Waratah (Telopea) is an Australian-endemic genus of five species of large shrubs or small trees,it is a bush native to the southeastern parts of Australia (New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania). The most well-known species in this genus is Telopea speciosissima , which has bright red flowers and is the NSW state emblem. The Waratah is a member of the plant family Proteaceae, a family of flowering plants distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The key diagnostic feature of Proteaceae is the inflorescence, which is often very large, brightly coloured and showy, consisting of many small flowers densely packed into a compact head or spike. Species of waratah boast such inflorescences ranging from 6–15 cm in diameter with a basal ring of coloured bracts. The leaves are spirally arranged, 10–20 cm long and 2–3 cm broad with entire or serrated margins. The name waratah comes from the Eora Aboriginal people, the original inhabitants of the Sydney area.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 26 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.
Telopea speciosissima, commonly known as the New South Wales waratah or simply waratah, is a large shrub in the plant family Proteaceae. It is endemic to New South Wales in Australia and is the floral emblem of that state. No subspecies are recognised, but the closely related Telopea aspera was only recently classified as a separate species.
The Proteaceae are a family of flowering plants predominantly distributed in the Southern Hemisphere. The family comprises 83 genera with about 1,660 known species. Together with the Platanaceae and Nelumbonaceae, they make up the order Proteales. Well-known genera include Protea, Banksia, Embothrium, Grevillea, Hakea and Macadamia. Species such as the New South Wales waratah, king protea, and various species of Banksia, Grevillea, and Leucadendron are popular cut flowers, while the nuts of Macadamia integrifolia are widely grown commercially and consumed. Australia and South Africa have the greatest concentrations of diversity.
The genus Telopea belongs to the plant family Proteaceae. Within the Proteaceae, their closest relatives appear to be the genera Alloxylon (Tree Waratahs), Oreocallis and Embothrium , a group of generally terminal red-flowering plants that skirt the southern edges of the Pacific Rim. Together they make up the subtribe Embothriinae.The genus was first described by Robert Brown in 1810 from the type species Telopea speciosissima. There are five species of plant within the genus, all of which readily hybridize in cultivation. There are two main branches, with one being the species pair of T. speciosissima and T. aspera, with the other lineage giving rise to T. truncata first, then T. oreades and T. mongaensis. The speciosissima-aspera lineage (clade) has two synapomorphies—distinguishing common characteristics presumed not present in ancestors—leaves with toothed margins, and large red involucral bracts. The truncata-oreades-mongaensis lineage has flowers that open from the centre to the edge of the inflorescence (basitonic) rather than the reverse (acrotonic), which is a feature of the speciosissima-aspera clade and more distant relatives.
Alloxylon is a genus of four species in the family Proteaceae of mainly small to medium-sized trees. They are native to the eastern coast of Australia, with one species, A. brachycarpum found in New Guinea and the Aru Islands. The genus is a relatively new creation, being split off from Oreocallis. The name is derived from Ancient Greek allo- "other" or "strange" and xylon or "wood" due to their unusual cell architecture compared with the related genera Telopea and Oreocallis. In Australia, they are known as tree waratahs due to similarities in the inflorescences between them and the closely related Telopea.
Oreocallis is a South American plant genus in the family Proteaceae. There is only one species, Oreocallis grandiflora, which is native to mountainous regions in Peru and Ecuador.
Embothrium is a genus of two to eight species in the plant family Proteaceae, native to southern South America, in Chile and adjacent western Argentina; the genus occurs as far south as Tierra del Fuego. Common names include Chilean firebush in English, and notro, ciruelillo, fosforito in Chilean Spanish.
The genus Waratah contains five species:
|Species of Waratah|
|Common and binomial names||Authority||Image||Description||Range|
|Gibraltar Range waratah or New England waratah|
( Telopea aspera )
|Crisp & P.H.Weston||It was split off as a separate species from the NSW waratah by Crisp and Weston in 1987 and in overall appearance is very similar to T. speciosissima.||Northeast New South Wales|
|Braidwood Waratah or Monga waratah|
( Telopea mongaensis )
|Cheel||Lignotuberous shrub with red flowerheads. Closely related to (and closely resembles) T, oreades.||Southeastern New South Wales|
|Gippsland waratah or Victorian waratah|
( Telopea oreades )
|F.Muell.||Generally a tall shrub to small tree, with red flowerheads. Closely related to (and closely resembles) T, mongaensis.||East Gippsland in Victoria and into far southern New South Wales|
|New South Wales waratah|
( Telopea speciosissima )
|(Sm.) R.Br.||It is the best-known waratah with its large, bright red inflorescences.||East New South Wales|
( Telopea truncata )
|(Labill.) R.Br.||Generally a shrub with red flowerheads.||Range south of Hobart exists and has been brought into cultivation in Tasmania.|
Species grow as either large shrubs or small trees with spirally arranged leaves with either entire or serrated margins. They prefer sandy loam soils and are a pyrogenic flowering species, meaning that they rely on post-fire flowering followed by production and dispersal of non-dormant seeds to take advantage of favourable growing conditions in the altered environment following a fire.
The natural distributions of the five species of Telopea are all confined to east coast regions from northern New South Wales to Tasmania. Each of the species has its own distinctive natural distribution with minimal or no overlap. Climatic changes may have restricted the expansion of species distribution or led to its isolation in a particular region. However, waratahs can also grow outside of these natural distribution areas. Cultivation mostly occurs north of Sydney and in the Dandenong Ranges, Victoria. T. speciosissima has also been grown successfully in areas not on the map. In Australia these areas include south-west Western Australia, the Queensland coast and also Toowoomba. Overseas, New Zealand, the USA, South Africa and Israel are all also able to grow waratah with varying degrees of success. It was introduced to England in 1789 but cannot survive English winters out of doors except in the south-west coastal regions, and it rarely flowers in glasshouses.
For some time the waratah has had a reputation as difficult plant. It has a complex culture and for many years there have been cases of people trying to establish the plant only to have the attempt fail. This can be the effect of unsuitable soil conditions, aspect or climate. The waratah is also a slow plant to mature with a flowering period that is short, unpredictable and unreliable. Early issues with cultivation meant that approximately 90% of all waratahs sold at Sydney’s Flemington markets in the early 90s were bush picked. Some progress has been made in the 20 years since then with several cultivars being commercially grown mostly in areas to the North and South of Sydney and in the Dandenong Ranges in Victoria. Issues with cultivation are still present however.
The propagation of waratah for commercial production is relatively easy in comparison to other stages of the growth cycle. Plants are usually propagated from cuttings, fresh seed or stored seed. Fresh seed has a good germination rate but deteriorates fairly rapidly unless stored at low temperature and low humidity. Dry seed will last a few years in refrigerated storage but should be treated with a general purpose fungicide prior to storage and at propagation to ensure good germination rates and healthy seedlings. The best time to take cuttings is when the plant is experiencing a flush of growth. The cuttings are taken from firm wood from the last twelve months growth. If plant material is scarce, single nodes can be used for cutting propagation.
Other methods of propagation that are successful but not widely used for commercial production include grafting and tissue culture. Stock for grafting is vigorous and as such is labour-intensive in constant control of stock regrowth from the lignotuber. As such, it is not a recommended method but is useful for the fast growth of limited material. Rootstock and scion combinations are used for many woody perennials to provide the necessary mix of floral or fruit characteristics and cultural requirements.
Tissue culture is very labour-intensive and would likely only be used in the case of rapidly increasing the number of plants from limited or valuable material. The process is complex though as different clones require different optimal culture conditions requiring different developmental work for each clone. There also exists problems with hardening off, with roots and leaves produced in vivo dying off on planting out.
For Telopea plants propagated from seed, the transition from seedling to flower takes about 5 years. Cuttings may take only 2 years. The most common form of propagation is from seed, however, certain varieties and cultivars must be propagated from cuttings if the grower wishes the plants to remain true to form. Fresh seed has a higher viability than cuttings and will germinate 2–3 weeks after sewing.
The overall cultivation of the waratah as a single process is a tricky one as flowering time, number and quality are easily affected by changes in the plant environment. These factors must be considered as early as prior to buying land for production. North facing aspect ensures a maximum of sun exposure. A combination of northerly, easterly and westerly aspects will spread the flowering time with the western slope flowering slightly later on. As the location approaches the equator, flowering time will be earlier. Elevation also has to be considered as it will affect temperature, a major influence on flowering time. More flowers will be produced in full sunlight although better quality flowers are found in the shade. Paul Nixon (1997) in his book ‘The Waratah’ claims that ‘the ideal situation is to have rich, well drained, deep soil with a north-easterly aspect giving the plants full sun until the flowers buds have initiated and then put shade cloth over the bushes until they have flowered’.
A primary consideration for cultivation is water drainage. The waratah naturally grows in poor, sandy soils where it thrives due to the soils excellent water draining properties. Drainage properties can be linked to aspect and as a result plants grown on a north easterly aspect will generally flower 1–2 weeks earlier than a westerly aspect at the same location. Watering systems must also be carefully considered to coincide with correct drainage. As an Australian native the waratah is a sturdy plant well adapted to coping with harsh environments and low rainfall. Watering systems are still necessary for cultivation in order to produce a reliable crop and a quality bloom.
In the wild the waratah has become adapted to growing in nutrient-poor soils leading many people to believe that this is what is necessary for the development of the plant. Fertilisers are not necessary for the development of the plant but the waratah has been shown to be receptive to some treatments. Many native plants have been known to have poor establishment in soils with high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. This coincides with the observation that fertiliser application immediately after transplant of waratahs in the field often leads to high mortalities. Other studies have reported a strong growth response to high nutrient levels, particularly phosphorus. As yet, the details of this response are not yet clear and suggest a complex nitrogen-phosphorus relationship. Earlier work (1963) on related species, had indicated that fertiliser application may hasten maturation and give early flowering. If fertiliser is applied, drainage properties of the soil mean that nutrients are quickly leached and so the best application method is multiple applications at critical stages in development such as flush periods.
Pruning is a very important consideration for the commercial growth of waratahs in the effort to design a shape for the plant that will encourage the maximum production of saleable blooms. The aim is to get as many growing tips as possible as it is on these that the flowers will develop.
With the correct mix of factors for cultivation it is possible to produce up to sixty blooms per plant per year. This could translate to up to 20,000 to 50,000 blooms per ha. Waratah inflorescences are harvested when 0–50% of flowers are open, although inflorescences with 0–5% of flower open have the longest vase life and least opportunity for bract damage in the field.
A number of selected forms of T. speciosissima and hybrids with other Telopea species are being brought into cultivation. These exhibit variations in the colour of the flowers and/or the bracts. Some examples include:
Issues with cultivation occur throughout the growth cycle of Telopea spp. with the first issues being encountered at the seedling stage. Waratah seedlings are often associated with a common plant condition known as damping off. Damping off is a condition that causes the death of seeds or seedlings facilitated by a number of different fungal pathogens. A given seed can become infected with a fungus, often causing it to darken and soften, killing the seedling before it emerges or causing it to emerge in a pre-weakened state. Seedlings can also be infected after emergence resulting in the stem thinning until it eventually rots and the seedling topples over. The problem is often associated with and encouraged by excessively wet conditions.
Damping off is a horticultural disease or condition, caused by several different pathogens that kill or weaken seeds or seedlings before or after they germinate. It is most prevalent in wet and cool conditions.
Another major issue for production is bract browning – a discolouration of the showy floral bracts of the floral head occurring prior to harvest. Bract browning has been a major restraint to financial returns due to reduced cut flower quality. Browning is usually a result of sun damage but can also be associated with wind burn. The addition of shade cloths to crop management strategies has been shown to reduce levels of excessive light and has significantly minimised financial losses due to the reduction of occurrence of bract browning.
In the natural state, the waratah does not compete very well with surrounding shrubs and is at its best after fire when competition is removed. This means that weed presence during cultivation has a profound effect on growth, particularly when the waratahs are small. Weeds should be seriously tended to in the early stages of growth. Once plants have reached waist height cases should be analysed individually to determine the best method of weed control.
In New South Wales the most destructive pest to waratah crops is the macadamia twig girdler (Neodrepta luteotactella). The damage is caused by the larvae and damage generally first shows at a branch fork or leaf. The condition is generally confined to young shrubs or trees. The leaves are skeletonised and the larvae web them together into a shelter that incorporates larval faeces. Larvae can also burrow into the developing flower head, obliterating a crop entirely if left uncontrolled. Biological control methods include encouragement of bird species. The borer is present throughout the year and so pesticide treatments with a strong persistent spray should be carried out monthly. What is used for the borer should also control lesser pests such as white scale, which is common in the natural state, and Macadamia leafminer (Acocercops chionosema). Leafminer poses no threat to the life of the plant but it is preferred that stems for the market still have leaves attached. Thus damaged leaves lower the value of the crop. Chemicals with zylene or toluene should not be used as the will not be tolerated by the plant.
There are also issues of fungal infection. Fungal species cause stem rot (Phytophthora spp.) and root rot (Rhizoctonia spp.) that can ultimately cause plant death but can usually be controlled by adequate drainage.
A problem for production that emanates from within the plant is the high amount of genetic and therefore morphological variability present in the flowers produced. The need to lift the quality and consistency of cut flower product has been repeatedly highlighted by industry reviews. Inconsistency of product is a key impediment to further industry growth.
In many genera of Proteaceae the inflorescence is very large and showy, often in bright colours, consisting of many small flowers densely packed into a compact head or spike. The individual flowers within the inflorescence also give Proteaceae species a unique look. Telopea species are long-lived, perennial plants that re-sprout from lignotubers after fire. After a few years of fire, re-sprouting stems produce the terminal flowers which continue the flowering cycle annually. The Telopea 'flower' is in fact an inflorescence that comprises from as few as 10 to as many as 240 individual flowers, depending upon the species concerned. The style is thickened at the distal end to form a 'pollen-presenter'. Pollen presenters have an area on the style end that presents the pollen to the pollinator. The stigma is initially trapped within the perianth and as the style grows it becomes bent until it splits the perianth and the pistil is released to spring upright. An open inflorescence usually contains functionally male and female flowers at any one time. Inflorescences range from 6–15 cm in diameter with a basal ring of coloured bracts.
Before a flower can be produced the plant must undergo floral induction and initiation. Floral induction involves physiological processes in the plant that result in the shoot apical meristem becoming competent to develop flowers. It involves biochemical changes at the apex, particularly those caused by cytokinins and the processes can be reversed. Floral initiation is the morphological transformation of an induced growing point from a vegetative to a floral primordium and involves the plant hormone florigen. Florigen is produced in the leaves in reproductively favourable conditions and acts in buds and growing tips to induce a number of different physiological and morphological changes. Once this process begins, in most plants, it cannot be reversed and the stems develop flowers, even if the initial start of the flower formation event was dependent of some environmental cue. Once the process begins, even if that cue is removed the stem will continue to develop a flower. Flower induction and initiation can simply occur when a plant has reached a mature enough age. However, in many plant species floral process occur in response to a number of environmental signals, or alternatively, are repressed by environmental signals.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells, found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. Meristematic cells give rise to various organs of a plant and are responsible for growth.
Floral initiation in T. speciosissima has been observed from mid-December, with floral buds developing more rapidly on older shoots and floral primoridia emerging from mid-January to February. The floral primoridia initiate over a 6–8 week period after primary flush growth from November to January. After the primoridia initiation there may be another vegetative flush of growth on the plants. The flower develops in bud form for seven to eight months. The date of flowering is highly variable as waratah flowering is sensitive to its environment.
Flowering tends to vary with geographic location and climatic differences, occurring from early August in coastal Queensland and up to December in Tasmania. Waratahs have a short flowering period in one location, although varieties can be selected to ensure a reasonable spread. It has been shown that in a population of 1000 seedlings where the total flowering time was five weeks, the spread was so that 10% flowered in week one and 10% in week five. Much variation was accounted for by varietal differences with plants of the one variety flowering at much the same time. Generally, waratahs flower over a 4–6 week period in spring (September–October) in the Sydney region, but later in cooler areas.
Indigenous Tharawal peoples from around the Cronulla region of southern Sydney use the Waratah medicinally. Placing the flowers into a bowl of water, so that the nectar be soaked out, the flower water is then drunk for pleasure, for its strengthening effect and for curing illnesses in children and elderly.
The botanical journal Telopea is named after the genus, as is the western Sydney suburb of Telopea, New South Wales.
Telopea speciosissima the floral emblem of the state of New South Wales and several organisations in the state, including the New South Wales Waratahs rugby team and Grace Bros. (now Myer). Waratah is also the name of the Sydney Trains A set, a class of electric multiple unit trains operated by Sydney Trains in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. In 2009, the Premier of New South Wales, Nathan Rees, commissioned a state logo based on the floral emblem. The resultant logo design has been criticised as resembling a lotus rather than the New South Wales Waratah.
Protea cynaroides, the king protea, is a flowering plant. It is a distinctive member of Protea, having the largest flower head in the genus. The species is also known as giant protea, honeypot or king sugar bush. It is widely distributed in the southwestern and southern parts of South Africa in the fynbos region.
Isopogon anemonifolius, commonly known as broad-leaved drumsticks, is a shrub of the family Proteaceae that is found only in eastern New South Wales in Australia. It occurs naturally in woodland, open forest, and heathland on sandstone soils. I. anemonifolius usually ranges between 1 and 1.5 metres in height, generally being smaller in exposed heathland. Its leaves are divided and narrow, though broader than those of the related Isopogon anethifolius, and have a purplish tinge during the cooler months. The yellow flowers appear during late spring or early summer and are displayed prominently. They are followed by round grey cones, which give the plant its common name drumsticks. The small hairy seeds are found in the old flower parts.
Isopogon anethifolius, commonly known as narrowleaf- or narrow-leafed drumsticks, is a shrub in the family Proteaceae. The species is found only in coastal areas near Sydney in New South Wales, and to the immediate west. It occurs naturally in woodland, open forest and heathland on sandstone soils. An upright shrub, it can reach to 3 m in height, with terete leaves that are divided and narrow. The yellow flowers appear from September to December and are prominently displayed. They are followed by round grey cones, which give the plant its common name of drumsticks. The small hairy seeds are found in the old flower parts.
Alloxylon flammeum, commonly known as the Queensland tree waratah or red silky oak, is a medium-sized tree of the family Proteaceae found in the Queensland tropical rain forests of northeastern Australia. It has shiny green elliptical leaves up to 18 cm (7.2 in) long, and prominent orange-red inflorescences that appear from August to October, followed by rectangular woody seed pods that ripen in February and March. Juvenile plants have large deeply lobed pinnate leaves. Previously known as Oreocallis wickhamii, the initial specimen turned out to be a different species to the one cultivated and hence a new scientific name was required. Described formally by Peter Weston and Mike Crisp in 1991, A. flammeum was designated the type species of the genus Alloxylon. This genus contains the four species previously classified in Oreocallis that are found in Australasia.
Actinotus helianthi, known as the flannel flower, is a common species of flowering plant native to the bushland around Sydney.
Lambertia formosa, commonly known as mountain devil, is a shrub of the family Proteaceae, endemic to New South Wales, Australia. First described in 1798 by English botanist James Edward Smith, it is the type species of the small genus Lambertia. It is generally found in heathland or open forest, growing in sandstone-based soils. It grows as a multistemmed shrub to around 2 m (7 ft) with a woody base known as a lignotuber, from which it regrows after bushfire. It has stiff narrow leaves, and the pink to red flowerheads, made up of seven individual tubular flowers, generally appear in spring and summer. It gains its common name from the horned woody follicles, which were used to make small devil-figures.
Eidothea hardeniana, commonly named nightcap oak, is a species of tree, up to 40 m (130 ft) tall, of the plant family Proteaceae, which botanist Robert Kooyman recognised as a new species only recently in 2000. The species has an official listing as critically endangered on the Australian Commonwealth EPBC Act and as Endangered on the NSW Threatened Species Act. The name hardeniana honours the botanist Gwen Harden. Phylogenetics studies now suggest it represents a basal branch of the Proteoid clade of the Proteaceae.
Telopea mongaensis, commonly known as the Monga waratah or Braidwood waratah, is a shrub or small tree in the family Proteaceae. Endemic to Australia, it grows at high altitude in south eastern New South Wales, where it is often seen in moist areas at the edge of rainforest or by streams in eucalyptus forests. Growing to 6 m (20 ft) high, it has narrow green leaves 4–18 cm (1.6–7.1 in) in length, and 0.5–2 cm (0.20–0.79 in) wide. In spring bears many red flowerheads, each made up of 28 to 65 individual flowers.
Telopea oreades, commonly known as the Gippsland-, mountain- or Victorian waratah, is a large shrub or small tree in the family Proteaceae. Native to southeastern Australia, it is found in wet sclerophyll forest and rainforest on rich acidic soils high in organic matter. No subspecies are recognised, though a northern isolated population hybridises extensively with the Braidwood waratah (T. mongaensis). Reaching a height of up to 19 metres, T. oreades grows with a single trunk and erect habit. It has dark green leaves with prominent veins that are 11–28 centimetres (4.3–11 in) long and 1.5–6 cm (0.6–2.4 in) wide. The red flower heads, known as inflorescences, appear in late spring. Each is composed of up to 60 individual flowers.
Telopea truncata, commonly known as the Tasmanian waratah, is a plant in the family Proteaceae. It is endemic to Tasmania where it is found on moist acidic soils at altitudes of 600 to 1200 m (2000–4000 ft). Telopea truncata is a component of alpine eucalypt forest, rainforest and scrub communities. It grows as a multistemmed shrub to a height of 3 metres (10 ft), or occasionally as a small tree to 10 m (35 ft) high, with red flower heads, known as inflorescences, appearing over the Tasmanian summer and bearing 10 to 35 individual flowers. Yellow-flowered forms are occasionally seen, but do not form a population distinct from the rest of the species.
Telopea aspera, commonly known as the Gibraltar Range waratah, is a plant in the family Proteaceae. It grows as a woody shrub to 3 metres (10 ft) high with leathery rough leaves and bright red flower heads known as inflorescences—each composed of hundreds of individual flowers. It is endemic to the New England region in New South Wales in Australia. It was formally described as a species by botanists Peter Weston and Mike Crisp in 1995, separated from its close relative Telopea speciosissima by its rough foliage and preference for dryer habitat. Unlike its better known relative, Telopea aspera has rarely been cultivated.
Alloxylon pinnatum, commonly known as Dorrigo waratah, is a tree of the family Proteaceae found in warm-temperate rainforest of south-east Queensland and northern New South Wales in eastern Australia. It has shiny green leaves that are either pinnate (lobed) and up to 30 cm (12 in) long, or lanceolate (spear-shaped) and up to 15 cm (5.9 in) long. The prominent pinkish-red flower heads, known as inflorescences, appear in spring and summer; these are made up of 50 to 140 individual flowers arranged in corymb or raceme. These are followed by rectangular woody seed pods, which bear two rows of winged seeds.
Pyrogenic flowering is the fire-stimulated flowering of plants in heathland and other fire-prone habitats. It is associated with species which have transient seed banks, as opposed to canopy or persistent soil seed banks. These species are mostly monocots, but it is also observed in several species of woody dicots.
Persoonia levis, commonly known as the broad-leaved geebung, is a shrub native to New South Wales and Victoria in eastern Australia. It reaches 5 m (16 ft) in height and has dark grey papery bark and bright green asymmetrical sickle-shaped leaves up to 14 cm (5.5 in) long and 8 cm (3.2 in) wide. The small yellow flowers appear in summer and autumn, followed by small green fleshy fruit, which are classified as drupes. Within the genus Persoonia, it is a member of the Lanceolata group of 58 closely related species. P. levis interbreeds with several other species where they grow together.
Persoonia lanceolata, commonly known as lance-leaf geebung, is a shrub native to New South Wales in eastern Australia. It reaches 3 m (9.8 ft) in height and has smooth grey bark and bright green foliage. Its small yellow flowers grow on racemes and appear in the austral summer and autumn, followed by green fleshy fruits which ripen the following spring. Within the genus Persoonia, P. lanceolata belongs to the lanceolata group of 58 closely related species. It interbreeds with several other species found in its range.
Persoonia laurina, commonly known as the laurel-leaved or laurel geebung, is a shrub of the family Proteaceae native to central New South Wales in eastern Australia. Found in sclerophyll forest, it grows to a height of 2 metres. The yellow flowers appear in late spring.
Persoonia chamaepitys, commonly known as the prostrate- or mountain geebung, is a shrub endemic to New South Wales in eastern Australia. It has a prostrate habit, reaching only 20 cm (7.9 in) high but spreading up to 2 m (6.6 ft) across, with bright green spine-like leaves and small yellow flowers appearing in summer and autumn.
Vexatorella is a genus containing four species of flowering plant, commonly known as vexators, in the family Proteaceae. The genus is endemic to the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. The name means “little trouble-maker”, given with reference to the initial difficulties of placing V. latebrosa within the family. All species are shrubs which occur in dry fynbos habitats on the fringes of the Succulent Karoo ecoregion. The inflorescences are similar to those of the related leucospermums but also share features of the leucadendrons, with the floral bracts becoming woody and enlarged following pollination. The flowers are insect-pollinated, with the seeds dispersed by ants (myrmecochory).
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