National Zoological Park (United States)

Last updated

National Zoological Park
Washington Zoo entrance.jpg
Front entrance
Date openedMay 6, 1889;129 years ago (1889-05-06) [1]
Location3001 Connecticut Ave. NW,
Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., U.S.
Coordinates 38°55′51.90″N77°02′59.03″W / 38.9310833°N 77.0497306°W / 38.9310833; -77.0497306 Coordinates: 38°55′51.90″N77°02′59.03″W / 38.9310833°N 77.0497306°W / 38.9310833; -77.0497306
Land areaZoo: 163 acres (66 ha) [2]
SCBI: 3,200-acre (1,300 ha) [3]
No. of animalsZoo: 2,000 [2]
SCBI: 30–40 endangered species [3]
No. of species400 [2]
Memberships AZA [4]
Major exhibitsAmazonia, Asia Trail, Giant Panda Habitat, Great Ape House, Think Tank
Public transit access WMATA Metro Logo.svg Washington Metro
WMATA Red.svg at Cleveland Park or Woodley Park

The National Zoological Park, commonly known as the National Zoo, is one of the oldest zoos in the United States. It is part of the Smithsonian Institution and does not charge for admission. Founded in 1889, its mission is to "provide engaging experiences with animals and create and share knowledge to save wildlife and habitats". [5]

A zoo is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.

Smithsonian Institution Group of museums and research centers administered by the United States government

The Smithsonian Institution, founded on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States. The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson. Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.


The National Zoo has two campuses. The first is a 163-acre (66 ha) urban park located at Rock Creek Park in Northwest Washington, D.C., 20 minutes from the National Mall by MetroRail. [6] The other campus is the 3,200-acre (1,300 ha) Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI; formerly known as the Conservation and Research Center) in Front Royal, Virginia. On this land, there are 180 species of trees, 850 species of woody shrubs and herbaceous plants, 40 species of grasses, and 36 different species of bamboo. [7] The SCBI is a non-public facility devoted to training wildlife professionals in conservation biology and to propagating rare species through natural means and assisted reproduction. The National Zoo is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA).

Rock Creek Park urban park in Washington, D.C.

Rock Creek Park is a large urban park that bisects the Northwest quadrant of Washington, D.C. The park was created by an Act of Congress in 1890, and today is administered by the National Park Service. In addition to the park proper, the Rock Creek administrative unit of the National Park Service administers various other federally owned properties in the District of Columbia located to the north and west of the National Mall, including Meridian Hill Park on 16th Street, N.W., the Old Stone House in Georgetown, and certain of the Fort Circle Parks, a series of batteries and forts encircling the District of Columbia for its defense during the U.S. Civil War.

Washington, D.C. Capital of the United States

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father. As the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is also one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually.

Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute zoo

The Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) is a unit of the Smithsonian Institution located on a 3,200-acre (13 km2) campus located just outside the town of Front Royal, Virginia. An extension of the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., the SCBI has played a leading role in the fields of veterinary medicine, reproductive physiology and conservation biology since its founding in 1974.

The two facilities host about 1,800 animals of 300 different species. [8] About one-fifth of them are endangered or threatened. Most species are on exhibit at the Rock Creek Park campus. [9] The best-known residents are the giant pandas, but the zoo is also home to birds, great apes, big cats, Asian elephants, insects, amphibians, reptiles, aquatic animals, small mammals and many more. The SCBI facility houses between 30 and 40 endangered species at any given time depending on research needs and recommendations from the zoo and the conservation community. [3] The zoo was one of the first to establish a scientific research program. [7] Because it is a part of the Smithsonian Institution, the National Zoo receives federal appropriations for operating expenses. A new master plan for the park was introduced in 2008 to upgrade the park's exhibits and layout.

Giant panda species of mammal

The giant panda, also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China. It is easily recognized by the large, distinctive black patches around its eyes, over the ears, and across its round body. The name "giant panda" is sometimes used to distinguish it from the unrelated red panda. Though it belongs to the order Carnivora, the giant panda's diet is over 99% bamboo. Giant pandas in the wild will occasionally eat other grasses, wild tubers, or even meat in the form of birds, rodents, or carrion. In captivity, they may receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, or bananas along with specially prepared food.

Bird Warm-blooded, egg-laying vertebrates with wings, feathers and beaks

Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds live worldwide and range in size from the 5 cm (2 in) bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m (9 ft) ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with approximately ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are more or less developed depending on the species; the only known groups without wings are the extinct moa and elephant birds. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites, penguins, and diverse endemic island species of birds. The digestive and respiratory systems of birds are also uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments, particularly seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming.

Hominidae Family of mammals

The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives, and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.

The National Zoo is open every day of the year except for December 25 (Christmas Day).


Bridge at National Zoological Park, 1897 Annual report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution (1897) (18431191142).jpg
Bridge at National Zoological Park, 1897

The zoo first started as the National Museum's Department of Living Animals in 1886. [10] By an act of Congress on March 2, 1889, [11] [12] [13] for "the advancement of science and the instruction and recreation of the people", the National Zoo was created. In 1890, it became a part of the Smithsonian Institution. Three well-known individuals drew up plans for the zoo: Samuel Langley, third Secretary of the Smithsonian; William Temple Hornaday, noted conservationist and head of the Smithsonian's vertebrate division; and Frederick Law Olmsted, the premier landscape architect of his day. William T. Hornaday was the park's first director and curator of all 185 animals when the park was first opened and took office on May 6, 1889. [10] [14] Together, they designed a new zoo to exhibit animals for the public and to serve as a refuge for wildlife, such as bison and beaver, which were rapidly vanishing from North America. [15]

An Act of Congress is a statute enacted by the United States Congress. It can either be a Public Law, relating to the general public, or a Private Law, relating to specific institutions or individuals.

William Temple Hornaday American conservationist and zoologist

William Temple Hornaday, Sc.D. was an American zoologist, conservationist, taxidermist, and author. He served as the first director of the New York Zoological Park, known today as the Bronx Zoo, and he was a pioneer in the early wildlife conservation movement in the United States.

Frederick Law Olmsted American journalist, social critic, public administrator, and landscape designer

Frederick Law Olmsted was an American landscape architect, journalist, social critic, and public administrator. He is popularly considered to be the father of American landscape architecture. Olmsted was famous for co-designing many well-known urban parks with his senior partner Calvert Vaux, including Central Park in New York City and Cadwalader Park in Trenton.

Olmsted Walk, near the zoo's Elephant House Zoo washington dc 20041011 120025 1.1504x1000.jpg
Olmsted Walk, near the zoo's Elephant House
Elephant fed by a zoo attendant through the bars of a fence at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., circa 1915 Elephant feeding circa 1915 National Zoo Washington DC.jpg
Elephant fed by a zoo attendant through the bars of a fence at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., circa 1915

For the first 50 years, the National Zoo, like most zoos around the world, focused on exhibiting one or two representative exotic animal species. The number of many species in the wild began to decline drastically because of human activities. Sometimes animals became unexpectedly available. In 1899, the Kansas frontiersman Charles "Buffalo" Jones captured a bighorn sheep for the zoo. [16] The fate of animals and plants became a pressing concern. Many of these species were favorite zoo animals, such as elephants and tigers; hence the staff began to concentrate on the long-term management and conservation of entire species. [15]

Kansas State of the United States of America

Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States. Its capital is Topeka and its largest city is Wichita, with its most populated county being Johnson County. Kansas is bordered by Nebraska on the north; Missouri on the east; Oklahoma on the south; and Colorado on the west. Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name is often said to mean "people of the (south) wind" although this was probably not the term's original meaning. For thousands of years, what is now Kansas was home to numerous and diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds of bison.

Charles "Buffalo" Jones Buffalo Hunter and Preservationist

Charles Jesse Jones, known as Buffalo Jones, was an American frontiersman, farmer, rancher, hunter, and conservationist who cofounded Garden City, Kansas. He has been cited by the National Archives as one of the "preservers of the American bison".

Bighorn sheep species of sheep native to North America

The bighorn sheep is a species of sheep native to North America named for its large horns. A pair of horns might weigh up to 14 kg (30 lb); the sheep weigh up to 140 kg (300 lb). Recent genetic testing indicates three distinct subspecies of Ovis canadensis, one of which is endangered: O. c. sierrae. Sheep originally crossed to North America over the Bering land bridge from Siberia; the population in North America peaked in the millions, and the bighorn sheep entered into the mythology of Native Americans. By 1900, the population had crashed to several thousand, due to diseases introduced through European livestock and overhunting.

In the mid-1950s, the zoo hired its first full-time permanent veterinarian, reflecting a priority placed on professional health care for the animals. In 1958, Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ) was founded. The citizen group's first accomplishment was to persuade Congress to fund the zoo's budget entirely through the Smithsonian; previously, the zoo's budget was divided between appropriations for the Smithsonian and the District of Columbia. Congressional funding placed the zoo on a firmer financial base, allowing for a period of growth and improvement. In 2006, Congress approved an additional $14.6 million for renovations in both facilities. [7] FONZ incorporated as a nonprofit organization and turned its attention to developing education and volunteer programs, supporting these efforts from its operation of concessions at the zoo, and expanding community support for the zoo through a growing membership [15] which annually raises between $4 million and $8 million for the zoo. [7]

In the early 1960s, the zoo turned its attention to breeding and studying threatened and endangered species. Although some zoo animals had been breeding and raising young, it was not understood why some species did so successfully while others did not. In 1965, the zoo created the zoological research division to study the reproduction, behavior, and ecology of zoo species, and to learn how best to meet the needs of the animals. [15]

In 1975, the zoo established the Conservation and Research Center (CRC). In 2010, the complex was renamed the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI), a title also used as an umbrella term for the scientific endeavors that take place on both campuses. On 3,200 acres (13 km2) in the Virginia countryside, rare species, such as Mongolian wild horses, scimitar-horned oryx, maned wolves, cranes, and others live and breed in spacious surroundings. SCBI's modern efforts emphasize reproductive physiology, analysis of habitat and species relationships, genetics, husbandry and the training of conservation scientists. [15]

The zoo's last hippopotamus, Happy, was transferred to Milwaukee County Zoo in 2009 to make space for Elephant Trails. [17]

Modern status

Expanding knowledge about the needs of zoo animals and commitment to their well being has changed the look of the National Zoo. Today, animals live in natural groupings rather than individually. Rare and endangered species, such as golden lion tamarins, Sumatran tigers, and sarus cranes, breed and raise their young – showing the success of the zoo's conservation and research programs. [15] The zoo's research team studies animals both in the wild and at the zoo. Its research encompasses reproductive biology, conservation biology, biodiversity monitoring, veterinary medicine, nutrition, behavior, ecology, and bird migration. [7]

The National Zoo has developed public-education programs to help students, teachers and families explore the intricacies of the animal world. The zoo also designed specialized programs to train wildlife professionals from around the world and to form a network to provide crucial support for international conservation. The National Zoo is at the forefront of the use of web technology and programming to expand its programs to an international virtual audience. [15]

The National Zoo has been the home to giant pandas since Ling-Ling and Hsing-Hsing arrived at the zoo in 1972. Since 2000, Mei Xiang and Tian Tian also lived there. On July 9, 2005, Mei Xiang gave birth to Tai Shan, who went to China in February 2010. On August 23, 2013, Mei Xiang gave birth to Bao Bao, who still resides at the zoo.[ needs update ] On August 22, 2015, Mei Xiang gave birth to Bei Bei, who still resides at the zoo. [15]

Plans for the future include modernizing the zoo's aging facilities and expanding its education, research and conservation efforts in Washington, Virginia and in the wild. As part of a 10-year renewal program, Asia Trail – a series of habitats for seven Asian species including sloth bears, red pandas, and clouded leopards – was created. Elephant Trails, opened in 2013, provides a new home for the zoo's Asian elephants. Kids' Farm exhibit, opened in 2004, was slated for closure in 2011 but is to remain open for another 10 years following a donation to the exhibit. [15] [18]

The zoo, which is supported by tax revenues and open to everyone, attracts 2 million visitors per year, according to the Washington Post in 2005.[ citation needed ]

The National Zoo has a Federal Law Enforcement Agency deployed on its grounds: the National Zoological Park Police (NZPP), which consists of full-time Law Enforcement Officers. The NZPP is an agency that has been recognized by the United States Congress and is one of five original police agencies within the District of Columbia with full police powers. They work very closely with the Metropolitan Police Department, the United States Park Police, Department of State, Capital Police, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and the Department of Defense. The agency is considered the first line of defense in the event of any crisis.[ citation needed ]

Dennis W. Kelly was named director of the zoo on February 15, 2010, overseeing both campuses. Kelly succeeded John Berry, who was the National Zoo director for three years until February 2009, when he resigned to become the director of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management under the Obama Administration. Steven Monfort, the zoo's associate director for conservation and science, served as the acting director between February 2009 and February 2010. Kelly retired as the zoo's director in November 2017, Steven Monfort was named acting director. [19]


Giant Panda Habitat

Tian Tian at the National Zoo Giant Panda at the zoo.jpg
Tian Tian at the National Zoo

The zoo's Giant Panda Habitat features three outdoor areas with animal enrichment, as well as an indoor area with a rocky outcrop, a waterfall, and viewing areas. The zoo's pandas, named Mei Xiang and Tian Tian, are on loan from the China Wildlife Conservation Association, and will live at the zoo until 2020. [18] They are the focus of a research, conservation, and breeding program that aims to preserve the species. Mei Xiang and Tian Tian successfully had a male cub, named Tai Shan, in 2005. Tai Shan currently lives at the Bifengxia Panda Base in Sichuan, China, taking part in Bifengxia's breeding program. On September 16, 2012, Mei Xiang gave birth to another cub, but the cub died six days after its birth. On August 23, 2013, Mei Xiang gave birth to two cubs; one, a female named Bao Bao, survived, while the other was stillborn. [20] The pandas live at the Fujifilm Giant Panda Habitat, a state-of-the-art indoor and outdoor exhibit. The exhibit is designed to replicate the rocky, lush terrain of the pandas' natural habitat. [7] Mei delivered two cubs in August 2015; one died a few days later. [21] Both cubs, fraternal twins, were sired by Tian Tian; the surviving male was given the name Bei Bei on September 25, 2015 and was on public exhibit in January 2016.

Asia Trail

A group of Asia-themed exhibits opened in 2006. Along with the giant pandas, the area also displays sloth bears, fishing cats, red pandas, a clouded leopard, Asian small-clawed otters, and Asian elephants. Next to the pandas is an exhibit for Japanese giant salamander. However, in mid-2016, the salamander died and the exhibit space is currently unoccupied; [22] the zoo keeps members of the species off-exhibit in the reptile house.

Elephant Trails

Asian elephant at the National Zoo Asian Elephant at the zoo.jpg
Asian elephant at the National Zoo

In spring 2008, the National Zoo began construction on Elephant Trails, a new home for its 7 Asian elephants. The first part of the $52 million project opened in September 2010, expanding the zoo's former elephant area with a 5,700-square-foot (530 m2) barn, two new yards (one with a pool), and a quarter-mile (400 m) walkway through woods, [23] a total of 1.9 acres (0.77 ha) of outdoor space, bringing the total size of Elephant Trails to 2 acres (0.81 ha). [24] Elephant Trails: A Campaign to Save Asian Elephants is a comprehensive breeding, education, and scientific research program. It is designed to help scientists care for elephants in zoos and save them in the wild. The Elephant House was closed to the public from September 14, 2009 until late March 2013 for construction of the second phase of Elephant Trails. This includes the Elephant Community Center, an indoor exhibit with many interpretive signs and graphics. [25]

Lemur Island

Lemurs at the National zoo Lemurs at the National zoo.jpg
Lemurs at the National zoo

Lemur Island is a moated island that is home to a group of ring-tailed lemurs, red-fronted lemurs and black-and-white ruffed lemurs. [26]

Uncle Beazley near Lemur Island Uncle Beazley - Paint job - Stierch.jpg
Uncle Beazley near Lemur Island

Uncle Beazley , a fiberglass Triceratops that Louis Paul Jonas created for the DinoLand pavilion at the 1964 New York World's Fair, can now be seen near the island. The life-size statue, which had been located on the National Mall near the National Museum of Natural History until 1994, is named for a dinosaur in the 1956 children's book, The Enormous Egg, by Oliver Butterworth and in the book's 1968 television movie adaptation, in which the statue appeared. [27]

The Small Mammal House

Dwarf mongoose at the National Zoo Dwarf Mongoose.jpg
Dwarf mongoose at the National Zoo

The majority of the zoo's smaller mammal species live in the Small Mammal House. The species on display include golden lion tamarins, golden-headed lion tamarins, pale-headed saki monkeys, Geoffroy's marmosets, red ruffed lemurs, black-footed ferrets, dwarf mongooses, meerkats, brush-tailed bettongs, striped skunks, La Plata three-banded armadillos, screaming hairy armadillos, sand cats, fennec foxs, naked mole-rats, southern tamanduas, rock hyraxs and several others. [28]

A sister pair of White-nosed coatis and a male, female pair of black howler monkeys can be found behind the building, while a pair of bennett's wallabies can be found along the side of the building.

Despite not being mammals, two Von der Decken's hornbills and a male green aracari can be found in the building.

The American Trail

The American Trail exhibit houses a variety of North American species. These include five California sea lions, four grey seals, one harbor seal, three North American beavers, two North American River Otters, two bald eagles, two common ravens, three brown pelicans, and two grey wolves. [29] After facing severe threats, the majority of American Trail species have rebounded thanks to conservation efforts. Many of the residents of American Trail have been listed as endangered. All of plants in the animal enclosures on American Trail exhibit are native to North America.

The exhibit also features a cafe called Seal Rock Cafe, which offers dishes crafted from local, seasonal, and sustainable ingredients. Menu items include Best Aquaculture Practices (BAP) certified shrimp and Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified fish. [30] The American Trail was recently renovated and reopened in late summer 2012.

The Great Ape House

Gorilla at the National Zoo Gorilla at the zoo.jpg
Gorilla at the National Zoo

The Great Ape House is separated into two sets of enclosures. One houses seven bornean orangutans (two males named Kiko and Kyle; four females named Lucy, Batang, Iris and Bonnie; and a male infant named Redd, born in 2016). The other houses seven western lowland gorillas (four males named Baraka, Kojo, Kwame and Moke; As well as three females named Mandara, Kibibi and Calaya). The orangutans are allowed access to the Think Tank (see below) by travelling along the "O-Line", a series of high cables supported by metal towers that enable the orangutans to move between the two buildings. Kyle, Batang and Redd are Bornean orangutans and Kiko, Lucy, Iris and Bonnie are all hybrid orangutans.

The Think Tank

Two orangutans crossing over visitors via the "O Line" DCZooOline.JPG
Two orangutans crossing over visitors via the "O Line"

The Think Tank is an area designed to educate visitors about how animals think and learn about their surroundings. The Think Tank features several interactive displays that teach visitors how zoologists conduct their studies. The zoo's orangutans (which are sometimes used in keeper demonstrations) are allowed to move from the Great Ape House to the Think Tank, and the building includes suitable enclosures for the apes should they choose to stay there. Other animals kept and studied in The Think Tank include brown rats, land hermit crabs, 4 Allen's swamp monkeys and 3 red-tailed monkeys. The zoo once had a population of Celebes crested macaques living in an outdoor cage.

Gibbon Ridge

Gibbon Ridge is an enclosure housing two different species of gibbon: two Northern white-cheeked gibbons (a male named Sydney and female named Tuyen), and two siamang (a male named Bradley and a female named Ronnie).

Great Cats on Lion and Tiger Hill

Great Cats is separated into three enclosures. The zoo rotates African lions, two Sumatran tigers (a female named Damai and a male named Sparky) and a male Amur Tiger named Pavel between the three exhibits.

One of the zoo's tigers, Soyono, was euthanized in November 2012. She was 19 years old, which is close to the limits of her life span. The tiger looked to be suffering from spondylosis, a degenerative spinal disorder, which afflicts big cats as they get older. [31]

On January 24, 2014, the zoo's 10-year-old female lion, Nababiep, gave birth to three cubs in an eight-hour period. Two of the cubs survived, and were the first lion cub litter born at the zoo in four years, the third for Nababiep, and the fourth for the eight-year-old father, Luke. The birth followed the birth of two rare Sumatran tiger cubs to mother Damai on August 5, 2013. [32] There are also two (currently indefinitely unoccupied) exhibits for bobcats and caracals.

The Cheetah Conservation Station

The Cheetah Conservation Station at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. National Zoological Park The Cheetah Conservation Station.jpg
The Cheetah Conservation Station at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C.
Scimitar horned oryx at the Cheetah Conservation Station Scimitar horned oryx at the national zoo.jpg
Scimitar horned oryx at the Cheetah Conservation Station
Lesser kudu at the National Zoo Kudu at the zoo.jpg
Lesser kudu at the National Zoo

This is an outdoor exhibit designed to mimic the African savanna and educate visitors about cheetahs and what is being done to preserve them in the wild. The main part of the Cheetah Conservation Station consists of two enclosures separated by a fence. One enclosures houses four South African cheetahs (both males; Justin/Gat [named for Justin Gatlin], Bakari, Donnie and Copley), while the other houses one male Grevy's zebra named Moyo. Other animals on display in the area include two scimitar-horned oryxs, four dama gazelles, two Rüppell's vultures, one sitatunga, three red river hogs, two male maned wolves named Mateo and Quito (a species native to South America), an Abyssinian ground hornbill and three lesser kudu. A female tammar wallaby named Maji had been on display until December 2013, when she was euthanized at the very old age of 18 (most do not live beyond 10). [33]

The Invertebrate Exhibit

This exhibit housed the zoo's collection of invertebrates. It was permanently closed to the public on June 22, 2014 due to inadequate funding. [34] The zoo has mentioned they eventually want to build a hall of biodiversity which will include invertebrates. The zoo's Bird House is currently under renovation and once complete some invertebrates (such as Horseshoe crabs) will be included. [35]


This South America-themed walk-through exhibit contains animal and plant species native to the Amazon basin. Animals on display include multiple species of freshwater stingrays, oscars, silver arowanas, Yellow-spotted Amazon river turtles, arapaimas, black pacus, red-bellied piranhas, white-eared titi monkeys, a Southern two-toed sloth, sunbitterns, red-crested cardinals, yellow-rumped caciques and many more.

The Amazonia science gallery is located on the lower level. Here visitors can learn about the zoo's efforts to protect species around the globe. Some of the species on display include Panamanian golden frogs, African clawed frogs, aquatic caecilians, barred tiger salamanders, grey tree frogs and many species of poison frogs. Located within the science gallery is the Coral lab. Many corals are on display along with clownfish, anemones, peacock mantis shrimp, warty frogfish and other species. [36]

The Electric Fishes Demonstration Lab features a five-foot long electric eel. Bluntnose knifefish, elephant-nose knifefish and black ghost knifefish are also featured.

The Reptile Discovery Center

Komodo dragon at the National Zoo Komodo Dragon at the zoo.jpg
Komodo dragon at the National Zoo

The zoo's reptile and amphibian house exhibits seventy species of reptiles and amphibians. These include Aldabra tortoises, radiated tortoises, spider tortoises, Cuban crocodiles, a Gharial, a Philippine crocodile, Eastern indigo snakes, Gaboon vipers, gila monsters, green anacondas, Burmese rock pythons, green tree pythons, Timor pythons, king cobras, northern copperheads, Eastern diamondback rattlesnakes, hellbenders, eastern red-backed salamanders, long-tailed salamanders, Alligator snapping turtles and many more.

Behind the building are exhibits for a Komodo dragon, Chinese alligators and a false gavial. In the front of the building is an exhibit for an American alligator named Wally. [37]

The Bird House

As of 2017, The Bird House is closed for renovations for "Experience Migration", an exhibition dedicated to migratory birds. [38] Experience Migration will open in 2021.

The Kids' Farm

The Kids' Farm is aimed primarily at children and housing domesticated livestock. The exhibit also features a "Pizza Garden" which grows traditional pizza ingredients. Animals kept in the Kids' Farm include alpacas, Ossabaw Island hogs, miniature Mediterranean donkeys, Hereford and Holstein cows, and Nigerian dwarf, Anglo-Nubian and San Clemente Island goats. In 2011, the zoo announced plans to close The Kids' Farm due to budgetary constraints. However, a $1.4 million donation from State Farm Insurance allowed the exhibit to remain open. [39]

American Bison Exhibit

Bison at the National Zoo Bison at the zoo.jpg
Bison at the National Zoo

The zoo opened a new American Bison Exhibit on August 30, 2014 as part of their 125th anniversary celebration. [40] The exhibit features two female bison, named Zora and Wilma, that were transported to the zoo earlier that year from the American Prairie Reserve in northeastern Montana. [41]

Other animals

Other animals in the zoo's collection include spectacled bears (near the Amazonia exhibit), Przewalski's horse, which is now gone] (in a yard adjacent to the Small Mammal house), North American porcupines (near the Great Cats exhibit), black-tailed prairie dogs (near the Great Cats exhibit) and Patagonian maras (near American Trail). [42]

Notable animals

Smokey Bear

Smokey Bear playing in his pool, sometime in the 1950s. SmokeyBear1.jpg
Smokey Bear playing in his pool, sometime in the 1950s.

One of the most famous animals to have spent much of his life at the zoo was Smokey Bear, the "living symbol" of the cartoon icon created as part of a campaign to prevent forest fires. A black bear cub rescued from a fire, he lived at the zoo from 1950 until his death in 1976. During his time at the zoo, he had millions of visitors and an abundance of personal mail addressed to him – up to 13,000 letters a week – such that the U.S. Post Office designated a special zip code for correspondence addressed to him. [43]

During his time at the zoo, he was "married" to Goldie Bear, with the hope that one of his offspring would continue to hold the title of Smokey Bear. When the pair produced no offspring, an orphaned bear cub was added to their cage. It was named "Little Smokey", with the announcement that the bear couple had "adopted" the new cub. In 1975, an official ceremony was held to recognize the retirement of Smokey Bear and the new title of "Smokey Bear II" for Little Smokey. [43] Upon the death of the original Smokey Bear, The Washington Post printed an obituary, recognizing him as a "New Mexico native" who had resided in Washington, D.C. for many years, working for the government. [44]

Giant pandas

Tai Shan at the National Zoo Panda National Zoo.jpg
Tai Shan at the National Zoo

Coming off the heels of President Richard Nixon's historic 1972 visit to China, the Chinese government donated two giant pandas, Ling-Ling (female) and Hsing-Hsing (male), to the official United States delegation. First Lady Pat Nixon donated the pandas to the zoo, where she welcomed them in an April 1972 ceremony. The first giant pandas in America, Ling-Ling and Hsing-Hsing were among the most popular animals at the zoo. [45] Ling-Ling died in 1992 and Hsing-Hsing in 1999. Although Ling Ling and Hsing Hsing had five cubs between 1983 and 1989, all died as infants. [46]

A new pair of pandas, female Mei Xiang ("Beautiful Fragrance") and male Tian Tian ("More and More"), arrived on loan from the Chinese government in late 2000. [47] The zoo paid an estimated 10 million dollars for the 10-year loan. On July 9, 2005, a male panda cub was born at the zoo. It was the first surviving panda birth at the zoo and the product of artificial insemination by the zoo's reproductive research team. The cub was named Tai Shan ("Peaceful Mountain") on October 17, 100 days after his birth; the panda went without a name for its first hundred days, in observance of a Chinese custom. Tai Shan is property of the Chinese government and was scheduled to be sent to China after his second birthday, although that deadline was extended in 2007 by two years. Tai Shan left Washington, D.C., on February 4, 2010, and was taken to the Ya'an Bifengxia Panda Base, part of the Wolong nature reserve's panda conservation center.

On September 16, 2012, Mei Xiang gave birth to another cub, believed by zoo officials to have been a female, which died after about a week. Initial results from a necropsy (animal autopsy) revealed the abnormal presence of fluid in the abdomen and also discoloration of the liver (hepatic) tissue of unknown etiology; the cub had managed to nurse before death because milk was found in its system. Zoo officials said that, while upsetting, they (and, by extension, the public) can hope to learn more about giant panda breeding, reproduction, and health as a result, and will work closely and cooperatively with their Chinese colleagues during the inquiry.[ citation needed ]

In January 2011, Dennis Kelly, director of the National Zoo, and Zang Chunlin, secretary general of the China Wildlife Conservation Association, signed a new Giant Panda Cooperative Research and Breeding Agreement, extending the zoo's giant panda program for five more years, further cementing the two countries' commitment to the conservation of the species. The new agreement, effective through December 5, 2015, stipulates that the zoo will conduct research in the areas of breeding and cub behavior.[ needs update ]

In the summer of 2013, Mei Xiang gave birth to a live female panda cub (Tian Tian is the father; a second cub was stillborn), named Bao Bao ("treasure" or "precious"; decided through a naming contest) on the 100th day of her existence. As of January 18,2014, Bao Bao is on public exhibit and drawing crowds, greatly increasing zoo attendance and on-line views via PandaCam.

Mei Xiang gave birth in August 2015 to two live cubs; the smaller one died a few days later (keepers had to care for it after Mei decided to focus on the larger cub). Sperm from both Tian Tian and another male giant panda based in a China preserve was used. It was determined on August 28, 2015 [48] that both cubs were male and sired by Tian Tian. The larger, surviving cub was named Bei Bei [49] ("precious treasure") on September 25, 2015. In celebration of a state visit, the name was selected by First Lady of the United States, Michelle Obama, and First Lady of the People's Republic of China, Peng Liyuan.

Bao Bao was healthy at that time, eating bamboo and special fruitsicle treats, having been separated from Mei at 18 months of age. She celebrated her second birthday in August 2015, shortly after the cubs were born. Her contract extended to August 2017. Bao Bao left the National zoo on February 22, 2017 for the Dujiangyan base of the China Panda Conservation and Research Center. [50]

Special programs and events

In partnership with Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ), a non-profit organization, the zoo holds annual fund raisers (ZooFari, Guppy Gala, and Boo at the Zoo) and free events (Sunset Serenades, Fiesta Musical). Proceeds support animal care, conservation science, education and sustainability at the National Zoo. [51] [52]

Zoolights event at the National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C. National Zoological Park Zoolights.jpg
Zoolights event at the National Zoological Park in Washington, D.C.

Friends of the National Zoo

Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ), the zoo's membership program, is the partner of the National Zoological Park that has been providing support to wildlife conservation programs at the zoo and around the world since 1958. FONZ members receive free parking, discounts at the zoo's stores and restaurants, and Smithsonian Zoogoer, a magazine with the latest zoo news, research and photos. [53] [54]

FONZ's 40,000 members include about 20,000 families, largely in the Washington metropolitan area, and more than 1,000 volunteers. FONZ provides guest services, development support, education and outreach programs, concessions management, and financial support for research and conservation. FONZ also offers a summer day-camp at the Rock Creek Park facility, and a residential nature camp at SCBI in Front Royal. [53]

Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute

The Smithsonian established its Conservation Biology Institute (SCBI) in 2010 to serve as an umbrella for its global effort to conserve species and train future generations of conservationists. Headquartered in Front Royal, Virginia, the facility was previously known as the National Zoo's Conservation and Research Center. [55]

The SCBI facilitates and promotes research programs based at Front Royal, at the National Zoo in Washington and at field research and training sites around the world. Its efforts support one of the four main goals of the Smithsonian's new strategic plan, which advances "understanding and sustaining a biodiverse planet." [55]

Conservation biology is a field of science based on the premise that the conservation of biological diversity is important and benefits current and future human societies. [55]

The Institute consists of six centers: [55]


See also

Related Research Articles

Bronx Zoo Metropolitan zoo in the Bronx, New York City

The Bronx Zoo is a zoo located within Bronx Park in the Bronx, a borough of New York City. It is one of the largest zoos in the United States by area, comprising 265 acres (107 ha) of park lands and naturalistic habitats separated by the Bronx River. On average, the zoo has 2.15 million visitors each year as of 2009.

San Diego Zoo zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California, United States

The San Diego Zoo is a zoo in Balboa Park, San Diego, California, housing over more than 3,500 animals of more than 650 species and subspecies. Its parent organization, San Diego Zoo Global, is one of the largest zoological membership associations in the world, with more than 250,000 member households and 130,000 child memberships, representing more than a half million people. The San Diego Zoo was a pioneer in the concept of open-air, cageless exhibits that re-create natural animal habitats. It is one of the few zoos in the world that houses, and successfully breeds the giant panda. In 2013, the zoo added a new Australian Outback exhibit, providing an updated Australian animal experience. Another new exhibit, called Africa Rocks, opened in 2017.

Woodland Park Zoo zoo in the United States

Woodland Park Zoo is a zoological garden located in the Phinney Ridge neighborhood of Seattle, Washington.

Whipsnade Zoo zoo near Dunstable in Bedfordshire, England

ZSL Whipsnade Zoo, formerly known as Whipsnade Wild Animal Park, is a zoo and safari park located at Whipsnade, near Dunstable in Bedfordshire, England. It is one of two zoos that are owned by the Zoological Society of London (ZSL), a charity devoted to the worldwide conservation of animals and their habitats.

Zoo Atlanta zoo

Zoo Atlanta is an Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) accredited zoological park in Atlanta, Georgia. The current President and CEO of Zoo Atlanta is Raymond B. King.

Tai Shan (giant panda) male giant panda

Tai Shan is a giant panda born at the National Zoo in Washington D.C. on July 9, 2005 at 3:41 AM. He is the first panda cub born at the National Zoo to survive for more than a few days.

Edmonton Valley Zoo

The Edmonton Valley Zoo is a zoo located in the heart of Edmonton, Alberta's river valley. The Edmonton Valley Zoo is owned and operated by the City of Edmonton and is open 364 days a year, closing only on Christmas. The zoo is currently accredited by the Canadian Association of Zoos and Aquariums and is one of three accredited zoos in Alberta.

Rosamond Gifford Zoo

The Rosamond Gifford Zoo at Burnet Park is a zoo in Syracuse, New York. It is owned and operated by Onondaga County Parks with support from Friends of the Zoo. The zoo is home to more than 700 animals on 43 acres (17 ha). Some of the more popular animals include Asian elephants, Humboldt penguins, and Amur tigers. The zoo also houses a conservation education center, banquet/meeting space, Jungle Cafe, and gift shop.

Woburn Safari Park safari park located in Woburn, Bedfordshire, England

Woburn Safari Park is a safari park located in Woburn, Bedfordshire, England. Visitors to the park can drive through exhibits, which contain species such as southern white rhino, elephants, tigers and black bears. It is part of the estates of the Duke of Bedford that also includes Woburn Abbey and its 3,000-acre (1,200 ha) deer park. The Safari Park itself covers 360 acres (150 ha).

Mei Xiang female giant panda

Mei Xiang is a female giant panda who lives at the National Zoo in Washington D.C.

Ling-Ling and Hsing-Hsing Pandas given to the US by China after Nixons 1972 visit

Ling-Ling (1969–92) and Hsing-Hsing (1970–99) were two giant pandas given to the United States as gifts by the government of China following President Richard Nixon's visit in 1972. As a gift, the U.S. government sent China a pair of musk oxen.

Tian Tian (male giant panda) male giant panda

Tian Tian is a 275-pound male giant panda at the National Zoo in Washington D.C. The panda was born on August 27, 1997, at the China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda at the Wolong National Nature Reserve in Sichuan Province, to Yong Ba (mother) and Pan Pan (father). Tian Tian is the half-brother of the San Diego Zoo's Bai Yun.

Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding non-profit research and breeding facility

Chengdu Research Base of Giant Panda Breeding, or simply Chengdu Panda Base, is a non-profit research and breeding facility for giant pandas and other rare animals. It is located in Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

Bao Bao female giant panda

Bao Bao is a female giant panda cub who was born at the National Zoo in Washington D.C. She was at the Zoo until February 2017, when she traveled to the China Conservation and Research Center for the Giant Panda in Sichuan Province.

Janine L. Brown is a scientist specializing in the reproductive biology of endangered species. She is the head of the National Zoological Park's Endocrine Research Laboratory at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute. Brown has been called "a world authority on elephant reproductive biology" and is in charge of the elephant reproduction program at the National Zoological Park.

Bei Bei Giant panda at the US National Zoo

Bei Bei is a male giant panda cub who lives at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C., in the United States. He is part of US-China relations panda diplomacy and will have to be sent to the People's Republic of China at the age of 4. He is the brother of both Tai Shan and Bao Bao.

Conservation and restoration at the Smithsonian Institution deals with the care of the 138 million artifacts located in the collections of Smithsonian Institution. Work is conducted by one research center, the Museum Conservation Institute (MCI), and by conservators at the Smithsonian's museums, galleries, zoo. Smithsonian conservators provide myriad services to their units, including exhibit preparation of the museum collection and loan objects, advising on object care, training for future generations of conservationists, engaging in routine preventive care on a daily basis, conducting research projects related to the collections, and examining objects for evidence of manufacturing techniques and previous restorations All conservation labs collectively further the mission of the Smithsonian Institution, "the increase and diffusion of knowledge." Founded in 1846 the Smithsonian is the world's largest museum and research complex, consisting of 19 museums and galleries, the National Zoological Park, and nine research facilities.


  1. "Proposed Location for a Zoological Park Along Rock Creek". Ghosts of D.C. April 12, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  2. 1 2 3 "About Us". National Zoological Park. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  3. 1 2 3 "Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute". National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on June 11, 2007. Retrieved July 13, 2007.
  4. "Currently Accredited Zoos and Aquariums". AZA . Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  5. "Mission". National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on May 26, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  6. "By MetroRail". National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "National Zoo Facts and Figures". Archived from the original on August 20, 2014.
  8. "History of the National Zoo – National Zoo- FONZ".
  9. "National Zoo Species". National Zoological Park. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  10. 1 2 "National Zoological Park". Smithsonian Institution Archives. Archived from the original on November 11, 2014.
  11. "National Zoo on Twitter: "Happy #PresidentsDay! On March 2, 1889, President Grover Cleveland signed a bill passed by Congress that officially established the National Zoo! American bison, our #NationalMammal, were among the 1st species in our care. This photo was taken at the @smithsonian b/t 1887 & 1889.…". Twitter . 2018-02-19. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  12. "On March 2, 1889, President Grover... - Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute - Facebook". Facebook . 2014-03-02. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  13. "American Bison Exhibit - Smithsonian's National Zoo". Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  14. "Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts Pg. 26 - Google Books". Google Books . 1906. Retrieved 2019-01-14.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "History". National Zoological Park. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  16. Anderson, H. Allen (August 2000). "Buffalo Jones". H-net Online. Archived from the original on March 6, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  17. Ruane, Michael E. (November 12, 2009). "For Happy the hippo, moving from Washington to Milwaukee has been a pleasure". Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  18. 1 2 "Pandas Will Live in D.C. Until (At Least) 2020". Washington City Paper. Retrieved 2016-11-09.
  19. "Leadership Change at Smithsonian's National Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute". Smithsonian's National Zoo. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  20. Dazio, Stefanie E.; Ruane, Michael E. (August 28, 2013). "Panda cub born to Mei Xiang at National Zoo". The Washington Post.
  21. Ruane, Michael E.; Koh, Elizabeth; Weil, Martin (August 23, 2015). "National Zoo's giant panda Mei Xiang gives birth to two cubs hours apart". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  22. "Japanese Giant Salamander Dies at the Smithsonian's National Zoo". Smithsonian's National Zoo. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  23. Ruane, Michael E. (September 3, 2010). "National Zoo debuts new, larger home for elephants". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  24. "Elephant Trails". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on March 7, 2013. Retrieved March 6, 2013.
  25. Barron, Christina (March 26, 2013). "Elephants move into new community center at the National Zoo". The Washington Post.
  26. (1) "Lemurs at the Smithsonian National Zoo". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Lemur Conservation Network. 2015. Retrieved August 5, 2016. The Smithsonian's National Zoo currently houses four species of lemurs: black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegate), ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and red-fronted lemurs (Eulemur rufus) in their mixed species Lemur Island exhibit, ... .
    (2) "Meet the Lemurs: Lemur Island". Meet Our Animals. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on June 29, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2016. Three lemur species live at the Zoo. Ring-tailed lemurs and a pair of red-fronted lemurs live on Lemur Island. ... .
    (3) "Visiting Lemur Island at the Smithsonian's National Zoo" (PDF). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 7, 2015. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  27. (1) Goode, James M. (1974). Uncle Beazley. The Outdoor Sculpture of Washington, D.C.: A Comprehensive Historical Guide. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 260. ISBN   9780881032338. OCLC   2610663 . Retrieved 2016-07-04. This 25-foot long replica of a Triceratops ... was placed on the Mall in 1967. ...
    The full-size Triceratops replica and eight other types of dinosaurs were designed by two prominent paleontologists, Dr. Barnum Brown of the American Museum of Natural History, in New York City, and Dr. John Ostrom of the Peabody Museum, in Peabody, Massachusetts. The sculptor, Louis Paul Jonas, executed these prehistoric animals in fiberglass, after the designs of Barnum and Ostrom, for the Sinclair Refining Company's Pavilion at the New York World's Fair of 1964. After the Fair closed, the nine dinosaurs, which weighed between 2 and 4 tons each, were placed on trucks and taken on a tour of the eastern United States. The Sinclair Refining Company promoted the tour for public relations and advertising purposes, since their trademark was the dinosaur. In 1967, the nine dinosaurs were given to various American museums.
    This particular replica was used for the filming of The Enormous Egg, a movie made by the National Broadcasting Company for television, based on a children's book of the same name by Oliver Butterworth. The movie features an enormous egg, out of which hatches a baby Tricerotops; the boy consults with the Smithsonian Institution which accepts Uncle Beasley for the National Zoo.

    (2) "A Dinosaur at the Zoo". Art at the National Zoo. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on June 12, 2007. Retrieved July 1, 2016.
  28. "Small Mammal House". Smithsonian's National Zoo. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  29. "American Trail". Smithsonian's National Zoo. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  30. "The Newest Exhibit Area at the Smithsonian's National Zoo". Smithsonian's National Zoo. Archived from the original on February 25, 2013. Retrieved January 25, 2013.
  31. Weil, Martin (November 25, 2012). "National Zoo mourns loss of Soyono, Sumatran tiger". The Washington Post. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  32. "Great Cat Exhibit – National Zoo".
  33. "Cheetah Conservation Station". Smithsonian's National Zoo. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  34. "National Zoo's Invertebrate Exhibit to Close June 22". Archived from the original on June 20, 2014. Retrieved June 23, 2014.
  35. "Experience Migration Project". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  36. "Amazonia". Smithsonian's National Zoo. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  37. "Reptile Discovery Center". Smithsonian's National Zoo. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  38. "Experience Migration". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Retrieved June 30, 2017.
  39. Jennifer Doren (July 20, 2011). "Generous Gift Keeps Kids' Farm Open". NBC 4 Washington. Retrieved June 17, 2015.
  40. Ileana Najarro (August 27, 2014). "National Zoo's American bison are named: Zora and Wilma". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  41. Kitson Jazynka (September 2, 2014). "Bison return to National Zoo". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  42. "Meet the Animals". Smithsonian's National Zoo. Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  43. 1 2 Bennicoff, Tad (May 27, 2010). "Bearly Survived to become an Icon". Smithsonian Institution Archives. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  44. Kelly, John (April 25, 2010). "The biography of Smokey Bear: the cartoon came first". Washington Post.
  45. Byron, Jimmy (February 1, 2011). "Pat Nixon and Panda Diplomacy". Richard Nixon Foundation. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  46. Bennefield, Robin M. (April 16, 1972). "Ling Ling and Hsing Hsing : Meet the Pandas : Animal Planet". Discovery Communications, LLC. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  47. Handwerk, Brian (January 9, 2001). "Panda "Ambassadors" Introduced to Washington, D.C." National Geographic News. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  48. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  49. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 19, 2015. Retrieved November 5, 2015.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  50. "Keeper's diary: Bao Bao's challenge after her return from America". Retrieved July 10, 2018.
  51. "Upcoming Events". National Zoological Park. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  52. "Activities". National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  53. 1 2 "FONZ Fact Sheet". National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on April 15, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  54. "Smithsonian Zoogoer". National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on May 13, 2012. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  55. 1 2 3 4 "Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute". National Zoological Park. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  56. "Changed Veterinary Records". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  57. "Response From Chief Veterinarian Suzan Murray About Changes to Veterinary Notes". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  58. "Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics of the AVMA". American Veterinary Medical Association. Archived from the original on May 10, 2012. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  59. Pegg, J.R. (February 26, 2004). "Experts Blast National Zoo Management, Director Resigns". CBS News. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  60. Strauss, Valerie (July 6, 2003). "Bald Eagle Killed in Attack at National Zoo: Nation's Emblem of Freedom Dies on Independence Day After Fight With Unknown Animal". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 29, 2007.
  61. Witte, Griff (July 19, 2003). "Crafty Fox No Surprise, But Attack Is a Stumper". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 29, 2007.[ dead link ]
  62. "Third death this month at National Zoo". WTOP News. March 31, 2005. Archived from the original on February 9, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2012.
  63. Committee on the Review of the Smithsonian (January 2005). "Animal Care and Management at the National Zoo: Final Report" (PDF). ISBN   0-309-09583-2. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 16, 2005. Retrieved July 12, 2017. In total, the committee evaluated 74% of all megavertebrate deaths that occurred at the National Zoo from 1999 to 2003. The committee concluded that in a majority of cases, the animal received appropriate care throughout its lifetime. In particular, the committee’s evaluation of randomly sampled megavertebrate deaths at the Rock Creek Park facility revealed few questions about the appropriateness of these animals’ care, suggesting that the publicized animal deaths were not indicative of a wider, undiscovered problem with animal care at the Rock Creek Park facility.
  64. "National Zoo Faulted; Chief Quits". CBS News. February 25, 2004. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
  65. 1 2 Wilgoren, Debbi (December 23, 2006). "What's New at the National Zoo?". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 23, 2010.