|, CMD1T, LAP2, LEMD4, PRO0868, TP, thymopoietin|
Lamina-associated polypeptide 2 (LAP2), isoforms beta/gamma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TMPO gene.LAP2 is an inner nuclear membrane (INM) protein.
Thymopoietin is a protein involved in the induction of CD90 in the thymus. The thymopoetin (TMPO) gene encodes three alternatively spliced mRNAs encoding proteins of 75 kDa (alpha), 51 kDa (beta) and 39 kDa (gamma) which are ubiquitously expressed in all cells. The human TMPO gene maps to chromosome band 12q22 and consists of eight exons. TMPO alpha is present diffusely expressed with the cell nucleus while TMPO beta and gamma are localized to the nuclear membrane. TMPO beta is a human homolog of the murine protein LAP2. LAP2 plays a role in the regulation of nuclear architecture by binding lamin B1 and chromosomes. This interaction is regulated by phosphorylation during mitosis. Given the nuclear localization of the three TMPO isoforms, it is unlikely that these proteins play any role in CD90 induction.
Thymopoietin has been shown to interact with Barrier to autointegration factor 1,AKAP8L, LMNB1 and LMNA.
In cell biology, the nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others including osteoclasts have many.
A nuclear pore is a part of a large complex of proteins, known as a nuclear pore complex that spans the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus. There are approximately 1,000 nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) in the nuclear envelope of a vertebrate cell, but it varies depending on cell type and the stage in the life cycle. The human nuclear pore complex (hNPC) is a 110 megadalton (MDa) structure. The proteins that make up the nuclear pore complex are known as nucleoporins; each NPC contains at least 456 individual protein molecules and is composed of 34 distinct nucleoporin proteins.About half of the nucleoporins typically contain solenoid protein domains—either an alpha solenoid or a beta-propeller fold, or in some cases both as separate structural domains. The other half show structural characteristics typical of "natively unfolded" or intrinsically disordered proteins, i.e. they are highly flexible proteins that lack ordered tertiary structure. These disordered proteins are the FG nucleoporins, so called because their amino-acid sequence contains many phenylalanine—glycine repeats.
Telophase is the final stage in both meiosis and mitosis in a eukaryotic cell. During telophase, the effects of prophase and prometaphase are reversed. As chromosomes reach the cell poles, a nuclear envelope is re-assembled around each set of chromatids, the nucleoli reappear, and chromosomes begin to decondense back into the expanded chromatin that is present during interphase. The mitotic spindle is disassembled and remaining spindle microtubules are depolymerized. Telophase accounts for approximately 2% of the cell cycle's duration.
Lamins, also known as nuclear lamins are fibrous proteins in type V intermediate filaments, providing structural function and transcriptional regulation in the cell nucleus. Nuclear lamins interact with inner nuclear membrane proteins to form the nuclear lamina on the interior of the nuclear envelope. Lamins have elastic and mechanosensitive properties, and can alter gene regulation in a feedback response to mechanical cues. Lamins are present in all animals but are not found in microorganisms, plants or fungi. Lamin proteins are involved in the disassembling and reforming of the nuclear envelope during mitosis, the positioning of nuclear pores, and programmed cell death. Mutations in lamin genes can result in several genetic laminopathies, which may be life-threatening.
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are cytoskeletal structural components found in the cells of vertebrates, and many invertebrates. Homologues of the IF protein have been noted in an invertebrate, the cephalochordate Branchiostoma.
The nuclear lamina is a dense fibrillar network inside the nucleus of most cells. It is composed of intermediate filaments and membrane associated proteins. Besides providing mechanical support, the nuclear lamina regulates important cellular events such as DNA replication and cell division. Additionally, it participates in chromatin organization and it anchors the nuclear pore complexes embedded in the nuclear envelope.
Ran also known as GTP-binding nuclear protein Ran is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAN gene. Ran is a small 25 kDa protein that is involved in transport into and out of the cell nucleus during interphase and also involved in mitosis. It is a member of the Ras superfamily.
Transcriptional repressor CTCF also known as 11-zinc finger protein or CCCTC-binding factor is a transcription factor that in humans is encoded by the CTCF gene. CTCF is involved in many cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, insulator activity, V(D)J recombination and regulation of chromatin architecture.
LMNA, also known as Lamin A/C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LMNA gene. Lamin A/C belongs to the lamin family of proteins.
Lamin-B receptor is a protein, and in humans, it is encoded by the LBR gene.
LEM domain-containing protein 3 (LEMD3), also known as MAN1, is an integral protein in the inner nuclear membrane (INM) of the nuclear envelope. It is encoded by the LEMD3 gene and was first identified after it was isolated from the serum of a patient with a collagen vascular disease.
Nuclear pore glycoprotein-210 (gp210) is an essential trafficking regulator in the eukaryotic nuclear pore complex. Gp-210 anchors the pore complex to the nuclear membrane. and protein tagging reveals its primarily located on the luminal side of double layer membrane at the pore. A single polypeptide motif of gp210 is responsible for sorting to nuclear membrane, and indicate the carboxyl tail of the protein is oriented toward the cytoplasmic side of the membrane.
Barrier-to-autointegration factor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BANF1 gene. It is a member of the barrier-to-autointegration factor family of proteins.
AT-rich interactive domain-containing protein 1A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ARID1A gene.
A-kinase anchor protein 8-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AKAP8L gene.
Torsin-1A-interacting protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TOR1AIP1 gene. More commonly known as lamina associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1), it is a type II integral membrane protein that resides in the inner nuclear membrane. The luminal domain of LAP1 interacts with Torsin A and is necessary for the ATPase activity of Torsin A. LAP1 plays a critical role in skeletal and heart muscle. Mutations in TOR1AIP1 have been linked to muscular dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. It's deletion from mouse hepatocytes leads to defected very-low density lipoprotein secretion and causes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
Lamin-B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LMNB1 gene.
Inner nuclear membrane (INM) proteins are proteins that are embedded in or associated with the inner membrane of the nuclear envelope (NE). There are about 60 INM proteins, most of which are poorly characterized with respect to structure and function. Among the few well-characterized INM proteins are lamin B receptor (LBR), lamina-associated polypeptide 1 (LAP1), lamina-associated polypeptide-2 (LAP2), emerin and MAN1.
In molecular biology, barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) is a family of essential proteins that is highly conserved in metazoan evolution, and which may act as DNA-bridging proteins. BAF binds directly to double-stranded DNA, to transcription activators, and to inner nuclear membrane proteins, including lamin A filaments that anchor nuclear pore complexes in place, and nuclear LEM-domain proteins that bind to laminin filaments and chromatin. New findings suggest that BAF has structural roles in nuclear assembly and chromatin organization, represses gene expression and might interlink chromatin structure, nuclear architecture and gene regulation in metazoans.
Nuclear organization refers to the spatial distribution of chromatin within a cell nucleus. There are many different levels and scales of nuclear organisation.