956

Last updated
Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
956 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 956
CMLVI
Ab urbe condita 1709
Armenian calendar 405
ԹՎ ՆԵ
Assyrian calendar 5706
Balinese saka calendar 877–878
Bengali calendar 363
Berber calendar 1906
Buddhist calendar 1500
Burmese calendar 318
Byzantine calendar 6464–6465
Chinese calendar 乙卯(Wood  Rabbit)
3652 or 3592
     to 
丙辰年 (Fire  Dragon)
3653 or 3593
Coptic calendar 672–673
Discordian calendar 2122
Ethiopian calendar 948–949
Hebrew calendar 4716–4717
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 1012–1013
 - Shaka Samvat 877–878
 - Kali Yuga 4056–4057
Holocene calendar 10956
Iranian calendar 334–335
Islamic calendar 344–345
Japanese calendar Tenryaku 10
(天暦10年)
Javanese calendar 856–857
Julian calendar 956
CMLVI
Korean calendar 3289
Minguo calendar 956 before ROC
民前956年
Nanakshahi calendar −512
Seleucid era 1267/1268 AG
Thai solar calendar 1498–1499
Tibetan calendar 阴木兔年
(female Wood-Rabbit)
1082 or 701 or −71
     to 
阳火龙年
(male Fire-Dragon)
1083 or 702 or −70
Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury Saint Dunstan.jpg
Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury

Year 956 ( CMLVI ) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A leap year starting on Tuesday is any year with 366 days that begins on Tuesday, 1 January, and ends on Wednesday, 31 December. Its dominical letters hence are FE, such as the years 1884, 1924, 1952, 1980, 2008, 2036, 2064, 2092, and 2104 in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 1964, 1992, and 2020 in the obsolete Julian calendar. Any leap year that starts on Tuesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this leap year occurs in June. Common years starting on Wednesday share this characteristic.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

Byzantine Empire

Constantine VII Byzantine emperor

Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos or Porphyrogenitus was the fourth Emperor of the Macedonian dynasty of the Byzantine Empire, reigning from 913 to 959. He was the son of the emperor Leo VI and his fourth wife, Zoe Karbonopsina, and the nephew of his predecessor, the emperor Alexander.

Nikephoros II Phokas Byzantine emperor

Nikephoros II Phokas was Byzantine Emperor from 963 to 969. His brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of the Byzantine Empire during the 10th century. His reign, however, included controversy. In the west, he inflamed conflict with the Bulgarians and saw Sicily completely turn over to the Muslims, while he failed to make any serious gains in Italy following the incursions of Otto I. Meanwhile, in the east, he completed the conquest of Cilicia and even retook the island of Cyprus, thus opening the path for subsequent Byzantine incursions reaching as far as the Jazira and the Levant. His administrative policy was less successful, as in order to finance these wars he increased taxes both on the people and on the church, while maintaining unpopular theological positions and alienating many of his most powerful allies. These included his nephew John Tzimiskes, who would take the throne after killing Nikephoros in his sleep.

Byzantine Empire Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical exonyms; its citizens continued to refer to their empire simply as the Roman Empire, or Romania (Ῥωμανία), and to themselves as "Romans".

Europe

Liudolf, Duke of Swabia German noble

Liudolf, a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duke of Swabia from 950 until 954. His rebellion in 953/54 led to a major crisis of the rising German kingdom.

Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor German king and first emperor of the Ottonian empire

Otto I, traditionally known as Otto the Great, was German king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda.

Duchy of Swabia former country

The Duchy of Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom. It arose in the 10th century in the southwestern area that had been settled by Alemanni tribes in Late Antiquity.

Egypt


Earthquake Shaking of the surface of the earth caused by a sudden release of energy in the crust

An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities. The seismicity, or seismic activity, of an area is the frequency, type and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is also used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling.

Lighthouse of Alexandria lighthouse in Egypt, built in the 3rd century BC and destroyed in the Middle Ages

The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria, was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom, during the reign of Ptolemy II Philadelphus, which has been estimated to be 100 metres (330 ft) in overall height. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, for many centuries it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world. Badly damaged by three earthquakes between AD 956 and 1323, it then became an abandoned ruin. It was the third longest surviving ancient wonder, surviving in part until 1480, when the last of its remnant stones were used to build the Citadel of Qaitbay on the site. In 1994, French archaeologists discovered some remains of the lighthouse on the floor of Alexandria's Eastern Harbour. In 2016 the Ministry of State of Antiquities in Egypt had plans to turn submerged ruins of ancient Alexandria, including those of the Pharos, into an underwater museum.

Seven Wonders of the Ancient World remarkable constructions of classical antiquity

The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists. Although the list, in its current form, did not stabilise until the Renaissance, the first such lists of seven wonders date from the 1st-2nd century BC. The original list inspired innumerable versions through the ages, often listing seven entries. Of the original Seven Wonders, only one—the Great Pyramid of Giza, the oldest of the ancient wonders—remains relatively intact. The Colossus of Rhodes, the Lighthouse of Alexandria, the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus, the Temple of Artemis and the Statue of Zeus were all destroyed. The location and ultimate fate of the Hanging Gardens are unknown, and there is speculation that they may not have existed at all.

By topic

Religion

Dunstan 10th-century Archbishop of Canterbury and saint

Dunstan was successively Abbot of Glastonbury Abbey, Bishop of Worcester, Bishop of London, and Archbishop of Canterbury, later canonised as a saint. His work restored monastic life in England and reformed the English Church. His 11th-century biographer, Osbern, himself an artist and scribe, states that Dunstan was skilled in "making a picture and forming letters", as were other clergy of his age who reached senior rank.

Abbot Religious title

Abbot, meaning father, is an ecclesiastical title given to the male head of a monastery in various traditions, including Christianity. The office may also be given as an honorary title to a clergyman who is not the head of a monastery. The female equivalent is abbess.

Glastonbury Abbey former Benedictine abbey at Glastonbury

Glastonbury Abbey was a monastery in Glastonbury, Somerset, England. Its ruins, a grade I listed building and scheduled ancient monument, are open as a visitor attraction.

Births

Adalbert of Prague Czech Roman Catholic saint, patron saint of Bohemia, Poland, Hungary and Prussia

Adalbert of Prague ; c. 956 – 23 April 997), known in Czech by his birth name Vojtěch, was a Bohemian missionary and Christian saint. He was the Bishop of Prague and a missionary to the Hungarians, Poles, and Prussians, who was martyred in his efforts to convert the Baltic Prussians to Christianity. He is said to be the composer of the oldest Czech hymn Hospodine, pomiluj ny and Bogurodzica, the oldest known Polish hymn, but the authorship has not confirmed. St. Adalbert was later declared the patron saint of the Czech Republic, Poland, and the former polity of Prussia. He is also the patron saint of the Archdiocese of Esztergom.

Akazome Emon Japanese poetess

Akazome Emon was a Japanese waka poet and early historian who lived in the mid-Heian period. She is a member both of the Thirty Six Elder Poetic Sages and the Thirty Six Female Poetic Sages.

<i>Waka</i> (poetry) type of poetry in classical Japanese literature.

Waka is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature. Waka are composed in Japanese, and are contrasted with poetry composed by Japanese poets in Classical Chinese, which are known as kanshi. Although waka in modern Japanese is written as 和歌, in the past it was also written as 倭歌, and a variant name is yamato-uta (大和歌).

Deaths

Related Research Articles

The 920s decade ran from January 1, 920, to December 31, 929.

The 940s decade ran from January 1, 940, to December 31, 949.

The 950s decade ran from January 1, 950, to December 31, 959.

The 960s decade ran from January 1, 960, to December 31, 969.

1002 Year

Year 1002 (MII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

961 Year

Year 961 (CMLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

962 Year

Year 962 (CMLXII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

963 Year

Year 963 (CMLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

923 Year

Year 923 (CMXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

952 Year

Year 952 (CMLII) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

Year 922 (CMXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

960 Year

Year 960 (CMLX) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

957 Year

Year 957 (CMLVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

905 Year

Year 905 (CMV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

920 Year

Year 920 (CMXX) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

945 Year

Year 945 (CMXLV) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

944 Year

Year 944 (CMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

King of Italy ruler who ruled part or all of the Italian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire

King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a "barbarian" military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

Berengar II of Italy Italian monarch

Berengar II was the King of Italy from 950 until his deposition in 961. He was a scion of the Anscarid and Unruoching dynasties, and was named after his maternal grandfather, Berengar I. He succeeded his father as Margrave of Ivrea around 923, and after 940 led the aristocratic opposition to Kings Hugh and Lothair II. In 950 he succeeded the latter and had his son, Adalbert crowned as his co-ruler. In 952 he recognised the suzerainty of Otto I of Germany, but he later joined a revolt against him. In 960 he invaded the Papal States, and the next year his kingdom was conquered by Otto. Berengar remained at large until his surrender in 964. He died imprisoned in Germany two years later.

Adalbert of Italy Margrave of Ivrea

Adalbert was the King of Italy from 950 until 961, ruling jointly with his father, Berengar II. After his deposition, he continued to claim the Italian kingdom until his defeat in battle in 965. Since he was the second Adalbert in his family, the Anscarids, he is sometimes numbered Adalbert II. It is occasionally, especially in older works, shortened to Albert, which has the same roots.

References

  1. Timothy Reuter (1999). The New Cambrigde Medieval History, Volume III, p. 591. ISBN   978-0-521-36447-8.
  2. Timothy Reuter (1999). The New Cambrigde Medieval History, Volume III, p. 386. ISBN   978-0-521-36447-8.
  3. Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "St. Dunstan" Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.