Timeline of United States inventions (after 1991)

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Dean Kamen (b. 1951) demonstrating his iBOT invention to President Bill Clinton in the Oval Office. Clinton-kamen.jpg
Dean Kamen (b. 1951) demonstrating his iBOT invention to President Bill Clinton in the Oval Office.

A timeline of United States inventions (after 1991) encompasses the ingenuity and innovative advancements of the United States within a historical context, dating from the Contemporary era to the present day, which have been achieved by inventors who are either native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States. Patent protection secures a person's right to his or her first-to-invent claim of the original invention in question, highlighted in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution which gives the following enumerated power to the United States Congress:

Patent Intellectual property conferring a monopoly on a new invention

A patent is a form of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, selling, and importing an invention for a limited period of years, in exchange for publishing an enabling public disclosure of the invention. In most countries patent rights fall under civil law and the patent holder needs to sue someone infringing the patent in order to enforce his or her rights. In some industries patents are an essential form of competitive advantage; in others they are irrelevant.

First to file (FTF) and first to invent (FTI) are legal concepts that define who has the right to the grant of a patent for an invention. The first-to-file system is used in all countries.

Copyright Clause Clause of the U.S. constitution allowing intellectual property protection

The Copyright Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution.

Contents

In 1641, the first patent in North America was issued to Samuel Winslow by the General Court of Massachusetts for a new method of making salt. [1] [2] [3] On April 10, 1790, President George Washington signed the Patent Act of 1790 (1 Stat. 109) into law which proclaimed that patents were to be authorized for "any useful art, manufacture, engine, machine, or device, or any improvement therein not before known or used." [4] On July 31, 1790, Samuel Hopkins of Pittsford, Vermont became the first person in the United States to file and to be granted a patent for an improved method of "Making Pot and Pearl Ashes." [5] The Patent Act of 1836 (Ch. 357, 5 Stat. 117) further clarified United States patent law to the extent of establishing a patent office where patent applications are filed, processed, and granted, contingent upon the language and scope of the claimant's invention, for a patent term of 14 years with an extension of up to an additional 7 years. [4] However, the Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994 (URAA) changed the patent term in the United States to a total of 20 years, effective for patent applications filed on or after June 8, 1995, thus bringing United States patent law further into conformity with international patent law. [6] The modern-day provisions of the law applied to inventions are laid out in Title 35 of the United States Code (Ch. 950, sec. 1, 66 Stat. 792).

In 1641, Samuel Winslow was granted the first patent in North America by the Massachusetts General Court for a new process for making salt.

George Washington First President of the United States

George Washington was an American political leader, military general, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Previously, he led Patriot forces to victory in the nation's War for Independence. He presided at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 which established the U.S. Constitution and a federal government. Washington has been called the "Father of His Country" for his manifold leadership in the formative days of the new nation.

Patent Act of 1790

The Patent Act of 1790 was the first patent statute passed by the federal government of the United States. It was enacted on April 10, 1790, about one year after the constitution was ratified and a new government was organized. The law was concise, defining the subject matter of a U.S. patent as "any useful art, manufacture, engine, machine, or device, or any improvement there on not before known or used." It granted the applicant the "sole and exclusive right and liberty of making, constructing, using and vending to others to be used" of his invention.

From 1836 to 2011, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has granted a total of 7,861,317 patents [7] relating to several well-known inventions appearing throughout the timeline below.

United States Patent and Trademark Office Agency in the United States Department of Commerce

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.

Contemporary era (1992–present)

Post–Cold War and the mid-to-late 1990s (1992–1999)

1992 Spinner (wheel)

Hubcap decorative disk on an automobile wheel that covers at least a central portion of the wheel

A hubcap is a decorative disk on an automobile wheel that covers at least a central portion of the wheel, called the hub. An automobile hubcap is used to cover the wheel hub and the wheel fasteners to reduce the accumulation of dirt and moisture. It also has the function of decorating the car.

1994 CMOS image sensor

Early prototype of a CMOS image sensor Active pixel sensor prototype.jpg
Early prototype of a CMOS image sensor

A CMOS image sensor (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) is an image sensor consisting of an integrated circuit containing an array of pixel sensors, each pixel containing a photodetector and an active amplifier. Starting at the same point, they have to convert light into electrons by using the CMOS process. CMOS image sensors can be found in digital SLR cameras, embedded web-cams, video cameras, automotive safety systems, swallowable-pill cameras, toys and video games, and wireless video-security networks. The renowned American physicist and engineer Eric Fossum invented the CMOS image sensor while working at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. [9] [ need quotation to verify ] On January 28, 1994, Fossum filed U.S. patent #5,471,515, which was issued to him on November 28, 1995. [10]

CMOS Technology for constructing integrated circuits

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS), also known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor (COS-MOS), is a type of MOSFET fabrication process that uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type MOSFETs for logic functions. CMOS technology is used for constructing integrated circuits (ICs), including microprocessors, microcontrollers, memory chips, and other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is also used for analog circuits such as image sensors, data converters, RF circuits, and highly integrated transceivers for many types of communication.

Eric R. Fossum is an American physicist and engineer known for developing the CMOS image sensor. He is currently a professor at Thayer School of Engineering in Dartmouth College.

Jet Propulsion Laboratory Research and development center and NASA field center in California, US

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in La Cañada Flintridge, California, United States, though it is often referred to as residing in Pasadena, California because it has a Pasadena ZIP Code.

1994 DNA computing

DNA computing uses DNA, biochemistry and molecular biology, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies. DNA computing, or, more generally, molecular computing, is a fast-developing interdisciplinary area.[ citation needed ] Research and development in this area concerns theory, experiments and applications of DNA computing. DNA computing is fundamentally similar to parallel computing in that it takes advantage of the many different molecules of DNA to try many different possibilities at once. Leonard Adleman of the University of Southern California initially pioneered this field in 1994. Adleman demonstrated a proof-of-concept use of DNA as a form of computation which solved the seven-point Hamiltonian path problem. [11]

Leonard Adleman American theoretical computer scientist and professor of computer science and molecular biology at the University of Southern California

Leonard Adleman is an American computer scientist. He is one of the creators of the RSA encryption algorithm, for which he received the 2002 Turing Award, often called the Nobel prize of Computer science. He is also known for the creation of the field of DNA computing.

1994 Segway PT The Segway PT is a two-wheeled, self-balancing, zero-emission, electric vehicle used for "personal transport". Segways have had success in niche markets such as transportation for police departments, military bases, warehouses, corporate campuses or industrial sites, as well as in tourism. The earliest patent resembling the modern Segway PT, U.S. patent #6,357,544, was filed on May 27, 1994 and issued to Dean Kamen on December 30, 1997. [12] Kamen introduced his invention to the public in 2001. [13]

1994 Quantum cascade laser

A quantum cascade laser is a sliver of semiconductor material about the size of a tick. Inside, electrons are constrained within layers of gallium and aluminum compounds, called quantum wells are[ clarification needed ] nanometers thick, much smaller than the thickness of a hair. Electrons jump from one energy level to another, rather than moving smoothly between levels and tunnel from one layer to the next going "through" rather than "over" energy barriers separating the wells. When the electrons jump, they emit photons of light. The quantum cascade laser was co-invented by Alfred Y. Cho, Claire F. Gmachl, Federico Capasso, Deborah Sivco, Albert Hutchinson, and Alessandro Tredicucci at Bell Laboratories in 1994. [14] On April 4, 1994, the Bell Labs team filed U.S. patent #5,457,709 that was issued on October 10, 1995. [15]

1995 Bose–Einstein condensate

1995 Screenless hammer mill

1995 Scroll wheel

1995 JavaScript

1996 Adobe Flash

1996 Bait car

1997 Virtual reality therapy

1998 HVLS fan

1999 Torino scale

1999 Phase-change incubator

1999 Bowtie cotter pin

1999 iBOT

2000s decade

2002 SERF

2003 Fermionic condensate

A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures. The first atomic fermionic condensate was invented by Deborah S. Jin in 2003. [31]

2003 Slingshot (water vapor distillation system)

Slingshot is a portable water purification device powered by a stirling engine running on a combustible fuel source. The size of a dorm fridge, the Slingshot is claimed to be capable of turning any water source such as urine or saltwater into drinking water. Dean Kamen invented the Slingshot. [32] Kamen filed U.S. patent # 7,340,879 on November 13, 2003 for the device which was issued on March 11, 2008. [33]

2007 Nanowire battery

A nanowire battery is a lithium-ion battery consisting of a stainless steel anode covered in silicon nanowires. Silicon, which stores ten times more lithium than graphite, allows a far greater energy density on a steel anode, thus reducing the mass of the battery. The high surface area further allows for fast charging and discharging. The practicality of nanowire batteries is reasoned that a laptop computer that runs on a regular lithium-ion battery for two hours could potentially operate up to 20 hours using a nanowire battery without recharging, which would be a considerable advantage for many people resulting in energy conservation and cost savings. The nanowire battery was co-invented in 2007 by Chinese-American Dr. Yi Cui, an assistant professor of materials science and engineering along with his colleagues at Stanford University. [34] [35]

2008 Bionic contact lens A bionic contact lens is a digital contact lens worn directly on the human eye which in the future, scientists believe could one day serve as a useful virtual platform for activities such as surfing the World Wide Web, superimposing images on real-world objects, playing video games for entertainment, and for monitoring patients' medical conditions. The bionic contact lens is a form of nanotechnology and microfabrication constructed of light emitting diodes, an antenna, and electronic circuit wiring. [36] The bionic contact lens is the 2008 creation of Iranian-American Babak Parviz, an electrical engineer at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle. [37] [38]

See also

Footnotes

  1. "History of Patent Law". IP Legal Services.
  2. James W. Cortada, "Rise of the knowledge worker, Volume 8 of Resources for the knowledge-based economy", Knowledge Reader Series, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998, p. 141, ISBN   0-7506-7058-4, ISBN   978-0-7506-7058-6.
  3. "Manufactures of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the Secretary of the interior", Publisher: Government Printing Office, Washington, 1865, p. cxcix: "Salt-making was commenced at Salein in 1636, and in 1641 Samuel Winslow was allowed, for 10 years, the exclusive right of making salt in Massachusetts by a new method."
  4. 1 2 "Chapter 4: An Overview of Patents". Digital Law Online.
  5. "First U.S. Patent Issued Today in 1790". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  6. "2701 Patent Term [R-2]". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  7. "Table of Issue Years and Patent Numbers, for Selected Document Types Issued Since 1836". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  8. "Automotive wheel enhancers". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  9. "Active Pixel Sensor with Intra-Pixel Charge Transfer". National Inventors Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on August 4, 2011.
  10. "Active pixel sensor with intra-pixel charge transfer". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  11. "Molecular Computation Of Solutions To Combinatorial Problems" (PDF). Science Journal. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 6, 2005.
  12. Human Transporter, United States Patent and Trademark Office
  13. "About Segway – Who We Are". Segway. Archived from the original on September 1, 2011.
  14. "The Team". Bell Laboratories. Archived from the original on December 13, 2011.
  15. "Unipolar semiconductor laser". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  16. "Bose-Einstein Condensation, A New Form of Matter". University of Washington.
  17. "Screenless hammermill". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  18. "Computing History Displays: Fifth Floor – The Computer Mouse". University of Auckland.
  19. "System and method of adjusting display characteristics of a displayable data". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  20. "The History of JavaScript". The New York Times Company.
  21. "The History of Flash". Adobe. Archived from the original on August 21, 2014.
  22. "Virtual Reality Battles PTSD 9 2011". CNN.
  23. "HVLS History". MacroAir Technologies, Inc. Archived from the original on September 2, 2011.
  24. "About the Torino Scale". GNO, Inc.
  25. "Student's low-cost solution aids high-tech problem in Africa". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  26. "Bow-Tie™ Locking Cotter". Pivot Point. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010.
  27. "Bow Tie Locking Cotter". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  28. Life on wheels: the A to Z guide to living fully with mobility issues. Demos Medical Publishing.
  29. "System and method for stair climbing in a cluster-wheel vehicle". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  30. Allred, J.; Lyman, R.; Kornack, T.; Romalis, M. (2002). "High-Sensitivity Atomic Magnetometer Unaffected by Spin-Exchange Relaxation". Physical Review Letters . 89 (13): 130801. Bibcode:2002PhRvL..89m0801A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.130801. PMID   12225013.
  31. "NIST/University of Colorado Scientists Create New Form of Matter: A Fermionic Condensate". University of Colorado. Archived from the original on December 7, 2006.
  32. Marketing of High-Technology Products and Innovations. Jakki Mohr.
  33. "Locally powered water distillation system". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  34. "Sulfur in hollow nanofibers overcomes challenges of lithium-ion battery design". Stanford University.
  35. "Silicon nanowire battery holds 10 times the charge of existing ones". Digital Journal.
  36. "Vision of the Future Seen in Bionic Contact Lens". MSNBC.
  37. "Babak Parviz: An Engineer With a Bionic Eye". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on August 29, 2010.
  38. "Time's Best Inventions of 2008". Time Inc. October 29, 2008.

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Dean Kamen American businessman

Dean Lawrence Kamen is an American engineer, inventor, and businessman. He is known for his invention of the Segway, as well as founding the non-profit organization FIRST with Woodie Flowers.

Segway battery-powered electric vehicle

The Segway PT is a two-wheeled, self-balancing personal transporter by Segway Inc. It was invented by Dean Kamen and brought to market in 2001. HT is an initialism for "human transporter" and PT for "personal transporter".

As with all utility patents in the United States, a biological patent provides the patent holder with the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, or importing the claimed invention or discovery in biology for a limited period of time - for patents filed after 1998, 20 years from the filing date.

To reinvent the wheel is to duplicate a basic method that has already previously been created or optimized by others.

Patent pending designations or expression that can be used in relation to a product or process once a patent application for the product or process has been filed, but prior to the patent being issued or the application abandoned.

"Patent pending" or "patent applied for" are legal designations or expressions that can be used in relation to a product or process once a patent application for the product or process has been filed, but prior to the patent being issued or the application abandoned. The marking serves to notify the public, business, or potential infringers who would copy the invention that they may be liable for damages, seizure, and injunction once a patent is issued.

Patent prosecution describes the interaction between applicants and their representatives, and a patent office with regard to a patent, or an application for a patent. Broadly, patent prosecution can be split into pre-grant prosecution, which involves negotiation with a patent office for the grant of a patent, and post-grant prosecution, which involves issues such as post-grant amendment and opposition.

Under United States law, a patent is a right granted to the inventor of a (1) process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter, (2) that is new, useful, and non-obvious. A patent is the right to exclude others from using a new technology. Specifically, it is the right to exclude others from making, using, selling, offering for sale, importing, inducing others to infringe, and/or offering a product specially adapted for practice of the patent.

Patentable, statutory or patent-eligible subject matter is subject matter which is susceptible of patent protection. The laws or patent practices of many countries provide that certain subject-matter is excluded from patentability, even if the invention is novel and non-obvious. Together with novelty, inventive step or nonobviousness, utility, and industrial applicability, the question of whether a particular subject matter is patentable is one of the substantive requirements for patentability.

This is a list of legal terms relating to patents. A patent is not a right to practice or use the invention, but a territorial right to exclude others from commercially exploiting the invention, granted to an inventor or his successor in rights in exchange to a public disclosure of the invention.

Dicycle vehicle with two wheels side by side

A dicycle (/ˈdʌɪsɪkl/) is a vehicle with two parallel wheels, side by side, unlike single-track vehicles such as motorcycles and bicycles, which have inline wheels. Originally used to refer to devices with large wheels and pedals, the term is now used in relation to powered self-balancing scooters with smaller wheels and no pedals such as the Segway PT and the self-balancing hoverboard.

Title 35 of the United States Code is a title of United States Code regarding patent law. The sections of Title 35 govern all aspects of patent law in the United States. There are currently 37 chapters, which include 376 sections, in Title 35.

A patent caveat, often shortened to caveat, was a legal document filed with the United States Patent Office. Caveats were instituted by the U.S. Patent Act of 1836, but were discontinued in 1909, with the U.S. Congress abolishing the system formally in 1910. A caveat was similar to a patent application with a description of an invention and drawings, but without examination for patentable subject matter and without a requirement for patent claims. A patent caveat was an official notice of intention to file a patent application at a later date. A caveat expired after one year, but could be renewed by paying an annual fee of $10.

A tax patent is a patent that discloses and claims a system or method for reducing or deferring taxes. Tax patents have been granted predominantly in the United States but can be granted in other countries as well. They are considered to be a form of business method patent. They are also called "tax planning patents", "tax strategy patents", and "tax shelter patents". In September 2011, President Barack Obama signed legislation passed by the U.S. Congress that effectively prohibits the granting of tax patents in general.

Timeline of United States inventions (before 1890)

A timeline of United States inventions encompasses the ingenuity and innovative advancements of the United States within a historical context, dating from the Colonial Period to the Gilded Age, which have been achieved by inventors who are either native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States. Copyright protection secures a person's right to his or her first-to-invent claim of the original invention in question, highlighted in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution, which gives the following enumerated power to the United States Congress:

Timeline of United States inventions (1890–1945) Chronological list of advances

A timeline of United States inventions (1890–1945) encompasses the ingenuity and innovative advancements of the United States within a historical context, dating from the Progressive Era to the end of World War II, which have been achieved by inventors who are either native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States. Copyright protection secures a person's right to his or her first-to-invent claim of the original invention in question, highlighted in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution which gives the following enumerated power to the United States Congress:

Segway Inc. manufacturer of a two-wheeled, self-balancing electric vehicle

Segway Inc. is an American manufacturer of two-wheeled personal transporters, chiefly through its Segway PT and Segway miniPro product lines. Since 2015, it has been owned by the Chinese company Ninebot. Founded by inventor Dean Kamen in 1999, the company's name is a homophone of the word "segue".

Timeline of United States inventions (1946–1991)

A timeline of United States inventions (1946–1991) encompasses the ingenuity and innovative advancements of the United States within a historical context, dating from the era of the Cold War, which have been achieved by inventors who are either native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States. Copyright protection secures a person's right to his or her first-to-invent claim of the original invention in question, highlighted in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution which gives the following enumerated power to the United States Congress:

Self-balancing scooter battery-powered electric vehicle

A self-balancing scooter is a self-balancing personal transporter consisting of two motorized wheels connected to a pair of articulated pads on which the rider places their feet. The rider controls the speed by leaning forwards or backwards, and direction of travel by twisting the pads.