Tin telluride

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Tin telluride [1]
NaCl polyhedra.png
IUPAC name
Tin telluride
Other names
Tin(II) telluride, Stannous telluride
3D model (JSmol)
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PubChem CID
  • InChI=1S/Sn.Te
  • [Sn]=[Te]
Molar mass 246.31 g/mol
Appearancegray cubic crystals
Density 6.445 g/cm3 [2]
Melting point 790 °C (1,450 °F; 1,060 K)
Band gap 0.18 eV [3]
Electron mobility 500 cm2V1s1
Halite (cubic), cF8
Fm3m, No. 225
a = 0.63 nm
Octahedral (Sn2+)
Octahedral (Se2−)
185 JK1kg1
Related compounds
Other anions
Tin(II) oxide
Tin(II) sulfide
Tin selenide
Other cations
Carbon monotelluride
Silicon monotelluride
Germanium telluride
Lead telluride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Tin telluride is a compound of tin and tellurium (SnTe); is a IV-VI narrow band gap semiconductor and has direct band gap of 0.18 eV. It is often alloyed with lead to make lead tin telluride, which is used as an infrared detector material.


Tin telluride normally forms p-type semiconductor (Extrinsic semiconductor) due to tin vacancies and is a low temperature superconductor. [4]

SnTe exists in three crystal phases. At Low temperatures, where the concentration of hole carriers is less than 1.5x1020 cm−3 , Tin Telluride exists in rhombohedral phase also known as α-SnTe. At room temperature and atmospheric pressure, Tin Telluride exists in NaCl-like cubic crystal phase, known as β-SnTe. While at 18 kbar pressure, β-SnTe transforms to γ-SnTe, orthorhombic phase, space group Pnma. [5] This phase change is characterized by 11 percent increase in density and 360 percent increase in resistance for γ-SnTe. [6]

Tin telluride is a thermoelectric material. Theoretical studies imply that the n-type performance may be particularly good. [7]

Thermal properties


Generally Pb is alloyed with SnTe in order to access interesting optical and electronic properties, In addition, as a result of Quantum confinement, the band gap of the SnTe increases beyond the bulk band gap, covering the mid-IR wavelength range. The alloyed material has been used in mid- IR photodetectors [9] and thermoelectric generator. [10]

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tellurium</span> Chemical element, symbol Te and atomic number 52

Tellurium is a chemical element with the symbol Te and atomic number 52. It is a brittle, mildly toxic, rare, silver-white metalloid. Tellurium is chemically related to selenium and sulfur, all three of which are chalcogens. It is occasionally found in native form as elemental crystals. Tellurium is far more common in the Universe as a whole than on Earth. Its extreme rarity in the Earth's crust, comparable to that of platinum, is due partly to its formation of a volatile hydride that caused tellurium to be lost to space as a gas during the hot nebular formation of Earth.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thermoelectric materials</span> Materials whose temperature variance leads to voltage change

Thermoelectric materials show the thermoelectric effect in a strong or convenient form.

SiGe, or silicon–germanium, is an alloy with any molar ratio of silicon and germanium, i.e. with a molecular formula of the form Si1−xGex. It is commonly used as a semiconductor material in integrated circuits (ICs) for heterojunction bipolar transistors or as a strain-inducing layer for CMOS transistors. IBM introduced the technology into mainstream manufacturing in 1989. This relatively new technology offers opportunities in mixed-signal circuit and analog circuit IC design and manufacture. SiGe is also used as a thermoelectric material for high-temperature applications (>700 K).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Semimetal</span>

A semimetal is a material with a very small overlap between the bottom of the conduction band and the top of the valence band. According to electronic band theory, solids can be classified as insulators, semiconductors, semimetals, or metals. In insulators and semiconductors the filled valence band is separated from an empty conduction band by a band gap. For insulators, the magnitude of the band gap is larger than that of a semiconductor. Because of the slight overlap between the conduction and valence bands, semimetals have no band gap and a negligible density of states at the Fermi level. A metal, by contrast, has an appreciable density of states at the Fermi level because the conduction band is partially filled.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Intermetallic</span> Type of metallic alloy

An intermetallic is a type of metallic alloy that forms an ordered solid-state compound between two or more metallic elements. Intermetallics are generally hard and brittle, with good high-temperature mechanical properties. They can be classified as stoichiometric or nonstoichiometic intermetallic compounds.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Magnesium silicide</span> Chemical compound

Magnesium silicide, Mg2Si, is an inorganic compound consisting of magnesium and silicon. As-grown Mg2Si usually forms black crystals; they are semiconductors with n-type conductivity and have potential applications in thermoelectric generators.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mercury cadmium telluride</span>

Hg1−xCdxTe or mercury cadmium telluride is a chemical compound of cadmium telluride (CdTe) and mercury telluride (HgTe) with a tunable bandgap spanning the shortwave infrared to the very long wave infrared regions. The amount of cadmium (Cd) in the alloy can be chosen so as to tune the optical absorption of the material to the desired infrared wavelength. CdTe is a semiconductor with a bandgap of approximately 1.5 electronvolts (eV) at room temperature. HgTe is a semimetal, which means that its bandgap energy is zero. Mixing these two substances allows one to obtain any bandgap between 0 and 1.5 eV.

Lead selenide (PbSe), or lead(II) selenide, a selenide of lead, is a semiconductor material. It forms cubic crystals of the NaCl structure; it has a direct bandgap of 0.27 eV at room temperature. A grey solid, it is used for manufacture of infrared detectors for thermal imaging. The mineral clausthalite is a naturally occurring lead selenide.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bismuth telluride</span> Chemical compound

Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) is a gray powder that is a compound of bismuth and tellurium also known as bismuth(III) telluride. It is a semiconductor, which, when alloyed with antimony or selenium, is an efficient thermoelectric material for refrigeration or portable power generation. Bi2Te3 is a topological insulator, and thus exhibits thickness-dependent physical properties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lead telluride</span> Chemical compound

Lead telluride is a compound of lead and tellurium (PbTe). It crystallizes in the NaCl crystal structure with Pb atoms occupying the cation and Te forming the anionic lattice. It is a narrow gap semiconductor with a band gap of 0.32 eV. It occurs naturally as the mineral altaite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tin selenide</span> Chemical compound

Tin selenide, also known as stannous selenide, is an inorganic compound with the formula SnSe. Tin(II) selenide is a typical layered metal chalcogenide as it includes a group 16 anion (Se2−) and an electropositive element (Sn2+), and is arranged in a layered structure. Tin(II) selenide is a narrow band-gap (IV-VI) semiconductor structurally analogous to black phosphorus. It has received considerable interest for applications including low-cost photovoltaics, and memory-switching devices.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Thermoelectric generator</span> Device that converts heat flux into electrical energy

A thermoelectric generator (TEG), also called a Seebeck generator, is a solid state device that converts heat flux directly into electrical energy through a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect. Thermoelectric generators function like heat engines, but are less bulky and have no moving parts. However, TEGs are typically more expensive and less efficient.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Antimony telluride</span> Chemical compound

Antimony telluride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Sb2Te3. As is true of other pnictogen chalcogenide layered materials, it is a grey crystalline solid with layered structure. Layers consist of two atomic sheets of antimony and three atomic sheets of tellurium and are held together by weak van der Waals forces. Sb2Te3 is a narrow-gap semiconductor with a band gap 0.21 eV; it is also a topological insulator, and thus exhibits thickness-dependent physical properties.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Molybdenum ditelluride</span> Chemical compound

Molybdenum(IV) telluride, molybdenum ditelluride or just molybdenum telluride is a compound of molybdenum and tellurium with formula MoTe2, corresponding to a mass percentage of 27.32% molybdenum and 72.68% tellurium. It can crystallise in two dimensional sheets which can be thinned down to monolayers that are flexible and almost transparent. It is a semiconductor, and can fluoresce. It is part of a class of materials called transition metal dichalcogenides. As a semiconductor the band gap lies in the infrared region. This raises the potential use as a semiconductor in electronics or an infrared detector.

Lead tin telluride, also referred to as PbSnTe or Pb1−xSnxTe, is a ternary alloy of lead, tin and tellurium, generally made by alloying either tin into lead telluride or lead into tin telluride. It is a IV-VI narrow band gap semiconductor material.

Bismuth antimonides, Bismuth-antimonys, or Bismuth-antimony alloys, (Bi1−xSbx) are binary alloys of bismuth and antimony in various ratios.

Germanium-tin is an alloy of the elements germanium and tin, both located in group 14 of the periodic table. It is only thermodynamically stable under a small composition range. Despite this limitation, it has useful properties for band gap and strain engineering of silicon integrated optoelectronic and microelectronic semiconductor devices.

Arsenic telluride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula As2Te3. It exists in two forms, the monoclinic α phase which transforms under high pressure to a rhombohedral β phase. The compound is a semiconductor, with most current carried by holes. Arsenic telluride has been examined for its use in nonlinear optics.

Tellurogallates are chemical compounds which contain anionic units of tellurium connected to gallium. They can be considered as gallates where tellurium substitutes for oxygen. Similar compounds include the thiogallates, selenogallates, telluroaluminates, telluroindates and thiostannates. They are in the category of chalcogenotrielates or more broadly tellurometallates or chalcogenometallates.


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