Smithsonian Affiliations

Last updated

Smithsonian Affiliations
Smithsonian Affiliations color logo under Smithsonian Institution sunburst.tiff
Location Washington, D.C.
Director Myriam Springuel [1]

Smithsonian Affiliations is a division of the Smithsonian Institution that establishes long-term partnerships with non-Smithsonian museums and educational and cultural organizations, in order to share collections, exhibitions and educational strategies and conduct joint research.


Partner organizations are known as "Smithsonian Affiliates" and are allowed to use the tag line "In Association with the Smithsonian Institution" and the approved Smithsonian Affiliations logo on their website, programming, and marketing material. [2] [3] Any 501(c)(3) nonprofit or publicly operated educational entity can apply to become a Smithsonian Affiliate. [4]


The Smithsonian Affiliations program was established in 1996 by Smithsonian Secretary I. Michael Heyman [5] [6] with the approval of the Smithsonian Board of Regents, in response to several challenges the Institution faced at the time: a decrease in federal funding, limited storage space for expanding collections, and the need to make the Institution more reflective of the nation without operating additional museums outside of Washington, D.C. [7]

Commission on the Future of the Smithsonian Institution

In 1993, the Commission on the Future of the Smithsonian Institution introduced the first proposal for initiatives promoting strategic, collections-based partnerships at the Institution. The Commission, composed of 22 members appointed by the Smithsonian Board of Regents, was charged with examining the Institution's ability to uphold James Smithson's vision of an organization dedicated to "the increase and diffusion of knowledge" despite a changing society and increasing financial hardships. Of the four initiatives proposed by the Commission: Educate More of the Nation's People; Collections, Research and Exhibitions; Governance; and Assure the Future, two directly called for the creation of strategic partnerships and making artifacts in the collections accessible to other museums. [8]

To Educate More of the Nation's People: "Build collaborative partnerships with other museums, research centers, and educational institutions throughout the nation." [8]

Collections, Research and Exhibitions: "Shape a master plan for maintenance of the priceless collections, including the sharing of collections through long-term or permanent loans to partner institutions." [8]

Significant emphasis was placed on the benefits that partnerships with outside museums would create for the Institution. By dispersing artifacts to museums in a responsible way, the Commission believed it, "could make the Institution more reflective of our nation… [as well as] address the problem of storing, curating, studying, and exhibiting the constantly growing collections." [8]

Creating Smithsonian Affiliations

In 1996, during his second year as Secretary, Heyman observed several challenges facing the Institution. Closely aligned with the announcements presented by the "Commission on the Future of the Smithsonian Institution" in 1993, Heyman was faced with the challenges of dwindling storage for expanding collections, decreasing funds, and the need to reinforce the Smithsonian's identity as the nation's museum. In addition, the Institution began to see increased interest from outside museums for partnerships and loans of artifacts that extended beyond standing practices. Although collaborative agreements in the form of traveling exhibitions, joint exhibition sponsorship, and loans had been entered in the past by different Smithsonian museums, no infrastructure existed to provide institution-wide oversight and coordination of such partnerships. Heyman responded to these challenges by creating the Smithsonian Affiliations program to oversee and manage collections-based partnerships with other museums. As stated by the minutes from the Smithsonian Board of Regents meeting housed in the Smithsonian Institution Archives, the program was formally approved by the Board of Regents on September 15, 1996.

Using the occasion of the Smithsonian Institution's 150th Anniversary, Smithsonian Affiliations was one of several outreach initiatives introduced by Heyman to expand the Institution's reach nationally. [9] In addition to the Affiliations program, the Institution became more accessible through its presence on the World Wide Web and through the largest traveling exhibition Smithsonian ever mounted, America's Smithsonian. [10] Secretary Heyman made formal announcements about the Affiliations program while delivering opening remarks for the Smithsonian's 150th Birthday Party on the Mall and in a number of cities for the opening of America's Smithsonian:

"The Smithsonian of the future must provide access to its collections and its vast resources. There is no value in being just the largest if we do not share the Smithsonian with as many people as possible. It means making sure those who cannot travel to Washington can somehow experience and enjoy the Smithsonian." – Secretary I. Michael Heyman [11]

Growth of the program

The program was received by museums across the country. The end of the fiscal year 1997 recognized 21 organizations as Affiliates. [12] As of 2017, there are over 200 Affiliates. [13]

Program overview

Smithsonian Affiliations considers membership proposals from organizations that will advance the Smithsonian Institution's mission and strategic plan. Successful applicants are non-profit or publicly operated organizations whose missions are directed toward advancing research, knowledge, and education in science, history, and the arts. The guidelines of Smithsonian Affiliations establishes that the Smithsonian Institution maintain appropriate control over all collections loaned and that Affiliates cover all costs associated with borrowing and exhibiting objects. [14] To qualify as an Affiliate, an organization must prove that it is able to properly care for, protect, and exhibit Smithsonian collections on a long-term basis. Strong applicants are organizations that are fiscally sound and capable of developing, installing, and evaluating professional exhibitions.

While serving as an Affiliate, organizations are required to grant Smithsonian Institution curators and personnel access to visit borrowed artifacts, provide the Smithsonian with reports and information necessary to monitor the state of the partnership, and uphold the integrity of the Board of Regents. [15] [16]

Becoming an Affiliate

To become an Affiliate, organizations must submit an application package to Smithsonian Affiliations. Applicants are required to provide documentation that confirms IRS status as a 501(c)3 entity and a narrative detailing how the agreement will be mutually beneficial. Applications must also include a copy of the institution's mission statement, an organizational chart, an annual report, and a facilities report that follows the American Alliance of Museums format. Once approved, Affiliates are required to sign a Smithsonian Affiliations Agreement form and are assigned a National Outreach Manager to oversee loans and projects. All loan agreements are set for defined period of time. [17]

Programs and professional development

Affiliate organizations participate in a number of professional training, outreach, and programming initiatives coordinated by the Smithsonian Affiliations office. [18]

Educational collaborations

The Smithsonian Affiliations program supports, develops, and organizes a number of collaborative programs to promote education in science, art, history, and culture.

List of Affiliates by state/country

A [26]



















Affiliate organizations exchange ideas, professional research, and information about programming and exhibitions through a variety of activities including lecture, traveling exhibitions, workshops and reciprocal membership.

Social media

Affiliate organizations share research, exhibitions, and institutional updates through a variety of social media including the Smithsonian Affiliations website, [27] the Affiliate Blog, [28] the quarterly newsletter The Affiliate, [29] the electronic newsletter E-Affiliate, [30] YouTube, Flickr, Facebook and Twitter.

Loans and exhibitions

The following are representative samples of loans of artifacts, works of art, and scientific specimens loaned by the Smithsonian Institution to Smithsonian Affiliate organizations.

The National Museum of American History loaned the Pioneer (locomotive), a Civil War-era locomotive, to the B&O Railroad Museum in Baltimore, Maryland for the exhibit The War Came by Train. [31]

Thomas Moran's painting The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, in the collection of the Smithsonian American Art Museum, was loaned to the Buffalo Bill Historical Center in Cody, Wyoming. The massive painting was on view from June 1, 2009 through October 31, 2009. [32]

Artifacts from the Bisbee Mineral Collection at the National Museum of Natural History were loaned to the Bisbee Mining and Historical Museum in Bisbee, Arizona for use in the exhibit Digging In: Bisbee's Mineral Heritage. [33]

Over 140 space objects, including the original Apollo 13 command module and the space suit worn by commanding astronaut James Lovell, were loaned to the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center in Hutchinson, Kansas. [34]

The Durham Museum in Omaha, Nebraska borrowed 174 artifacts for the exhibit American Originals: Collections from the Smithsonian. Borrowed artifacts included the jacket worn by Bob Keeshan while filming the children's television series, Captain Kangaroo, a three-wheel Westcoaster Mailster used by the United States Postal Service in the 1960s, and two oil on canvass paintings of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall and Seneca Chief Red Jacket. [35]

The National Museum of American History loaned Kermit the Frog to the National Mississippi River Museum and Aquarium in Dubuque, Iowa for use in the exhibit Toadally Frogs! [36]

The Annmarie Sculpture Garden in Solomons, Maryland has over 20 sculptures on loan from the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. [37]

The National Museum of Natural History loaned the Smithsonian Community Reef to the Putnam Museum and IMAX Theatre in Davenport, Iowa. The reef is composed of thousands of crocheted natural reef forms and was a highlight of the Sant Ocean Hall exhibit at the National Museum of Natural History . [38]

"The Peoria Falcon," a sheet of copper stylized in the form of a falcon, was loaned to the Lakeview Museum of Arts and Sciences (now Peoria Riverfront Museum) in Peoria, Illinois by the National Museum of Natural History. The artifact was created during the Mississippian Period and excavated near Peoria, Illinois in the late 1850s. [39]

The National Postal Museum loaned the Railway Post Office to the North Carolina Transportation Museum in Spencer, North Carolina. [40]

The National Museum of Natural History loaned an 18-karat gold Monopoly set covered with precious gemstones to the Museum of American Finance in New York, New York. The board game was designed by artist Sidney Mobell. [41]

The National Museum of Natural History loaned the skeleton of the racehorse, "Lexington," to the International Museum of the Horse in Lexington, Kentucky [42]

The top hat worn by president Abraham Lincoln on the night of his assassination was loaned to the Blackhawk Museum in Danville, California by the National Museum of American History. [43]

The exhibit, Smithsonian Expeditions: Exploring Latin American and the Caribbean at the Miami Museum of Science, borrowed several artifacts from the National Museum of Natural History including painted gourds and a 5-foot tall monolith from the Nicaraguan island of Momotombito. [44]

The Historic Arkansas Museum borrowed over 40 artifacts from the National Museum of the American Indian for the exhibit We Walk in Two Worlds: The Caddo, Osage and Quapaw in Arkansas. [45]

The Smithsonian American Art Museum loaned three José Campeche paintings to the Museo de Arte de Puerto Rico in San Juan, Puerto Rico. [46]

The Senator John Heinz History Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania has on loan from the National Museum of American History a Bantam Jeep and a piece of the original Star Spangled Banner Flag. [47]

Yokohama prints from the Freer Gallery of Art and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery were loaned to the Japanese American National Museum in Los Angeles, California for the exhibit Japan After Perry: Views of Yokohama and Meiji Japan. [48]

The National Postal Museum loaned stamp designs and drawings created by president Franklin D. Roosevelt to the Blackhawk Museum in Danville, California. [49]

Related Research Articles

Museum Institution that holds artifacts and other items of scientific, artistic, cultural or historical importance

A museum is a building or institution that cares for and displays a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, cultural, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary. The largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities, towns, and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from the conservation and documentation of their collection, serving researchers and specialists to catering to the general public. The goal of serving researchers is not only scientific, but intended to serve the general public.

Smithsonian Institution US group of museums and research centers

The Smithsonian Institution, or simply, the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and research centers, the largest such complex in the world, created by the U.S. government "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge". Founded on August 10, 1846, it operates as a trust instrumentality and is not formally a part of any of the three branches of the federal government. The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson. It was originally organized as the United States National Museum, but that name ceased to exist administratively in 1967.

Curator Content specialist charged with an institutions collections and involved with the interpretation of heritage material

A curator is a manager or overseer. When working with cultural organizations, a curator is typically a "collections curator" or an "exhibitions curator", and has multifaceted tasks dependent on the particular institution and its mission. In recent years the role of curator has evolved alongside the changing role of museums, and the term "curator" may designate the head of any given division. More recently, new kinds of curators have started to emerge: "community curators", "literary curators", "digital curators" and "biocurators".

National Museum of American History Museum in Washington, D.C., United States

The National Museum of American History: Kenneth E. Behring Center collects, preserves, and displays the heritage of the United States in the areas of social, political, cultural, scientific, and military history. Among the items on display is the original Star-Spangled Banner. The museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution and located on the National Mall at 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW in Washington, D.C.

National Museum of Natural History Natural history museum in Washington, D.C.

The National Museum of Natural History is a natural history museum administered by the Smithsonian Institution, located on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., United States. It has free admission and is open 364 days a year. In 2016, with 7.1 million visitors, it was the eleventh most visited museum in the world and the most visited natural history museum in the world. Opened in 1910, the museum on the National Mall was one of the first Smithsonian buildings constructed exclusively to hold the national collections and research facilities. The main building has an overall area of 1.5 million square feet (140,000 m2) with 325,000 square feet (30,200 m2) of exhibition and public space and houses over 1,000 employees.

Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience Ethnic history museum in Washington, U.S.

The Wing Luke Museum of the Asian Pacific American Experience is a history museum in Seattle, Washington, United States, which focuses on the culture, art and history of Asian Pacific Americans. It is located in the city's Chinatown-International District. Established in 1967, the museum is a Smithsonian Institution affiliate and the only pan-Asian Pacific American community-based museum in the country. It has relocated twice since its founding, most recently to the East Kong Yick Building in 2008. In February 2013 it was recognized as one of two dozen affiliated areas of the U.S. National Park Service.

Buffalo Bill Center of the West American West museums in Wyoming, United States

The Buffalo Bill Center of the West, formerly known as the Buffalo Bill Historical Center, is a complex of five museums and a research library featuring art and artifacts of the American West located in Cody, Wyoming. The five museums include the Buffalo Bill Museum, the Plains Indians Museum, the Whitney Western Art Museum, the Draper Natural History Museum, and the Cody Firearms Museum. Founded in 1917 to preserve the legacy and vision of Col. William F. "Buffalo Bill" Cody, the Buffalo Bill Center of the West is the oldest and most comprehensive museum complex of the West. It has been described by The New York Times as "among the nation's most remarkable museums."

California Science Center Science museum in Los Angeles, California

The California Science Center is a state agency and museum located in Exposition Park, Los Angeles, next to the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County and the University of Southern California. Billed as the West Coast's largest hands-on science center, the California Science Center is a public-private partnership between the State of California and the California Science Center Foundation. The California Natural Resources Agency oversees the California Science Center and the California African American Museum. Founded in 1951 as the "California Museum of Science and Industry", the Museum was remodeled and renamed in 1998 as the "California Science Center". The California Science Center hosts the California State Science Fair annually.

National Museum of the American Indian Act 1989 United States law

The National Museum of the American Indian Act (NMAI) was enacted on November 28, 1989, as Public Law 101-185. The law established the National Museum of the American Indian as part of the Smithsonian Institution. The law also required the Secretary of the Smithsonian to prepare an inventory of all Indian and Native Hawaiian human remains and funerary objects in Smithsonian collections, as well as expeditiously return these items upon the request of culturally affiliated federally recognized Indian tribes and Native Hawaiian organizations.

African American Museum in Philadelphia

The African American Museum in Philadelphia (AAMP) is notable as the first museum funded and built by a municipality to help preserve, interpret and exhibit the heritage of African Americans. Opened during the 1976 Bicentennial celebrations, the AAMP is located in historic Philadelphia on Arch Street, a few blocks away from the Liberty Bell.

Anchorage Museum Museum in Anchorage, Alaska

The Anchorage Museum is a large art, history, ethnography, ecology and science museum located in a modern building in the heart of Anchorage, Alaska. It is dedicated to studying and exploring the land, peoples, art and history of Alaska.

Blackhawk Museum

The Blackhawk Museums is a group of museums in Danville, California, best known for its significant collection of classic, rare, and unique automobiles. The museum is a not-for-profit 501(c)3 private operating foundation.


HistoryMiami Museum, formerly known as the Historical Museum of Southern Florida, is a museum located in Downtown Miami, Florida, United States. HistoryMiami Museum is the largest history museum in the State of Florida. HistoryMiami houses four permanent galleries and up to three traveling exhibits, Archives and Research Center, the South Florida Folklife Center, the Education Center, and City Tours program. Each February, HistoryMiami also hosts the annual Miami International Map Fair, the largest map fair in the Western Hemisphere.

Museum of Arts and Sciences (Daytona Beach)

The Museum of Arts and Sciences, often referred to as MOAS, is a museum in Daytona Beach, Florida, United States. The museum is a member of the American Alliance of Museums and an affiliate of the Smithsonian Institution. It is home to over 30,000 objects, making it one of the largest museums in central Florida.

Richard Kurin

Richard Kurin, an American cultural anthropologist, museum official and author, is the Acting Provost and Under Secretary for Museums and Research at the Smithsonian Institution. He is a key member of the senior team managing the world's largest museum and research complex with 6,500 employees and a $1.4 billion annual budget, caring for more than 139 million specimens, artifacts and artworks, working in 145 countries around the globe, hosting some 30 million visitors a year, and reaching hundreds of millions online and through the Smithsonian's educational programs and media outreach. Kurin is particularly responsible for all of the national museums, scholarly and scientific research centers, and programs spanning science, history, art and culture.

Smithsonian Libraries system of libraries at the Smithsonian Institution, United States

Smithsonian Libraries (SIL), formerly known as Smithsonian Institution Libraries, is a library system comprising 20 branch libraries serving the various Smithsonian Institution museums and research centers, as well as central support services which include a Book Conservation Laboratory and an Imaging Center. The Libraries serve Smithsonian Institution staff as well as the scholarly community and general public with information and reference support. Its collections number over 1.5 million volumes including 40,000 rare books and 2,000 manuscripts. The Libraries also holds the United States' largest trade literature collection, which includes over 300,000 commercial catalogs dating from the early nineteenth century and representing more than 30,000 companies.

Smithsonian Gardens

The Smithsonian Gardens, a division of the Smithsonian Institution, is responsible for the "landscapes, interiorscapes, and horticulture-related collections and exhibits", which serve as an outdoor extension of the Smithsonian's museums and learning spaces in Washington, D.C. Established in 1972 as a groundskeeping and horticulture program, Smithsonian Gardens currently manages 180 acres of gardens on the National Mall, 64,000 square feet of greenhouse production space, and the Archives of American Gardens, a research collection of over 60,000 photographs and archival records covering American landscape history from the 1870s to the present.

Collection manager

A collection manager ensures the proper care and preservation of objects within cultural institutions such as museums, libraries, and archives. Collection managers, along with registrars, curators, and conservators, play an important role in collections care. Collection Managers and Registrars are two distinct collection roles that are often combined into one within small to mid-size cultural institutions. Collection Managers can be found in large museums and those with a history and natural history focus whose diverse collections require experienced assessment to properly sort, catalog, and store artifacts. A collection manager may oversee the registrar, archivist, curator, photographer, or other collection professionals, and may assume the responsibilities of these roles in their absence within an organization.

Conservation and restoration at the Smithsonian Institution deals with the care of the 138 million artifacts located in the collections of Smithsonian Institution. Work is conducted by one research center, the Museum Conservation Institute (MCI), and by conservators at the Smithsonian's museums, galleries, zoo. Smithsonian conservators provide myriad services to their units, including exhibit preparation of the museum collection and loan objects, advising on object care, training for future generations of conservationists, engaging in routine preventive care on a daily basis, conducting research projects related to the collections, and examining objects for evidence of manufacturing techniques and previous restorations All conservation labs collectively further the mission of the Smithsonian Institution, "the increase and diffusion of knowledge." Founded in 1846 the Smithsonian is the world's largest museum and research complex, consisting of 19 museums and galleries, the National Zoological Park, and nine research facilities.


  1. "Smithsonian Announces Director for Smithsonian Institution Traveling Exhibition Service and Smithsonian Affiliations". Smithsonian Affiliations. June 12, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  2. Muchnic, Suzanne (March 2, 2000). "Sharing the Smithsonian". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  3. "Smithsonian Affiliate". The Rockwell Museum. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  4. "Smithsonian Affiliations Fact Sheet" (PDF). Article. Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  5. Ellis, Lindsay (November 28, 2011). "Obituary I. Michael Heyman Former College Trustee Heyman '51 dies at 81". Dartmouth Alumni. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  6. Stromberg, Joseph (November 22, 2011). "Ira Michael Heyman, Former Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Dies at 81". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  7. Heyman, I. Michael (May 17, 1996). Speech (Speech). American Law Institute Luncheon. Mayflower Hotel, Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Archives.
  8. 1 2 3 4 "E Pluribus Unum: This Divine Paradox Report on the Commission of the Future of the Smithsonian Institution" (PDF). Report. Smithsonian Press. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 22, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  9. "Former College Trustee Heyman '51 dies at 81". Article. The Dartmouth. Archived from the original on September 23, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  10. "America's Smithsonian Exhibition". Article. Smithsonian Institution . Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  11. Heyman, I. Michael (August 10, 1996). Speech (Speech). Smithsonian's 150th Anniversary, Washington, D.C. Smithsonian Institution Archives.
  12. 1997 Smithsonian Institution Annual Report, p. 55. Smithsonian Institution Archives.
  13. "Smithsonian Affiliate Directory". Smithsonian Institution.
  14. Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents. "Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents Meeting Minutes, 15 September 1996, p. 52". Smithsonian Institution Archives.
  15. Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents. "Smithsonian Institution Board of Regents Meeting Minutes, 15 September 1996, p. 57". Smithsonian Institution Archives.
  16. "Policies". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  17. "How To Apply". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  18. "Initiatives". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved October 20, 2012.
  19. "50th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides". American History Museum. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
  20. "Places of Invention". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
  21. "Capture the Colorful Cosmos". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
  22. "Smithsonian Immigration Migration". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
  23. "Spark!Lab Outreach". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
  24. "Let's Do History Tour". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved November 16, 2012.
  25. "Universal Design Webinar". Smithsonian Institution. p. 40. Retrieved November 16, 2012.Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  26. "Affiliate Directory". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved September 8, 2021.
  27. "Smithsonian Affiliations". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  28. "Smithsonian Affiliations Blog". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  29. "The Affiliate". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  30. "E-Affiliate". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved October 29, 2012.
  31. "B&O Railroad Museum Loan" (PDF). Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  32. "Masterpiece visits Buffalo Bill Historical Center" (PDF). Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  33. "The Affiliate, Winter 2004, Vol. 4 No. 1" (PDF). Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  34. "Affiliations Details". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  35. "American Originals" (PDF). Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  36. "The Affiliate". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  37. "Works on Loan". Annmarie Sculpture Garden. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  38. "The Affiliate" (PDF). Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  39. "Museum Day September 25". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  40. "Smithsonian Affiliations Conference Orientation 2012" (PDF). Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  41. "Museum of American Finance" . Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  42. "The Affiliate, Fall 2010" (PDF). Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  43. "Kermit the Frog, a Triceratops and a Horse Hit the Road". The Boston Globe . August 23, 2006. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  44. "Smithsonian Expeditions Exhibit". Miami Museum of Science. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  45. "The Affiliate" (PDF). Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  46. "The E-Affiliate". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  47. "The E-Affiliate". Smithsonian Affiliations. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  48. "Japanese American National Museum". Japanese American National Museum. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  49. "National Postal Museum". National Postal Museum. Retrieved November 10, 2012.