Tropical cyclones in popular culture

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The appearances of tropical cyclones in popular culture spans many genres of media and encompasses many different plot uses.

Contents

It includes both fictional tropical cyclones, [lower-alpha 1] and real ones used as the basis for a fictional work, and has proven to be of enough interest for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ("NOAA") to maintain a webpage on the topic. [1]

Purpose in fiction and literature

Although many forms of natural disaster appear in fiction and literature, tropical cyclones serve a number of useful literary functions because they are both extraordinarily powerful and, to those who have some experience with them, their occurrence can be portended several days in advance. The NOAA page notes that:

There is undeniable drama to hurricanes; their massive scale affecting the lives of thousands, the foreshadowing of impending doom, and their ponderous pace as they approach the shore. This has made them ideal plot elements in many fictional works. [1]

The strength of the tropical cyclone has made it a device by which authors explain the upending of characters' lives, and even transformations of the personalities of those who live through such an event. Their somewhat hazy predictability also makes them a useful MacGuffin, an impetus for characters to set to action. In some instances, the storm provides cover for characters to engage in covert behavior.

Early history of tropical cyclones in literature

One of the earliest uses of a tropical cyclone as a plot device occurs in a William Shakespeare play, The Tempest , first performed in 1611 or 1612. There, a storm (raised by the sorcerer Prospero) blows key characters to the island to which Prospero had been exiled many years before. The theme is said to have been inspired by Shakespeare's knowledge of a real-life hurricane which had caused the shipwreck of the Sea Venture in 1609 on the islands of Bermuda, while sailing toward Virginia. [1]

Edgar Allan Poe, in his 1841 story, "A Descent into the Maelström", has the main character describe how "the most terrible hurricane that ever came out of the heavens" forced the boat manned by himself and his brothers into a gigantic whirlpool. [2] The trauma of surviving the storm and the whirlpool (and seeing the death of his brothers) is asserted to have a profound effect on the character, causing his hair to turn white. However, since the story is asserted to occur off the coast of Norway, it is unlikely that the event described could have fallen within the formal definition of a hurricane, as such storms form almost exclusively in the Maritime Tropical air masses of tropical regions of the globe.

Joseph Conrad, in his acclaimed 1903 book Typhoon , uses a tropical cyclone as a more direct element of the story, centering the plot on a ship captain's stubborn insistence on going into the heart of such a storm. [1]

Fictional tropical cyclones

Works predominantly focused on the occurrence of a fictional tropical cyclone

Books and plays

  • (Unnamed): A High Wind in Jamaica (U.S. title: The Innocent Voyage). In this 1929 novel by Richard Hughes, horrific incidents are described from a child's point of view, beginning with the destruction of the family's house by a hurricane. "If Emily had known this was a Hurricane, she would doubtless have been far more impressed, for the word was full of romantic terrors...." [3]
  • (Unnamed): In Hazard , a 1938 novel by Richard Hughes. A single-screw turbine cargo steamer encounters a hurricane off the coast of Cuba. [1] [4] Reviewers compared it to Joseph Conrad's Typhoon, admired the weather descriptions, complained of "puppet-like" characters. [5] [6] [7]
  • (Unnamed): The Mystery of the Double Double Cross A 1982 novel by Mary Blount Christian prominently features a hurricane hitting Galveston, TX. [8] [9]
  • Tropical Storm Barney: The name of an artificially enhanced tropical storm that strikes Barbados with winds in excess of 75 mph (121 km/h) in opening of the novel, Category 7: The Biggest Storm in History . The authors describe the storms sudden intensification as "...bloated menacing clouds exploding over the open ocean with the unholy force of a mid-air detonation." [10] This description is the books leitmotif for a manipulated storm. [1] [11]
  • Hurricane Claude: A team of scientists try to use an EMP burst to destroy a Category Two hurricane following a track similar to that of the Long Island Express. Preceded by Hurricane Barbara. [12]
  • Hurricane Faith: Category Five Cape Verde hurricane which hits New York City with full force, causing a storm surge that topples the Statue of Liberty and inflicts severe damage on the rest of the city. [13] The novels hurricane season prior to the appearance of Faith is described by one of the characters as "Just five in six weeks since the start of the season. And every one has gone flatter than my wife's pancakes in less than a week". [14] Of these storms, only hurricanes Anthony [15] (Category One), [16] Barbara, [17] Christopher [18] & Eric [14] are named in the novel. [19]
  • Hurricane Mabel: The name of the storm in Desmond Bagley's 1966 novel Wyatt's Hurricane. The titular scientist predicts the hurricane will strike a small Caribbean island despite what the models show. Local rebels use it to help overthrow the island's dictator. Mabel is described at the start of the novel as having a central pressure of 870 millibars and an outside pressure of 1040 millibars and winds strong enough to classify it as Category Five. [20] Reference is also made in the novel to Hurricane Ione as proof of the difficulties of forecasting a hurricanes course. Preceded by Hurricane Laura. [21]
  • Maria: The name of the storm in George R. Stewart's bestselling 1941 novel, Storm. Although not, strictly speaking, a hurricane, the storm is highly notable for receiving a woman's name, the first widely known example of such personification. In the novel, a character referred to only as "the Junior Meteorologist" gives storms women's names as a private mental game. Stewart said that he was inspired by reading that "a certain meteorologist had even felt storms to be so personal that he had given them names." [1] Stewart's book in turn inspired Lerner and Loewe's song "They Call the Wind Maria." [1] It is widely thought to have influenced U.S. Navy meteorologists, who gave female names to Pacific tropical storms during World War II. [22]
  • Hurricane Omega: The name of a Category Five hurricane threatening the east coast of the United States that is deflected by moving the jet stream. [23]
  • Hurricane Simone: The name of an artificially created storm that threatens to hit New York City with a strength of above Category Five in the novel, Category 7: The Biggest Storm in History. While the storm is successfully disrupted before it makes landfall, the storm surge it generates devastates the city and topples the Statue of Liberty into the Hudson. Reference is made to Hurricanes Mitch & Ivan as being the products of trial runs of the technology used to create Simone, which was originally developed and tested during the 1971 Pacific typhoon season by the U.S. Government. [1] [11]

Television

Music

  • (Unnamed): Hugh Prestwood dreams of a hurricane in his song Savannah Fare You Well. The hurricane produces heavy rainfall which kills the songwriter. [33]
  • (Various): Jimmy Buffett has penned a number of songs describing the effects of unnanmed tropical cyclones. In his A1A song Trying to Reason with the Hurricane Season he describes a storm in the Gulf Stream with winds greater than 60 mph. The storm produces rough seas and grey skies in southeastern Florida. [34] In Nobody Speaks to the Captain No More on his Floridays album, a fugitive captain loses his mind during a hurricane when a coconut hits him in the head. [35] Buffett describes a sailor who goes through several hurricanes and typhoons in his Christmas Island song A Sailor's Christmas." [36] Finally, several hurricanes affect the fictional Caribbean island of Kinja in the Jimmy Buffett song Don't Stop the Carnival. [37]
  • (Unnamed): Creedence Clearwater Revival sings a warning about hearing "hurricanes a-blowing" and fearing "rivers overflowing," among other disasters, in band frontman John Fogerty's apocalyptic Bad Moon Rising (song) .

Works in which a fictional tropical cyclone is a key event

Books and plays

  • (Unnamed): A hurricane striking the South Carolina setting is a major turning point of the 1925 novel Porgy , and its later adaptation, the subsequent 1935 opera Porgy and Bess , as well as the 1959 movie version. [1] The storm causes the death of key characters, causing a sudden change in the direction of the story.
Cover artwork for The Cay, showing the characters trying to survive the hurricane The Cay cover.jpg
Cover artwork for The Cay, showing the characters trying to survive the hurricane
  • (Unnamed): The Cay . A pivotal point of the story involves the hurricane that strikes the small island where the two main characters are marooned. [38] Phillip, a prejudiced, blind, white child, is stranded with the elderly black Timothy. The pair deals with a hurricane that passes across the island by lashing themselves to a sturdy palm. The storm injures the eighty-year-old Timothy, who slowly dies afterwards.
  • (Unnamed): In the 1966 techno-thriller Hunter-Killer by Geoffrey Jenkins, the heroes use the conditions induced by an Indian Ocean cyclone to evade a search by the United States Navy's Seventh Fleet. [39]
  • (Unnamed): In Douglas Reemans 1966 novel Path of the Storm, the author uses a Philippines Sea typhoon with a strength of at least Category Three as the reason for the hero and his ship to return to the Taiwanese island they have just left in time to prevent an invasion by China. [40]
  • (Unnamed): A Category One hurricane threatening Cape Canaveral in the science-fiction thriller Gravity by Tess Gerritsen. It forces the seriously ill crew of the space shuttle Discovery to make an attempt to land at White Sands Space Harbor. [41]
  • Hurricane Adele: The name of the storm in Thomas Clancy's Clear and Present Danger . Described by the author as "...a small, weak, disorganized hurricane, now turning back into a tropical storm..." [42] its presence complicates a tricky rescue mission. [43]
  • Cyclone Alpha: In the 1972 novel (Set sometime between 1959 and 1965.) The Moonraker Mutiny by Anthony Trew, a ship's captain drunkenly applies his experience of typhoons to a Category Three Indian Ocean cyclone. As a result, the ship sails into the heart of the storm and is crippled, triggering the mutiny of the title. [44]
  • Hurricane Amanda: The name of the Beaufort Fifteen level storm in Clive Cussler's Raise the Titanic . The Soviet Navy used the storm as cover to board the newly raised ship in an attempt to sabotage the retrieval of a rare (fictional) mineral, byzanium, for use in an anti-ballistic missile defense system. [45] [46]
  • Hurricane Annabelle: The name of the hurricane in the 1939 set novel Slade's Marauder by Steven Cade. It prevents the hero's ship from escaping a German commerce raider. [lower-alpha 2] [47]
  • Hurricane Ben: The name of the storm in G.M. Hagues Ghost Beyond Earth. The hurricane prevents NASA from sending a space shuttle to the crew of Space Station Freedom until the end of the novel. [48]
  • Typhoon Bernard: The name of the storm that delays the arrival of Soviet ships coming to pick up a sabotage party in Shuttle Down by Lee Correy. [49] [50]
  • Hurricane Dana: In Karen Harper's romantic thriller, Hurricane, the villains try to use the effects of the storm and its passage to cover up a series of murders. [51]
  • Typhoon Donald: Named by "...a wit in the Hong Kong typhoon center...", [52] this Category Three typhoon is used by the crew of the pirate battleship Stalin to conceal their approach on the first of their targets in the novel The Iron Man by John Watson. Preceded by Typhoon Charlie [53]
  • Tropical Storm Hannah: The name of a storm that hits the Caribbean unexpectedly in the novel Star Shot by Douglas Terman. The author uses it to show the skill and determination of the hero. [54]
  • Hurricane Herman: In The Wide Window (the third book of Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events ), this hurricane demolishes Aunt Josephine's home. Later on in the book, Violet, Klaus, and Sunny Baudelaire endure the brunt of the storm while searching for their aunt. [55]
  • Hurricane Hope: Kristen Ethridge's contemporary romance series spanning five books focuses on the impact of Hurricane Hope on the fictional Texas gulf coast town of Port Provident. Ethridge based the books on her own experiences going through 2008's Hurricane Ike in Galveston, Texas.
  • Hurricane Joyce: The name of the monstrous, continent-spanning storm triggered by the impact of the asteroid Hermes into the North Atlantic in the 1978 novel The Hermes Fall by John Baxter. Powered in part by the heat of the asteroid's impact, the hurricane produces wind speeds "...more than double the record of 171 knots - almost two hundred miles an hour set by the hurricane in 1966." [56] (e.g. 400 mph (640 km/h)) near the eye as it makes its way up the eastern coast of the United States. [57]
  • Hurricane Juanita: In Kathryn Caseys novel The Killing Storm, the hunt for a boy kidnapped by a serial killer is complicated by a Category Four hurricane on a course to strike Houston. [58]
  • Hurricane Little Eva: The name of the storm in Clive Cussler's Cyclops . Described as "...a small blow with a diameter no more than sixty miles wide." [59] The storm strands the heroes on an island used by the Soviets as an electronic intelligence post. [60]
  • Hurricane Lorna: Category Five hurricane that threatens environmental havoc in Wilbur Smiths Hungry As The Sea, the storm is disrupted when the cargo of the world's largest oil tanker is ignited at its heart. [61]
  • Typhoon Louise: In the 1986 thriller Tsunami, the hero investigates the sinking of a ship off the coast of Taiwan by this storm, uncovering evidence that the storm has been used to cover up insurance fraud. [62]
  • Hurricane Odin: The name of a Category Five hurricane, that forces the hero's plane to crash near a small Caribbean island being used by nuclear smugglers in the novel Second Wind by Dick Francis. Preceded by Hurricane Nicky(Category Three) [63] and followed by Hurricane Sheila [64] (after two unnamed storms), [65]
  • Hurricane Queenie: The name of a Category Five hurricane that strikes New York City on the night of 4 August 1970 [66] in the opening of the novel Summer of Storms by Judith Kelman. The author describes the storm as the "...feisty and temperamental..." [67] seventeenth storm in a season where "Sixteen tropical disturbances had pummeled Caribbean islands and Atlantic seaboard towns since the National Weather Center began its annual six-month count in early June. Twelve of those had grown into full-fledged hurricanes, and six, triple the normal number, had intensified to the most lethal categories...". [66] Queenie's furious arrival in New York City provides the cover for a brutal murder. [lower-alpha 3] [68]
  • Typhoon Rose: The name of a Category Five tropical storm that strikes Hong Kong with winds of up to 190 mph (310 km/h) [69] in the novel Typhoon by John Gordon Davis. It triggers massive landslides, kills several of the novel's main characters and provides the impetus for the hero's final encounter with the novels major villain. [70]
  • Hurricane Sigrid: The name of the Category Five hurricane that complicates attempts to deal with a madman's home-made nuclear weapon over Washington DC in the novel Medusa's Child by John J. Nance. [71]
  • Hurricane Simone: Category Four hurricane that strikes Florida south of Sanibel island as a category three storm, triggering a chain of events that lead to a bloody shootout at an illegal geophysical laboratory in the Florida Everglades. [72]
  • Hurricane Tricia: The name of the storm in James Follett's novel Ice. Its arrival complicates attempts to tow a gigantic iceberg away from a collision with the North American continental shelf. [73]
  • (Various): Hurricane Punch, a comedic thriller by Tim Dorsey in which a misanthropic serial killer and his bumbling partner-in-crime take an impromptu storm-chasing trek across Florida with a kidnapped journalist in tow. [74]

Television

Theatrical films

  • (Unnamed): In the 1948 film, Key Largo , gangsters who have taken over a small hotel in the title locale are delayed in their planned getaway by a hurricane. [1] In one exchange, a gang member asks another, "what all happens in a hurricane?" to which the other replies, "The wind blows so hard the ocean gets up on its hind legs and walks right across the land." Later, the leader of the gang is shaken by the presence of the storm, leading Frank McCloud, the protagonist of the film, to say, "You don't like it, do you Rocco, the storm? Show it your gun, why don't you? If it doesn't stop, shoot it." [86]
  • (Unnamed): The 1999 film Virus had a tugboat crew seek refuge during a typhoon on board a Russian research ship only to find it occupied by aliens who view humanity as a virus that they try to exterminate. [1] [87] [88]
  • (Unnamed, but referred to as Typhoon Eighteen and Typhoon Kenny): Strikes Japan during the events of Welcome to Pia Carrot: Sayaka's Love Story. Causes the title character to develop a fever and triggers waves that sweep the main characters into the ocean. [89]
  • Hurricane Alma: The Category One hurricane that delays the launch of the rescue mission in Marooned . [1] [90]
  • Hurricane Clarissa: In The Lost World: Jurassic Park . A Pacific hurricane that wiped out the facilities on Site B, near Costa Rica. [91] [92]
  • Hurricane Jezebel: Hit New Jersey, in the Brian De Palma film, Snake Eyes , on the night of a prize fight. [93]
  • Hurricane Noelani: Massive hurricane in the East Pacific in the movie The Day After Tomorrow . [94] It never made landfall, but was called the strongest hurricane on record. [95]

Video Games

  • Hurricane Alex: Near the end of Ace Combat: Assault Horizon, this Category 5 hurricane halted a manhunt for the game's antagonist, Andrei Markov, and his organization, allowing them to launch an aerial assault on the United States. The penultimate mission takes place inside Hurricane Alex itself, as well as inside a large waterspout the hurricane had spawned.[ citation needed ]
  • Hurricane Gordy: At the beginning of the prequel of Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, namely Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Stories, this hurricane was forecast to hit Vice City in summer 1984, with officials closing off all bridges, keeping the player confined to the city's western-most island. After a while the bridge closures are again lifted. [96]
  • Hurricane Hermione: At the beginning of Grand Theft Auto: Vice City, this hurricane was forecast to hit Vice City in 1986, forcing officials to close all bridges, keeping the player confined to the city's eastern-most island. As the game progresses, the bridge closures are lifted as it is announced that the hurricane has missed Vice City. [96]
  • Cyclone Sanvu: An extremely powerful cyclone in Fate of the World that devastates an unspecified coastline in 2018. Called by many experts the world's first Hypercane, this catastrophic storm helps gather support for the formation of the Global Environmental Organization in 2020, which the player controls as president of the organization.

Fictional accounts of real tropical cyclones

Works predominantly focused on the occurrence of a tropical cyclone

Books

Television

Theatrical films

Music

Works in which a tropical cyclone is a key event

Theatrical films

  • Great New England Hurricane of 1938: In John M. Stahl's When Tomorrow Comes, based on James M. Cain's idea for The Root of His Evil (called The Modern Cinderella, a name that was also used in some publicity material for Stahl's film) two lovers are trapped by a hurricane that causes major damage to the Northeast. The storm forces the two to stay the night together in a church, simultaneously ending a strike that Irene Dunne's character organized, bringing the lovers closer together, and prompting major conflicts with other characters. Although the storm is not named, the film was released in 1939, and the major hurricane that struck New England the year before would have been the storm most closely associated with it.
  • Hurricane Carmen (1974) : A pivotal scene in Forrest Gump occurs when Gump and his former commanding officer, Lieutenant Dan Taylor, ride out the storm in Gump's shrimping boat; having been the only such boat to remain at sea, theirs is the only one not wrecked by the storm, allowing an unwitting Gump to monopolize the shrimping industry and become a millionaire. During the storm, Lieutenant Dan - in an alcoholic depression since the loss of his legs in the Vietnam War - challenges God, who is embodied in the fury of the hurricane. After surviving the event, Lieutenant Dan finally makes peace with his fate. [109]

See also

Notes

  1. Depending on their location and strength, tropical cyclones are referred to by various other names, such as hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, and tropical depression.
  2. The name is anachronistic, at the time the story is set hurricanes were not named.
  3. Using the 1970 name list the name for this storm would actually have been Rena

Related Research Articles

Typhoon Tip Pacific typhoon in 1979

Typhoon Tip, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Warling, was the largest and most intense tropical cyclone ever recorded. The forty-third tropical depression, nineteenth tropical storm, twelfth typhoon, and third super typhoon of the 1979 Pacific typhoon season, Tip developed out of a disturbance within the monsoon trough on October 4 near Pohnpei in Micronesia. Initially, a tropical storm to the northwest hindered the development and motion of Tip, though after the storm tracked farther north, Tip was able to intensify. After passing Guam, Tip rapidly intensified and reached peak sustained winds of 305 km/h (190 mph) and a worldwide record-low sea-level pressure of 870 hPa (25.69 inHg) on October 12. At its peak strength, Tip was the largest tropical cyclone on record, with a wind diameter of 2,220 km (1,380 mi). Tip slowly weakened as it continued west-northwestward and later turned to the northeast, in response to an approaching trough. The typhoon made landfall in southern Japan on October 19, and became an extratropical cyclone shortly thereafter. Tip's extratropical remnants continued moving east-northeastward, until they dissipated near the Aleutian Islands on October 24.

Hurricane John (1994) Category 5 Pacific hurricane and typhoon in 1994

Hurricane John, also known as Typhoon John, was both the longest-lasting and the farthest-traveling tropical cyclone ever observed. John formed during the 1994 Pacific hurricane season, which had above-average activity due to the El Niño of 1994–95, and peaked as a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale, the highest categorization for hurricanes.

1992 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1992 Pacific typhoon season had no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1992. Despite this, most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between May and November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Typhoon tropical cyclone that forms in the northwestern Pacific Ocean

A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere. This region is referred to as the Northwestern Pacific Basin, and is the most active tropical cyclone basin on Earth, accounting for almost one-third of the world's annual tropical cyclones. For organizational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is divided into three regions: the eastern, central, and western. The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center (RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning centers for the northwest Pacific in Hawaii, the Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list itself is coordinated among 18 countries that have territories threatened by typhoons each year.

1967 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1967 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1967, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

1956 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1956 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1956, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Gale of 1878 Category 2 Atlantic hurricane in 1878

The Gale of 1878, was an intense Category 2 hurricane that was active between October 18 and October 25. It caused extensive damage from Cuba to New England. Believed to be the strongest storm to hit the Washington - Baltimore region since hurricane records began in 1851, A complete record exists of this hurricane throughout its lifecycle from formation to dissipation.

1955 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1955 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1955, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Tropical cyclones are ranked on one of five tropical cyclone intensity scales, according to their maximum sustained winds and which tropical cyclone basin(s) they are located in. Only a few scales of classifications are used officially by the meteorological agencies monitoring the tropical cyclones, but some alternative scales also exist, such as accumulated cyclone energy, the Power Dissipation Index, the Integrated Kinetic Energy Index, and the Hurricane Severity Index.

1947 Pacific typhoon season typhoon season in the Pacific Ocean

The 1947 Pacific typhoon season has no official bounds; it ran year-round in 1947, but most tropical cyclones tend to form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean between June and December. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Hurricane Ioke Category 5 Pacific hurricane and typhoon in 2006

Hurricane Ioke, also referred to as Typhoon Ioke, was the most intense hurricane ever recorded in the Central Pacific, as well as the fifth-most intense Pacific hurricane on record, tied with 1973's Hurricane Ava. The first storm to form in the Central Pacific in the 2006 Pacific hurricane season, Ioke was a record breaking, long-lived and extremely powerful storm that traversed the Pacific for 17 days, reaching the equivalent of Category 5 status on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale on three different occasions.

Tropical cyclone rotating storm system with a closed, low-level circulation

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain or squalls. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to by different names, including hurricane, typhoon, tropical storm, cyclonic storm, tropical depression, and simply cyclone. A hurricane is a tropical cyclone that occurs in the Atlantic Ocean and northeastern Pacific Ocean, and a typhoon occurs in the northwestern Pacific Ocean; in the south Pacific or Indian Ocean, comparable storms are referred to simply as "tropical cyclones" or "severe cyclonic storms".

The maximum sustained wind associated with a tropical cyclone is a common indicator of the intensity of the storm. Within a mature tropical cyclone, it is found within the eyewall at a distance defined as the radius of maximum wind, or RMW. Unlike gusts, the value of these winds are determined via their sampling and averaging the sampled results over a period of time. Wind measuring has been standardized globally to reflect the winds at 10 metres (33 ft) above the Earth's surface, and the maximum sustained wind represents the highest average wind over either a one-minute (US) or ten-minute time span, anywhere within the tropical cyclone. Surface winds are highly variable due to friction between the atmosphere and the Earth's surface, as well as near hills and mountains over land.

Cyclone Kathy Category 5 Australian region cyclone in 1984

Severe Tropical Cyclone Kathy was a powerful tropical cyclone that devastated the Sir Edward Pellew Group of Islands in March 1984. Originating from a tropical low off the southern coast of Papua New Guinea. Tracking westward, the system attained gale-force winds by 18 March before striking the Cape York Peninsula. After crossing the area, Kathy entered the Gulf of Carpentaria where environmental conditions favoured significant development. On 22 March, the storm attained its peak intensity as a Category 5 severe tropical cyclone with ten-minute sustained winds of 205 km/h (125 mph). By this time, the storm had been tracking towards the southwest and struck the Sir Edward Pellew Group of Islands later on 22 March before moving over the Australian mainland as a slightly weaker system. Once over land, Kathy rapidly degraded, losing gale-force winds within 24 hours; the storm dissipated over the Northern Territory on 24 March.

Typhoon Oscar Pacific typhoon in 1995

Super Typhoon Oscar was a powerful typhoon that affected Japan and killed 8 people and left many other people missing. The seventeenth tropical cyclone and second super typhoon of the moderately active 1995 Pacific typhoon season, It formed as a tropical depression a few hundred miles east-northeast of Guam. The tropical depression strengthened to a tropical storm, giving it the name Oscar. Oscar reached typhoon status on September 14, becoming a super typhoon later that same day. Oscar recurved northeastwards two days later, skirted past Honshū on 17 September and became extratropical on September 18.

Tropical cyclones by year. Since the year 957, there have been at least 11,982 recorded tropical or subtropical cyclones in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, which are known as basins. Collectively, tropical cyclones caused more than US$1.2 trillion in damage, unadjusted for inflation, and have killed more than 2.6 million people. Most of these deaths were caused by a few deadly cyclones, including the 1881 Haiphong typhoon, the 1931 Shanghai typhoon, the 1970 Bhola cyclone, Typhoon Nina in 1975, the 1991 Bangladesh cyclone, and Cyclone Nargis in 2008.

Typhoon Yutu Pacific typhoon in 2018

Typhoon Yutu, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Rosita, was an extremely powerful tropical cyclone that caused catastrophic destruction on the islands of Tinian and Saipan in the Northern Mariana Islands, and later impacted the Philippines. It is the strongest typhoon ever recorded to impact the Mariana Islands, and is tied as the second-strongest tropical cyclone to strike the United States and its unincorporated territories by both wind speed and barometric pressure. Yutu was also the most powerful tropical cyclone worldwide in 2018. The fortieth tropical depression, twenty-sixth named storm, twelfth typhoon, and the seventh super typhoon of the 2018 Pacific typhoon season, Yutu originated from a low-pressure area that formed in the western Pacific Ocean on October 15. The disturbance organized into a tropical depression on the same day, as ocean sea-surface heat content increased. Shortly after becoming a tropical depression, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) assigned the system the identifier 31W. The system continued to strengthen, becoming a tropical storm several hours later, with the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) naming the system Yutu. Increasingly favorable conditions allowed Yutu to explosively intensify, as the system maintained deep convection and subsequently became a severe tropical storm and then a typhoon.

References

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  9. Mary Blount Christian (1982). The Mystery of the Double Double Cross. A. Whitman. ISBN   978-0-8075-5374-9.
  10. Evans, Bill; Jameson, Marianna (2007). Category 7: The Biggest Storm in History. Tor Books. p. 5.
  11. 1 2 Evans, Bill; Jameson, Marianna (2007). Category 7: The Biggest Storm in History. Tor Books. ISBN   0-7653-5671-6.
  12. Schenck, Hilbert (April 1983). "Hurricane Claude". Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction . 64 (4).
  13. Marlow, Max (1988). Her Name Will Be Faith. New English Library. p. 415.
  14. 1 2 Marlow, Max (1988). Her Name Will Be Faith. New English Library. p. 123.
  15. Marlow, Max (1988). Her Name Will Be Faith. New English Library. p. 59.
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  17. Marlow, Max (1988). Her Name Will Be Faith. New English Library. p. 95.
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  19. Marlow, Max (1988). Her Name Will Be Faith. New English Library. ISBN   0-450-50101-9.
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