Timeline of cultivation and domestication in South and West Asia

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South and West Asia consists of a wide region extending from the present-day country of Turkey in the west to Bangladesh and India in the east.



See also


  1. Arranz-Otaegui, Amaia; Carretero, Lara Gonzalez; Ramsey, Monica N.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Richter, Tobias (2018-07-11). "Archaeobotanical evidence reveals the origins of bread 14,400 years ago in northeastern Jordan". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115 (31): 7925–7930. Bibcode:2018PNAS..115.7925A. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1801071115 . ISSN   0027-8424. PMC   6077754 . PMID   30012614.
  2. Badr, A.; Müller, K.; Schäfer-Pregl, R.; El Rabey, H.; et al. (2000), "On the Origin and Domestication History of Barley (Hordeum vulgare)", Mol Biol Evol, 17 (4): 499–510, doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a026330 , PMID   10742042
  3. Moulherata, Christophe; Tengbergb, Margareta; Haquetc, Jérôme-F.; Milled, Benoît (2002), "First Evidence of Cotton at Neolithic Mehrgarh, Pakistan: Analysis of Mineralized Fibres from a Copper Bead", Journal of Archaeological Science, 29 (12): 1393–1401, Bibcode:2002JArSc..29.1393M, doi:10.1006/jasc.2001.0779
  4. Vaughan; Lu, B.; Tomooka, N.; et al. (2008). "The evolving story of rice evolution". Plant Science. 174 (4): 394–408. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2008.01.016.
  5. Harris, David R. (1996). The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia. Routledge.
  6. Wong, G.K.; et al. (2004). "A genetic variation map for chicken with 2.8 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms". Nature. 432 (7018): 717–722. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..717B. doi:10.1038/nature03156. PMC   2263125 . PMID   15592405.
  7. Garrigus, W. P. (2007), "Poultry Farming". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  8. Fumihito, A.; Miyake, T.; Sumi, S.; Takada, M; Ohno, S.; Kondo, N. (December 20, 1994). "One subspecies of the red junglefowl (Gallus gallus gallus) suffices as the matriarchic ancestor of all domestic breeds". PNAS. 91 (26): 12505–12509. Bibcode:1994PNAS...9112505F. doi: 10.1073/pnas.91.26.12505 . PMC   45467 . PMID   7809067.
  9. Liu, Yi-Ping; Wu, Gui-Sheng; Yao, Yong-Gang; Miao, Yong-Wang; Luikart, Gordon; Baig, Mumtaz; Beja-Pereira, Albano; Ding, Zhao-Li; Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Zhang, Ya-Ping (2006), "Multiple maternal origins of chickens: Out of the Asian jungles", Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 38 (1): 12–19, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2005.09.014, PMID   16275023
  10. Zeder; et al. (2006). "Documenting domestication: the intersection of genetics and archaeology". Trends in Genetics. 22 (3): 139–155. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2006.01.007. PMID   16458995.
  11. West B., Zhou B.X. (1988). "Did chickens go north? New evidence for domestication". J. Archaeol. Sci. 14 (5): 515–533. Bibcode:1988JArSc..15..515W. doi:10.1016/0305-4403(88)90080-5.
  12. Al-Nasser A, et al. (2007). "Overview of chicken taxonomy and domestication". World's Poultry Science Journal. 63 (2): 285–300. doi:10.1017/S004393390700147X. S2CID   86734013.

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mehrgarh</span> Neolithic archaeological site in Balochistan, Pakistan

Mehrgarh is a Neolithic archaeological site situated on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan in Pakistan. It is located near the Bolan Pass, to the west of the Indus River and between the modern-day Pakistani cities of Quetta, Kalat and Sibi. The site was discovered in 1974 by the French Archaeological Mission led by the French archaeologists Jean-François Jarrige and his wife, Catherine Jarrige. Mehrgarh was excavated continuously between 1974 and 1986, and again from 1997 to 2000. Archaeological material has been found in six mounds, and about 32,000 artifacts have been collected from the site. The earliest settlement at Mehrgarh—located in the northeast corner of the 495-acre (2.00 km2) site—was a small farming village dated between 7000 BCE and 5500 BCE.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Poultry</span> Domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, meat, or feathers

Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the purpose of harvesting useful animal products such as meat, eggs or feathers, and the practice of raising poultry is known as poultry farming. These birds are most typically members of the superorder Galloanserae (fowl), especially the order Galliformes. The term also includes waterfowls of the family Anatidae and other flying birds that are kept and killed for their meat such as the young pigeons, but does not include wild birds hunted for food known as game or quarry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chicken</span> Domesticated species of bird

The chicken is a domesticated species that arose from the red junglefowl, originally from Southeast Asia. They have also partially hybridized with other wild species of junglefowl. Rooster and cock are terms for adult male birds, and a younger male may be called a cockerel. A male that has been castrated is a capon. An adult female bird is called a hen, and a sexually immature female is called a pullet. Humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food or as pets. Traditionally, they were also bred for cockfighting, which is still practiced in some places. Chickens domesticated for meat are broilers, and for eggs, they are layers.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">8th millennium BC</span> Millennium between 8000 BC and 7001 BC

The 8th millennium BC spanned the years 8000 BC to 7001 BC. In chronological terms, it is the second full millennium of the current Holocene epoch and is entirely within the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) phase of the Early Neolithic. It is impossible to precisely date events that happened around the time of this millennium and all dates mentioned here are estimates mostly based on geological and anthropological analysis, or by radiometric dating.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Indus Valley Civilisation</span> Bronze Age civilisation in South Asia

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), also known as the Indus Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. Together with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia, it was one of three early civilisations of the Near East and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area from much of Pakistan, to northeast Afghanistan, and northwestern India. The civilisation flourished both in the alluvial plain of the Indus River, which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial monsoon-fed rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the Ghaggar-Hakra, a seasonal river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Emmer</span> Type of wheat

Emmer wheat or hulled wheat is a type of awned wheat. Emmer is a tetraploid. The domesticated types are Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and T. t. conv. durum. The wild plant is called T. t. subsp. dicoccoides. The principal difference between the wild and the domestic forms is that the ripened seed head of the wild plant shatters and scatters the seed onto the ground, while in the domesticated emmer, the seed head remains intact, thus making it easier for humans to harvest the grain.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Domestication</span> Selective breeding of plants and animals to serve humans

Domestication is a multi-generational mutualistic relationship between humans and other organisms, in which humans take control over their reproduction and care to obtain a steady supply of resources including food. The process was gradual and geographically diffuse, based on trial and error.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Araucana</span> Breed of chicken

The Araucana is a breed of domestic chicken from Chile. Its name derives from the Araucanía region of Chile where it is believed to have originated. It lays blue-shelled eggs, one of very few breeds that do so.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Neolithic Europe</span> Era of pre-history

The European Neolithic is the period when Neolithic technology was present in Europe, roughly between 7000 BC and c. 2000–1700 BC. The Neolithic overlaps the Mesolithic and Bronze Age periods in Europe as cultural changes moved from the southeast to northwest at about 1 km/year – this is called the Neolithic Expansion.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Red junglefowl</span> Species of bird; wild origin of the domesticated chicken

The red junglefowl is a tropical bird in the family Phasianidae. It ranges across much of Southeast Asia and parts of South Asia. It was formerly known as the bankiva or bankiva fowl. It is the species that gave rise to the chicken ; the grey junglefowl, Sri Lankan junglefowl and green junglefowl have also contributed genetic material to the gene pool of the chicken.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Neolithic Revolution</span> Transition from hunter-gatherer to settled peoples in human history

The Neolithic Revolution, also known as the First Agricultural Revolution, was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period in Afro-Eurasia from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly large population possible. These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants, learning how they grew and developed. This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants into crops.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Founder crops</span> Original agricultural crops

The founder crops or primary domesticates are a group of flowering plants that were domesticated by early farming communities in Southwest Asia and went on to form the basis of agricultural economies across Eurasia. As originally defined by Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, they consisted of three cereals, four pulses, and flax. Subsequent research has indicated that many other species could be considered founder crops. These species were amongst the first domesticated plants in the world.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Domestication of animals</span> Overview of animal domestication

The domestication of animals is the mutual relationship between animals and the humans who have influence on their care and reproduction.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of agriculture</span>

Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, and included a diverse range of taxa. At least eleven separate regions of the Old and New World were involved as independent centers of origin. The development of agriculture about 12,000 years ago changed the way humans lived. They switched from nomadic hunter-gatherer lifestyles to permanent settlements and farming.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Grey junglefowl</span> Species of bird

The gray junglefowl, also known as Sonnerat's junglefowl, is one of the wild ancestors of the domestic chicken together with the red junglefowl and other junglefowls.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Çayönü</span> Neolithic settlement in Turkey

Çayönü Tepesi is a Neolithic settlement in southeastern Turkey which prospered from circa 8,630 to 6,800 BC. It is located in Diyarbakır Province forty kilometres north-west of Diyarbakır, at the foot of the Taurus mountains. It lies near the Boğazçay, a tributary of the upper Tigris River and the Bestakot, an intermittent stream. It is an early example of agriculture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pre-Pottery Neolithic</span> Earlier part of the Neolithic period in Southwest Asia

The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) represents the early Neolithic in the Levantine and upper Mesopotamian region of the Fertile Crescent, dating to c. 12,000 – c. 8,500 years ago,. It succeeds the Natufian culture of the Epipalaeolithic Near East, as the domestication of plants and animals was in its formative stages, having possibly been induced by the Younger Dryas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Barley</span> Cereal grain

Barley, a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally. It was one of the first cultivated grains, particularly in Eurasia as early as 10,000 years ago. Globally 70% of barley production is used as animal fodder, while 30% as a source of fermentable material for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various foods. It is used in soups and stews, and in barley bread of various cultures. Barley grains are commonly made into malt in a traditional and ancient method of preparation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of agriculture in the Indian subcontinent</span>

Indian agriculture began by 9000 BCE on north-west India with the early cultivation of plants, and domestication of crops and animals. Indian subcontinent agriculture was the largest producer of wheat and grain. They settled life soon followed with implements and techniques being developed for agriculture. Double monsoons led to two harvests being reaped in one year. Indian products soon reached the world via existing trading networks and foreign crops were introduced to India. Plants and animals—considered essential to their survival by the Indians—came to be worshiped and venerated.