|Nearest city||Geneseo, Kansas|
|NRHP reference No.||66000349|
|Added to NRHP||October 15, 1966|
|Designated NHLD||July 4, 1964|
The Tobias-Thompson Complex, also known as the Little River Archeological District, is a complex of archaeological sites on the banks of the Little Arkansas River near Geneseo, Kansas, United States. The complex is an important set of sites that is one of the few in the region bridging the periods of prehistory and European contact, with a period of significance between 1500 and 1700 CE.It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1966.
The Tobias-Thompson Complex consists of eight archaeological sites, located on both sides of the Little Arkansas River. They are believed to represent portions of a single large settlement area, subdivided into separate villages. Given the complex's location, it is possible that this was a village site visited by Spanish explorer Francisco Vázquez de Coronado during his 1541 expedition to a place he called Quivira. Typical features of these sites include the presence of a council circle, depressions consistent with known forms of period semi-subterranean living structures, and mounds representing food caches or refuse middens. Some of the sites have lost surface-level artifacts due to cultivation, while others have never been cultivated and are covered by a layer of native sod. Some of the sites have long been known as sources of artifacts, and have been subjected to looting. Despite this, the size and scope of the sites is such that there is a great deal of potential information to be recovered by further investigation.
The Tobias site was excavated three times by archaeologist Waldo Wedel for the Smithsonian Institution, in 1940, 1965, and 1971. The 1965 excavation was particularly significant, because it uncovered evidence of a deeper habitation layer beneath that site's council circle. Finds from these investigations include pottery fragments, stone and bone tools and projectile points, and human remains.
The Pinson Mounds comprise a prehistoric Native American complex located in Madison County, Tennessee, in the region that is known as the Eastern Woodlands. The complex, which includes 17 mounds, an earthen geometric enclosure, and numerous habitation areas, was most likely built during the Middle Woodland period. The complex is the largest group of Middle Woodland mounds in the United States. Sauls' Mound, at 72 feet (22 m), is the second-highest surviving mound in the United States.
The Miami Circle, also known as The Miami River Circle, Brickell Point, or The Miami Circle at Brickell Point Site, is an archaeological site in Brickell, Miami, Florida. It consists of a perfect circle measuring 38 feet (11.5m) of 600 postmolds that contain 24 holes or basins cut into the limestone bedrock, on a coastal spit of land, surrounded by a large number of other 'minor' holes. It is the only known evidence of a prehistoric permanent structure cut into the bedrock in the Eastern United States, and considerably predates other known permanent settlements on the East Coast. It is believed to have been the location of a structure, built by the Tequesta Indians, in what was possibly their capital. Discovered in 1998, the site is believed to be somewhere between 1,700 and 2,000 years old.
El Cuartelejo, or El Quartelejo, is a region in eastern Colorado and western Kansas where Plains Apache cohabited with Puebloans. Subject to religious persecution, Puebloans fled the Spanish Nuevo México territory and cohabitated with the Cuartelejo villagers in the 1600s.
Wagon Bed Spring, also known historically as the Lower Spring or Lower Cimarron Spring, is a historic former spring in Grant County, Kansas, United States. It is located about 12 miles (19 km) south of Ulysses, on the west side of United States Route 270. In the 19th century it was an important watering spot on the Cimarron Cutoff of the Santa Fe Trail, where migrants on the trail often camped. The spring is now dry, primarily due to irrigation lowering the water table in the area. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961.
The Kolomoki Mounds is one of the largest and earliest Woodland period earthwork mound complexes in the Southeastern United States and is the largest in Georgia. Constructed from 350CE to 600CE, the mound complex is located in southwest Georgia, in present-day Early County near the Chattahoochee River.
The Perin Village Site is an archaeological site in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Ohio. Located in Newtown in Hamilton County, it is believed to have been inhabited by peoples of the Hopewell tradition.
The Nodena site is an archeological site east of Wilson, Arkansas, and northeast of Reverie, Tennessee, in Mississippi County, Arkansas, United States. Around 1400–1650 CE an aboriginal palisaded village existed in the Nodena area on a meander bend of the Mississippi River. The Nodena site was discovered and first documented by Dr. James K. Hampson, archaeologist and owner of the plantation on which the Nodena site is located. Artifacts from this site are on display in the Hampson Museum State Park in Wilson, Arkansas. The Nodena site is the type site for the Nodena phase, believed by many archaeologists to be the province of Pacaha visited by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in 1542.
The Eaker site (3MS105) is an archaeological site on Eaker Air Force Base near Blytheville, Arkansas, that was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1996. The site is the largest and most intact Late Mississippian Nodena phase village site within the Central Mississippi Valley, with archaeological evidence indicating a palisaded village some 50 acres (20 ha) in size, with hundreds of structures. The site's major period of occupation was 1350–1450 CE, although evidence of occupation dates back to 600 CE. The site is also hypothesized to have been occupied by the Quapaw prior to a migration further south, after which they made contact with Europeans in the late 17th century.
The Menard–Hodges site (3AR4), is an archaeological site in Arkansas County, Arkansas. It includes two large platform mounds as well as several house mounds. It is the type site for the Menard phase, a protohistoric Mississippian culture group.
Parkin Archeological State Park, also known as Parkin Indian Mound, is an archeological site and state park in Parkin, Cross County, Arkansas. Around 1350–1650 CE an aboriginal palisaded village existed at the site, at the confluence of the St. Francis and Tyronza rivers. Artifacts from this site are on display at the site museum. The Parkin site is the type site for the Parkin phase, an expression of the Mississippian culture from the Late Mississippian period. Many archeologists believe it to be part of the province of Casqui, documented as visited by Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto in 1542. Archeological artifacts from the village of the Parkin people are dated to 1400–1650 CE.
Plum Bayou Mounds Archeological State Park, formerly known as "Toltec Mounds Archeological State Park", also known as Knapp Mounds, Toltec Mounds or Toltec Mounds site, is an archaeological site from the Late Woodland period in Arkansas that protects an 18-mound complex with the tallest surviving prehistoric mounds in Arkansas. The site is on the banks of Mound Lake, an oxbow lake of the Arkansas River. It was occupied by its original inhabitants from the 7th to the 11th century. The site is designated as a National Historic Landmark.
Ventana Cave is an archaeological site in southern Arizona. It is located on the Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation. The cave was excavated under the direction of Emil Haury by teams led by Julian Hayden in 1942, and in 1941 by a team led by Wilfrid C Bailey, one of Emil Haury's graduate students. The deepest artifacts from Ventana Cave were recovered from a layer of volcanic debris that also contained Pleistocene horse, Burden's pronghorn, tapir, sloth, and other extinct and modern species. A projectile point from the volcanic debris layer was compared to the Folsom Tradition and later to the Clovis culture, but the assemblage was peculiar enough to warrant a separate name – the Ventana Complex. Radiocarbon dates from the volcanic debris layer indicated an age of about 11,300 BP.
The Modoc Rock Shelter is a rock shelter or overhang located beneath the sandstone bluffs that form the eastern border of the Mississippi River floodplain at which Native American peoples lived for thousands of years. This site is significant for its archaeological evidence of thousands of years of human habitation during the Archaic period in the Eastern United States. It is located on the northeastern side of County Road 7 southeast of Prairie du Rocher in Randolph County, Illinois, United States. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961.
The Horner site, also known as the Creek site and Horner's Corner site, and designated by the Smithsonian trinomial 48PA29, is an important archaeological site near Cody, Wyoming, United States. It is the type site for the Cody complex. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961.
Signal Butte is a major prehistoric archaeological site in rural western Nebraska. Designated by the Smithsonian trinomial 25SF1, it was one of the first pre-contact Native American sites to be formally investigated in the central plains. The archaeological sites are located atop the eponymous butte west of Robidoux Pass and Gering, Nebraska. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1961. The site is not open to the public.
The Fort Thompson Mounds are a complex of ancient archaeological sites in Buffalo County, South Dakota, near Fort Thompson and within the Crow Creek Reservation. Declared a National Historic Landmark in 1964 by the US Department of Interior, the mound complex extends for a distance of about 6 miles (9.7 km) along the east bank of the Missouri River. It is one of the largest known complex of burial mounds in the Plains region north of Kansas.
The Osage Village State Historic Site is a publicly owned property in Vernon County, Missouri, maintained by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The historic site preserves the archaeological site of a major Osage village, that once had some 200 lodges housing 2,000 to 3,000 people. The site, designated by the Smithsonian trinomial 23VE01, was also known for many years as the Carrington Osage Village Site, under which name it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964.
The C.H. Nash Museum at Chucalissa is located on and exhibits excavated materials of the Mississippian culture archaeological site known as Chucalissa which means "abandoned house" in Chickasaw. The site is located adjacent to the T. O. Fuller State Park within the city of Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Chucalissa was designated National Historic Landmark in 1994 due to its importance as one of the best-preserved and major prehistoric settlement sites in the region.
The Yankeetown site (12W1) is a substantial archaeological site along the Ohio River in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Indiana. Inhabited during the prehistoric Woodland period, the site has yielded important information about Woodland-era peoples in the region, but it has been damaged by substantial erosion. Despite the damage, it has been a historic site for more than thirty years.
Kimball Village is an archaeological site located in the vicinity of Westfield, Iowa, United States. It is one of six known Big Sioux phase villages from the Middle Missouri tradition that existed between 1100-1250 C.E. The site, located on a terrace overlooking the Big Sioux River, has well-preserved features, including earth lodge and storage pits, and evidence of fortifaction. The site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2010, and as a National Historic Landmark in 2016.