1071

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1071 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 1071
MLXXI
Ab urbe condita 1824
Armenian calendar 520
ԹՎ ՇԻ
Assyrian calendar 5821
Balinese saka calendar 992–993
Bengali calendar 478
Berber calendar 2021
English Regnal year 5  Will. 1   6  Will. 1
Buddhist calendar 1615
Burmese calendar 433
Byzantine calendar 6579–6580
Chinese calendar 庚戌(Metal  Dog)
3767 or 3707
     to 
辛亥年 (Metal  Pig)
3768 or 3708
Coptic calendar 787–788
Discordian calendar 2237
Ethiopian calendar 1063–1064
Hebrew calendar 4831–4832
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1127–1128
 - Shaka Samvat 992–993
 - Kali Yuga 4171–4172
Holocene calendar 11071
Igbo calendar 71–72
Iranian calendar 449–450
Islamic calendar 463–464
Japanese calendar Enkyū 3
(延久3年)
Javanese calendar 975–976
Julian calendar 1071
MLXXI
Korean calendar 3404
Minguo calendar 841 before ROC
民前841年
Nanakshahi calendar −397
Seleucid era 1382/1383 AG
Thai solar calendar 1613–1614
Tibetan calendar 阳金狗年
(male Iron-Dog)
1197 or 816 or 44
     to 
阴金猪年
(female Iron-Pig)
1198 or 817 or 45
Emperor Romanos IV is brought before Alp Arslan after the Battle of Manzikert. Manzikert.jpg
Emperor Romanos IV is brought before Alp Arslan after the Battle of Manzikert.

Year 1071 ( MLXXI ) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Saturday is any non-leap year that begins on Saturday, 1 January, and ends on Saturday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is B. The most recent year of such kind was 2011 and the next one will be 2022 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2017 and 2023 in the obsolete Julian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in May. Leap years starting on Friday share this characteristic.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By place

Byzantine Empire

  • August 26 Battle of Manzikert: The Byzantine army (35,000 man) under Emperor Romanos IV meets the Seljuk Turk forces of Sultan Alp Arslan near the town of Manzikert. Although the armies are initially evenly matched, as the Byzantines advance the Seljuk Turks withdraw before them, launching hit-and-run attacks on the Byzantine flanks. While attempt to withdraw the Byzantine army falls apart, either through treachery of confusion – the battle ends in a decisive defeat for the Byzantine Empire. Romanos is captured (later released by Alp Arslan within a week) and much of the elite Varangian Guard is destroyed.
  • October 24 Romanos IV is deposed by Caesar John Doukas and his political advisor Michael Psellos (after his return in Constantinople). Michael VII (Doukas) is crowned co-emperor – and his mother Eudokia is forced to retire to a monastery.

August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 127 days remaining until the end of the year.

Battle of Manzikert battle between the Byzantine Empire and Seljuq Turks of 1071

The Battle of Manzikert was fought between the Byzantine Empire and the Seljuk Empire on 26 August 1071 near Manzikert, theme of Iberia. The decisive defeat of the Byzantine army and the capture of the Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes played an important role in undermining Byzantine authority in Anatolia and Armenia, and allowed for the gradual Turkification of Anatolia. Many of the Turks, who had been, during the 11th century, travelling westward, saw the victory at Manzikert as an entrance to Asia Minor.

Romanos IV Diogenes Byzantine emperor

Romanos IV Diogenes, also known as Romanus IV, was a member of the Byzantine military aristocracy who, after his marriage to the widowed empress Eudokia Makrembolitissa, was crowned Byzantine emperor and reigned from 1068 to 1071. During his reign he was determined to halt the decline of the Byzantine military and to stop Turkish incursions into the Byzantine Empire, but in 1071 he was captured and his army routed at the Battle of Manzikert. While still captive he was overthrown in a palace coup, and when released he was quickly defeated and detained by members of the Doukas family. In 1072, he was blinded and sent to a monastery, where he died of his wounds.

Europe

February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 312 days remaining until the end of the year.

The Battle of Cassel was fought on 22 February 1071 between Robert I of Flanders and his nephew, Arnulf III. The battle was a victory for Robert, and Arnulf was killed in the battle.

Robert I, Count of Flanders Count of Flanders

Robert I of Flanders, known as Robert the Frisian, was count of Flanders from 1071 to his death in 1093.

England

  • The English rebels under Hereward (the Wake) and Morcar, Saxon former earl of Northumbria, are forced to retreat to their stronghold on the Isle of Ely. They make a desperate stand against the Norman forces led by King William I (the Conqueror), but are defeated.
  • Edwin, earl of Mercia, rebels against William I, but is betrayed and killed. His castle and lands at Dudley (located in the West Midlands) are given to William's Norman subjects.
Hereward the Wake 11th-century English rebel against the Norman Conquest

Hereward the Wake, , was an Anglo-Saxon nobleman and a leader of local resistance to the Norman Conquest of England. His base, when leading the rebellion against the Norman rulers, was the Isle of Ely in East Anglia. According to legend he roamed the Fens, covering North Cambridgeshire, Southern Lincolnshire and West Norfolk, leading popular opposition to William the Conqueror.

Morcar was the son of Ælfgār and brother of Ēadwine. He was the earl of Northumbria from 1065 to 1066, when he was replaced by William the Conqueror with Copsi.

Earl of Northumbria was a title in the Anglo-Danish, late Anglo-Saxon, and early Anglo-Norman period in England. The earldom of Northumbria was the successor of the earldom of Bamburgh. In the seventh century, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira were united in the kingdom of Northumbria, but this was destroyed by the Vikings in 867. Southern Northumbria, the former Deira, then became the Viking kingdom of York, while English earls ruled the former northern kingdom of Bernicia from their base at Bamburgh. The northern part of Bernicia was lost to the Scots, probably in the late tenth century. In 1006 Uhtred the Bold was earl of Bamburgh, and Æthelred the Unready appointed him earl of York as well, re-uniting the area of Northumbria still under English control into a single earldom. Uhtred was murdered in 1016, and Cnut then appointed Eric of Hlathir earl of Northumbria at York, but Uhtred's dynasty held onto Bernicia until 1041, when the earldom was again united. A descendant of Uhtred, Gospatric, was appointed earl by William the Conqueror in 1067, but William expelled him in 1072. Gospatric was then given lands in Scotland, and his descendants became earls of Dunbar. The earldom of Northumbria was broken up in the early Norman period and dissolved into the earldoms of York and Northumberland, with much land going to the prince-bishopric of Durham.

Africa

Zaynab an-Nafzāwiyyah, was a Berber woman of influence in the early days of the Almoravid Berber empire which gained control of Morocco, Algeria, and parts of Spain.

Yusuf ibn Tashfin King of Almoravid

Yusuf ibn Tashfin also, Tashafin, Teshufin; or Yusuf was leader of the Berber Moroccan Almoravid empire. He co-founded the city of Marrakesh and led the Muslim forces in the Battle of Zallaqa/Sagrajas. Ibn Tashfin came to al-Andalus from Africa to help the Muslims fight against Alfonso VI, eventually achieving victory and promoting an Islamic system in the region. He was married to Zainab al-Nafzawiyya, whom he reportedly trusted politically.

Almoravid dynasty

The Almoravid dynasty was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus. Founded by Abdallah ibn Yasin, the Almoravid capital was Marrakesh, a city the ruling house founded in 1062. The dynasty originated among the Lamtuna and the Gudala, nomadic Berber tribes of the Sahara, traversing the territory between the Draa, the Niger, and the Senegal rivers.

Births

October 22 is the 295th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 70 days remaining until the end of the year.

William IX, Duke of Aquitaine Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitou

William IX, called the Troubador, was the Duke of Aquitaine and Gascony and Count of Poitou between 1086 and his death. He was also one of the leaders of the Crusade of 1101. Though his political and military achievements have a certain historical importance, he is best known as the earliest troubadour — a vernacular lyric poet in the Occitan language — whose work survived.

Duchy of Aquitaine Medieval duchy in southern France

The Duchy of Aquitaine was a historical fiefdom in western, central and southern areas of present-day France to the south of the Loire River, although its extent, as well as its name, fluctuated greatly over the centuries, at times comprising much of what is now southwestern France (Gascony) and central France.

Deaths

Related Research Articles

Alp Arslan Sultan of the Seljuq Empire

Alp Arslan, real name Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri, was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty. As Sultan, Alp Arslan greatly expanded Seljuk territory and consolidated power, defeating rivals to his south and northwest. His victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 ushered in the Turkish settlement of Anatolia. For his military prowess and fighting skills he obtained the name Alp Arslan, which means "Heroic Lion" in Turkish.

The 1070s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1070, and ended on December 31, 1079.

The 1060s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1060, and ended on December 31, 1069.

1072 Year

Year 1072 (MLXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

Year 1118 (MCXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1068 Year

Year 1068 (MLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

1059 Year

Year 1059 (MLIX) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

1064 Year

Year 1064 (MLXIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

1065 Year

Year 1065 (MLXV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

1067 Year

Year 1067 (MLXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

1069 Year

Year 1069 (MLXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Michael VII Doukas Byzantine emperor

Michael VII Doukas or Dukas/Ducas, nicknamed Parapinakes, was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078.

Constantine X Doukas Byzantine emperor

Constantine X Doukas or Dukas, Latinised as Ducas was Byzantine Emperor from 1059 to 1067. He was the founder and first ruling member of the short-lived Doukid dynasty. During his reign, the Normans took over much of the remaining Byzantine territories in Italy while in the Balkans the Hungarians occupied Belgrade. He also suffered defeats against the Seljuk sultan Alp Arslan.

Andronikos Doukas, Latinized as Andronicus Ducas, was a protovestiarios and protoproedros of the Byzantine Empire.

Komnenian restoration

The Komnenian restoration is the term used by historians to describe the military, financial, and territorial recovery of the Byzantine Empire under the Komnenian dynasty, from the accession of Alexios I Komnenos in 1081 to the death of Andronikos I Komnenos in 1185. At the onset of the reign of Alexios I, the empire was reeling from its defeat by the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The empire was also being threatened by the Normans of Robert Guiscard, who were invading the Balkans from their base in southern Italy. All this occurred as the empire's military institution was in disarray and had grown increasingly reliant on mercenaries. Previous emperors had also squandered the large gold deposits of Constantinople, so the defense of the empire had broken down, and there were few troops to fill the gaps.

Byzantine Empire under the Doukas dynasty

The Byzantine Empire was ruled by emperors of the Doukas dynasty between 1059 and 1081. There are six emperors and co-emperors of this period: the dynasty's founder, Emperor Constantine X Doukas, his brother John Doukas, katepano and later Caesar, Romanos IV Diogenes, Constantine's son Michael VII Doukas, Michael's son and co-emperor Constantine Doukas, and finally Nikephoros III Botaneiates, who claimed descent from the Phokas family.

Rashid al-Dawla Mahmud, full name Mahmud bin Shibl al-Dawla Nasr bin Salih bin Mirdas, also known as Abu Salama Mahmud bin Nasr bin Salih, was the Mirdasid emir of Aleppo from 1060 to 1061 and again from 1065 until his death.

References

  1. Kleinhenz, Christopher (2010). Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 95. ISBN   0-415-93930-5.