (flag) flag that flew over Fort McHenry in Baltimore during the War of 1812

The Star-Spangled Banner, or the Great Garrison Flag, was the garrison flag that flew over Fort McHenry in Baltimore Harbor during the naval portion of the Battle of Baltimore during the War of 1812. Seeing the flag during the battle inspired Francis Scott Key to write the poem "Defence of Fort M'Henry", which, retitled with the flag's name from the closing lines of the first stanza and set to the tune of "To Anacreon in Heaven" by John Stafford Smith, later became the national anthem of the United States.

Museum institution that holds artifacts and other objects of scientific, artistic, cultural, historical, or other importance

A museum is an institution that cares for (conserves) a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. The largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities, towns and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public. The goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public.

Contents

History

The museum opened in 1964 as the Museum of History and Technology. It was one of the last structures designed by the renowned architectural firm McKim Mead & White. In 1980, the museum was renamed the National Museum of American History to represent its mission of the collection, care, study, and interpretation of objects that reflect the experience of the American people.

In May 2012, John Gray became the new director. [2] He retired from the post in May 2018 and was succeeded by Anthea M. Hartig who was previously chief executive of the California Historical Society. [3]

John Gray (museum administrator) American businessman and museum administrator

John Gray is an American businessman and museum administrator. He was the director of the National Museum of American History until 2018 and a former president and CEO of the Autry National Center.

Renovations

The south facade of the museum National Museum of American History 1.jpg
The south facade of the museum

The museum underwent an $85 million renovation from September 5, 2006 to November 21, 2008, [4] during which time it was closed. [5] Skidmore, Owings and Merrill provided the architecture and interior design services for the renovation, led by Gary Haney. [6] Major changes made during the renovation include:

Gary Haney architect

Gary Paul Haney FRIBA, FAIA is an American architect, a design partner in the firm of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Haney's approach draws heavily on environmental modeling techniques, deep materials research, and advanced building information modeling (BIM) technologies. Buildings on which he was lead designer include the supertall Al Hamra Tower in Kuwait City and civic buildings in the United States including two Public Safety Answering Centers in New York City and the United States Census Bureau headquarters and the redesign of the National Museum of American History, both in Washington, D.C.

In 2012, the museum began a $37 million renovation of the west wing to add new exhibition spaces, public plazas and an education center. [7] The renovation will also include panoramic windows overlooking the National Mall on all three floors and new interactive features to the exhibits. [8] The first floor of the west wing reopened on July 1, 2015 with the second and third floors of the west wing reopening in 2016 and 2017, respectively. [9]

Layout

North facade entrance of the museum Nat. Museum of American History, Washington, D.C. IMG 4758.JPG
North facade entrance of the museum

Each wing of the museum's three exhibition floors is anchored by a landmark object to highlight the theme of that wing. These include the John Bull locomotive, the Greensboro, North Carolina lunch counter, and a one of a kind draft wheel. Landmarks from pre-existing exhibits include the 1865 Vassar Telescope, a George Washington Statue, a Red Cross ambulance, and a car from Disneyland's Dumbo Flying Elephant ride.

Artifact walls, 275 feet (84 m) of glass-fronted cases, line the first and second floor center core. The artifact walls are organized around themes including arts; popular culture; business, work and economy; home and family; community; land and natural resources; peopling America; politics and reform; science; medicine; technology; and the United States' role in the world.

Building

Lower level

The lower level of the museum displays Taking America to Lunch, which celebrates the history of American lunch boxes. The museum's food court, the Stars and Stripes Café, and ride simulators are also located here.

First floor

John Bull, an 1831 locomotive displayed in America on the Move, a first-floor exhibit John Bull NMAH side.jpg
John Bull , an 1831 locomotive displayed in America on the Move, a first-floor exhibit

The first floor's East Wing (called 1 East) has exhibits that feature transportation and technology; they include America on the Move and Lighting a Revolution. The John Bull locomotive is the signature artifact.

The exhibits in the West Wing (1 West) address science and innovation. They include Science in American Life featuring Robots on the Road and Bon Appétit! Julia Child's Kitchen.Spark!Lab is a hands-on exhibit of the Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation. The Vassar Telescope is the signature artifact.

A café and the main museum store are also located on the first floor. The first floor also contains the Constitution Avenue lobby (1 Center), as well as a space for a temporary exhibit.

Second floor

Statue of George Washington, by Horatio Greenough George Washington statue 1.jpg
Statue of George Washington, by Horatio Greenough

The exhibitions in 2 East, the east wing of the second floor, consider American ideals and include the Albert Small Documents Gallery featuring rotating exhibitions. From November 21, 2008 through January 4, 2009 an original copy of the Gettysburg Address, on loan from the White House, was on display. The Greensboro lunch counter is the signature artifact for this section of the museum.

Located in the center of the second floor (2 Center) is the original Star Spangled Banner Flag which inspired Francis Scott Key's poem. The newly conserved flag, the centerpiece of the renovated museum, is displayed in a climate-controlled room at the heart of the museum. An interactive display by Potion Design, just across the room from the flag, features a full-size, digital reproduction of the flag that allows patrons to learn more about it by touching different areas on the flag.

The George Washington statue, created in 1840 for the centennial of Washington's birthday, is the signature artifact for 2 West, the west wing of the second floor of the museum.

The second floor also houses the museum's new welcome center and a store. The second floor lobby leads out to Madison Drive and the National Mall.

Third floor

The Gunboat Philadelphia GunboatPhiladelphia.jpg
The Gunboat Philadelphia

Exhibits in the east wing of the third floor, 3 East, are focused on the United States at war; they include The Price of Freedom: Americans at War and The Gunboat Philadelphia . The Clara Barton Red Cross ambulance is the signature artifact.

The center of the third floor, 3 Center, presents The American Presidency: A Glorious Burden, which explores the personal and public lives of the men who have held that office. It also features the popular permanent exhibit of First Ladies of America, which features their contributions, changing roles, and displays dresses as a mark of changing times.

The third-floor west wing, 3 West, has exhibits that feature entertainment, sports, and music. These include Thanks for the Memories: Music, Sports and Entertainment History, the Hall of Musical Instruments, and The Dolls' House. A car from Disneyland's Dumbo the Flying Elephant ride is the signature artifact.

Outdoor sculptures

In 1967, the 24-foot-tall (7.3 m) abstract sculpture, Infinity , was dedicated at the National Mall entrance. Designed by José de Rivera and created by Roy Gussow, it was one of the first abstract sculptures displayed at a major public building in Washington D.C. The sculpture is a 16-foot-long (4.9 m), polished stainless steel ribbon on top of a granite tower. [10]

Alexander Calder's sculpture, Gwenfritz , was installed in a fountain on the west side. The steel abstract stabile was dedicated to the museum on June 2, 1969. In 1984, the museum moved the work to a site closer to Constitution Avenue until July 2013, when conservators removed it for restoration. The sculpture returned to its original site in November 2014, and sits in the midst of a re-crated reflecting pool. [11] Calder's original plan for the sculpture envisioned it surrounded by water jets, but architects and engineers of the site determined that the fountain would be difficult to maintain and the water spray would hasten deterioration of the metal. [12]

Archives

In support of the museum's mission, the Archives Center identifies, acquires, and preserves significant archival records in many media and formats to document America's history and its diverse cultures. Center staff arrange, describe, preserve, and make collections accessible in support of scholarship, exhibitions, publications, and education.

The Archives Center occupies over 12,000 feet (3,700 m) of shelving in the National Museum of American History building. Subject strengths include the history of radio, television, the telegraph, computing, and other aspects of the history of technology with a special interest in the history of invention; advertising, marketing, and entrepreneurship; commercial visual ephemera (post cards, greeting cards); American music (sheet music, jazz) and musical instruments. These, and a wide range of other subjects, are documented in business records, personal papers, and extensive holdings of motion picture film, video and sound recordings, historical photographs, and oral histories.

Jerome and Dorothy Lemelson Center for the Study of Invention and Innovation

The Lemelson Center, an initiative of the Lemelson Foundation, produces educational programs, popular and academic publications, exhibitions, podcasts and symposia about invention. The mission of the Lemelson Center is to document, interpret and disseminate information about invention and innovation, encourage creativity in young people, and foster an appreciation for the central role of innovation in the history of the United States. The Center frequently provides a multi-year focus on some aspect of how invention has influenced American society, such as its 2002 "'Invention and the Environment" theme. Programs include an annual symposium, presentations and guest speakers, and often the publication of a book highlighting a particular topic.

The Center provides free curricular material to classrooms throughout the United States, organizes traveling museum exhibitions (such as Invention at Play), and provides research opportunities. It obtains archival collections related to invention for the museum's Archives Center. Such collections consist of the papers and materials that document the work of past and current American inventors.

Directors

The following individuals have served as the director of the NMAH. The museum was initially created on July 1, 1957 as the National Museum of American History within the United States National Museum; it became the National Museum of History and Technology in 1969 and the National Museum of American History in 1980. [13]

Past exhibits

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References

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  2. Boehm, Mike (May 9, 2012). "John Gray to lead Smithsonian's National Museum of American History". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 27 February 2018.
  3. 1 2 McGlone, Peggy (December 13, 2018). "Smithsonian names woman to top post at American History Museum". The Washington Post . Retrieved 27 February 2019.
  4. Kopper, Philip (Winter 2009). "Back in Business". American Heritage . 58 (6).
  5. "National Museum of American History Will Open Nov. 21" (Press release). National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institute. July 30, 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-08-07. Retrieved 2019-02-27.
  6. Rothstein, Edward (November 20, 2008). "America's Attic, Ready for a Second Act". The New York Times . (Subscription required (help)).
  7. "Smithsonian National Museum Of American History West Wing Renovation Starts Soon". Huffington Post. November 2, 2012. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
  8. "Major renovations to Museum of American History underway". WTOP . September 10, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
  9. "National Museum of American History Innovates with West Exhibition Wing" (Press release). National Museum of American History. September 10, 2014. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
  10. Hevesi, Dennis (February 20, 2011). "Roy Gussow, Abstract Sculptor, Dies at 92". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-03-06.
  11. Gelles, Auni (November 4, 2014). "A monument to modernity: Conserving Alexander Calder's "Gwenfritz"". Oh Say Can You See?. Retrieved February 27, 2019.
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  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 National Museum of American History (U.S.). Office of the Director., Social Networks and Archival Context, University of Virginia.
  14. Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution for the year 1979, p. 206 for Kidwell's announcement as Acting Director. Note: There were several acting directors before her, including Otto Mayr as acting director for 2 ½ years prior to her appointment.
  15. Roger Kennedy, Former Museum Director, Receives Smithsonian's Henry Medal, NMAH, Smithsonian Institution (May 4, 2011).
  16. 1 2 3 Cohen, Patricia, National Museum of American History Gets a New Director, The New York Times (May 8, 2012).
  17. Brent Glass, Director of the National Museum of American History, Announces Retirement, Smithsonian Institution (June 30, 2011).
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  19. Mirror of Official Site Archived 2008-12-22 at the Wayback Machine
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