Piccadilly Gardens

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Piccadilly Gardens Piccadilly Gardens.jpg
Piccadilly Gardens
Aerial view of Piccadilly Gardens Piccadilly Gardens - geograph.org.uk - 1462705.jpg
Aerial view of Piccadilly Gardens

Piccadilly Gardens is a green space in Manchester city centre, England, between Market Street and the edge of the Northern Quarter. Piccadilly runs eastwards from the junction of Market Street with Mosley Street to the junction of London Road with Ducie Street; to the south are the gardens and paved areas. The area was reconfigured in 2002 with a water feature and concrete pavilion by Japanese architect Tadao Ando.

Manchester city centre central business district of the City of Manchester, England

Manchester city centre is the central business district of Manchester, England, within the boundaries of Trinity Way, Great Ancoats Street and Whitworth Street. The City Centre ward had a population of 17,861 at the 2011 census.

Market Street, Manchester retail street in Manchester, England

Market Street is one of the principal retail streets in Manchester, England. It runs from its junction with Piccadilly and Mosley Street, close to Piccadilly Gardens, in the east to where it meets St. Mary's Gate at the crossroads with Exchange Street and New Cathedral Street in the west. St Mary's Gate then continues to where it meets Deansgate (A56). Other major streets crossed are High Street, Corporation Street, Cross Street and Fountain Street.

Northern Quarter (Manchester) area in Manchester, England

The Northern Quarter is an area of Manchester city centre, England, between Piccadilly station, Victoria station and Ancoats, centred on Oldham Street, just off Piccadilly Gardens. It was defined and named in the 1990s as part of the regeneration and gentrification of Manchester.

Contents

History

Manchester Royal Infirmary Hospital in United Kingdom, England

Manchester Royal Infirmary is a hospital in Manchester, England, founded by Charles White in 1752. It is now part of Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, sharing buildings and facilities with several other hospitals.

Plan of Manchester Royal Infirmary 1845.jpg
Lunatic asylum Place for housing the insane, an aspect of history

The rise of the lunatic asylum and its gradual transformation into, and eventual replacement by, the modern psychiatric hospital, explains the rise of organised, institutional psychiatry. While there were earlier institutions that housed the "insane", the conclusion that institutionalisation was the correct solution to treating people considered to be "mad" was part of a social process in the 19th century that began to seek solutions for outside families and local communities.

Cheadle, Greater Manchester suburban village in the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester, England

Cheadle is a suburban village in the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport, Greater Manchester, England. Historically in Cheshire, it borders Cheadle Hulme, Gatley, Heald Green and Cheadle Heath in Stockport, and East Didsbury in Manchester. In 2011, it had a population of 14,698.

Cheadle Royal Hospital Hospital in Greater Manchester, England

Cheadle Royal Hospital,, is a psychiatric hospital on Wilmslow Road in Heald Green, Greater Manchester, England. Built between 1848 and 1849, the main building is a Grade II listed building.

The square at Piccadilly Gardens has been for many years the central hub of Manchester's public transport system. The square is only five minutes' walk from the mainline Manchester Piccadilly railway station and 10 minutes walk from Manchester Victoria railway station.

Manchester Victoria station Manchester, Greater Manchester, M3

Manchester Victoria station in Manchester, England is a combined mainline railway station and Metrolink tram stop. Situated to the north of the city centre on Hunts Bank, close to Manchester Cathedral, it adjoins Manchester Arena which was constructed on part of the former station site in the 1990s. Opened in 1844 and part of the Manchester station group, Victoria is Manchester's third busiest railway station after Piccadilly and Oxford Road and the second busiest station managed by Northern after Oxford Road.

As part of the ongoing regeneration of the city centre, the city council had set up an international competition for the redesign of Piccadilly Gardens. The winners – announced in 1998 from a short-list that had been whittled down to six – were the landscape architects EDAW and its partners, consisting of: the engineers Arup; renowned Japanese architect Tadao Ando; local architects Chapman Robinson; and lighting engineer, Peter Fink. [4] The square was finally revamped in 2001–02, to include new green space and fountains (by EDAW), and a pavilion (by Tadao Ando) which partially functions to shield the gardens from the transport interchange. At the same time One Piccadilly Gardens was constructed on the eastern edge of the square. The resulting space was radically different from the old gardens, and the only links to the past that remained were the original statues. The redesign was part of the massive construction process that covered Manchester in the buildup to the city hosting the 2002 Commonwealth Games. Previously the square was becoming increasingly run down and was considered unsafe. [5] At a contract cost of around £10 million Piccadilly Gardens was renovated and ended up being shortlisted in 2003 for the Prime Minister's Better Public Building Award. Part of the area was built on to help fund the redevelopment.

Manchester City Council Local government body in England

Manchester City Council is the local government authority for Manchester, a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. It is composed of 96 councillors, three for each of the 32 electoral wards of Manchester. The council is controlled by the Labour Party and led by Sir Richard Leese. The opposition is formed by the Liberal Democrats and led by former Manchester Withington MP John Leech. Joanne Roney is the chief executive. Many of the council's staff are based at Manchester Town Hall.

Landscape architect person involved in the planning, design and sometimes direction of a landscape, garden, or distinct space

A landscape architect is a person who is educated in the field of landscape architecture. The practice of landscape architecture includes: site analysis, site inventory, land planning, planting design, grading, storm water management, sustainable design, construction specification and ensuring that all plans meet the current building codes and local and federal ordinances. The title landscape architect was first used by Frederick Law Olmsted, the designer of New York City's Central Park.

EDAW was an international landscape architecture, urban and environmental design firm that operated from 1939 until 2009. Starting in San Francisco, the firm grew to become the most commercially successful and well-known landscape architecture and urbanism firm in the world, which at its peak had 32 offices worldwide. EDAW lead many landscape architecture, land planning and master planning projects, developing a reputation as an early innovator in sustainable urban development and multidisciplinary design.

Criticism

The redevelopment of the Gardens soon came under fire for its "cold, modernistic" design. [6] The concrete partition wall was dubbed the "Berlin Wall" by locals, and the hastily turfed grass regularly turned to mud after some public use. It continues to be returfed regularly. [7] The fountains, whilst popular with children in the summer, have also been subject to scrutiny, with broken glass regularly an issue. One Piccadilly Gardens is also controversial, not only for the sale of public land to private enterprise, but also because it dominates the skyline in the area, and blocks sunlight from the south-east.[ citation needed ]

Berlin Wall barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic, enclosing West Berlin

The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989. Constructed by the German Democratic Republic, starting on 13 August 1961, the Wall cut off West Berlin from virtually all of surrounding East Germany and East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989. Its demolition officially began on 13 June 1990 and finished in 1992. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, accompanied by a wide area that contained anti-vehicle trenches, "fakir beds" and other defenses. The Eastern Bloc portrayed the Wall as protecting its population from fascist elements conspiring to prevent the "will of the people" in building a socialist state in East Germany.

Transport

Piccadilly Gardens has a major public transport interchange where buses and trams can be boarded:

Information on Manchester's transport system can be requested at the Transport for Greater Manchester "Travelshop", located next to the bus station and tram stop.[ citation needed ]

Buildings and statues

City Tower, Piccadilly Plaza Sunley Tower, Manchester.jpg
City Tower, Piccadilly Plaza
Mercure Piccadilly Hotel, Piccadilly Plaza Mercure Hotel, Piccadilly Gardens, Manchester.jpg
Mercure Piccadilly Hotel, Piccadilly Plaza
Queen Victoria statue Queen Victoria statue piccadilly02.jpg
Queen Victoria statue

The square is surrounded by buildings that cover the ages of modern Manchester. From old Victorian warehouses and shops dating from the Industrial Revolution and Manchester's role as the cotton marketing capital to the new office block development which is part of the 21st century regeneration of the square. The building that visitors are likely to notice first is the huge complex of Piccadilly Plaza which stands over Piccadilly.

Piccadilly Plaza

Piccadilly Plaza was originally built by Covell Matthews and Partners from 1959 to 1965 and has been recently re-modelled by Leslie Jones Architects in 2001 (this mainly involved replacing the old Chinese style-roofed towers of Bernard House). [8] Piccadilly Plaza contains the renovated Mercure Hotel (formerly known as the Ramada Manchester Piccadilly and Jarvis Piccadilly Hotel); the refurbishment was completed in 2008. The huge tower block, originally known as Sunley Tower, was renamed City Tower. In 2005 the Plaza underwent large-scale remodelling with recladding of the tower and cleaning of concrete façades. The whole complex has benefited from increased investment from Bruntwood Ltd, which bought Piccadilly Plaza in 2004–05, and now several retail outlets on ground level, and large office space on the levels above (once the home of Piccadilly Radio) are available.

Thistle and Britannia Hotels

The Thistle Hotel stands on the south-eastern side of Piccadilly Gardens. The hotel was originally three cotton warehouses (with a fourth standing to the left) which made up the four warehouses designed by Edward Walters between 1851 and 1858. Also, there is the Grade II* listed Britannia Hotel [9] on Portland Street which was formerly the largest of Manchester warehouses: Watts Warehouse (architects Travis & Mangnall).

Wheel of Manchester

From 2013 to 2015, the Wheel of Manchester was based in the square. [10] [11]

Listed buildings around Piccadilly Gardens

In addition to the many listed buildings that stand around Piccadilly Gardens there are also numerous statues:

These four stand on what was the esplanade of the infirmary and were erected at different times before the move to Oxford Road. The first was Peel's statue in 1853 and the last Queen Victoria's which came after her death. [12]

Sources

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References

  1. Atkins, Philip (1976). Guide Across Manchester. Manchester: Civic Trust for the North West. ISBN   0-901347-29-9.
  2. Aston, Joseph (1804) Plan of Manchester and Salford with the latest improvements. In: The Manchester Guide... Manchester: Joseph Aston
  3. Brockbank, William (1952). Portrait of a Hospital. London: William Heinemann. p. 158.|access-date= requires |url= (help)
  4. "Piccadilly Gardens (design process)". Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment (CABE). Retrieved 2008-06-28.
  5. "Manchester city centre regeneration (EDAW)". Resource for Urban Design Information (RUDI). Retrieved 2008-06-28.
  6. "Piccadilly Gardens: Action At Last". Manchester Confidential. Archived from the original on 26 February 2015. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  7. "'Dirty' and 'depressing': Piccadilly Gardens is Manchester's worst attraction". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  8. "Best of MCR...The Lost Buildings" . Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  9. Historic England. "Britannia Hotel  (Grade II*) (1246952)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  10. "New Years Firework Spectacular at Piccadilly Gardens Manchester". Manchester Gazette. 29 December 2013. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014.
  11. Jennifer Williams (9 June 2015). "Work to dismantle Piccadilly Gardens big wheel to begin tonight, say council bosses". Manchester Evening News. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
  12. Makepeace, Chris (1972) Manchester As It Was: [Vol. I] Victorian Street Scenes. Nelson, Lancs.: Hendon; pp. 28–30

Coordinates: 53°28′51″N2°14′13″W / 53.48093°N 2.23699°W / 53.48093; -2.23699