895

Last updated

Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
895 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar 895
DCCCXCV
Ab urbe condita 1648
Armenian calendar 344
ԹՎ ՅԽԴ
Assyrian calendar 5645
Balinese saka calendar 816–817
Bengali calendar 302
Berber calendar 1845
Buddhist calendar 1439
Burmese calendar 257
Byzantine calendar 6403–6404
Chinese calendar 甲寅(Wood  Tiger)
3591 or 3531
     to 
乙卯年 (Wood  Rabbit)
3592 or 3532
Coptic calendar 611–612
Discordian calendar 2061
Ethiopian calendar 887–888
Hebrew calendar 4655–4656
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 951–952
 - Shaka Samvat 816–817
 - Kali Yuga 3995–3996
Holocene calendar 10895
Iranian calendar 273–274
Islamic calendar 281–282
Japanese calendar Kanpyō 7
(寛平7年)
Javanese calendar 793–794
Julian calendar 895
DCCCXCV
Korean calendar 3228
Minguo calendar 1017 before ROC
民前1017年
Nanakshahi calendar −573
Seleucid era 1206/1207 AG
Thai solar calendar 1437–1438
Tibetan calendar 阳木虎年
(male Wood-Tiger)
1021 or 640 or −132
     to 
阴木兔年
(female Wood-Rabbit)
1022 or 641 or −131
Statue of Arpad at Rackeve (Bulgaria) Arpad Rackeve.JPG
Statue of Árpád at Ráckeve (Bulgaria)

Year 895 ( DCCCXCV ) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Roman numerals Numbers in the Roman numeral system

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet. Roman numerals, as used today, employ seven symbols, each with a fixed integer value, as follows:

A common year starting on Wednesday is any non-leap year that begins on Wednesday, 1 January, and ends on Wednesday, 31 December. Its dominical letter hence is E. The most recent year of such kind was 2014, and the next one will be 2025 in the in the Gregorian calendar or, likewise, 2015 and 2026 in the obsolete Julian calendar. The century year, 1800, was also a common year starting on Wednesday in the Gregorian calendar, see below for more. Any common year that starts on Wednesday, Friday or Saturday has only one Friday the 13th; The only Friday the 13th in this common year occurs in June. Leap years starting on Tuesday share this characteristic.

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC, was a reform of the Roman calendar. It took effect on 1 January 45 BC, by edict. It was the predominant calendar in the Roman world, most of Europe, and in European settlements in the Americas and elsewhere, until it was refined and gradually replaced by the Gregorian calendar, promulgated in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII.

Contents

Events

By place

Europe

  • The Magyars are expelled from southern Russia, and settle in the Carpathian Basin, under the leadership of Árpád (The traditional date of 896 held during the 20th century has proved to be erroneous). Emperor Leo VI (the Wise) seeks aid from the Magyars, and after crossing the Danube on Byzantine ships, they ravage Bulgarian territory. [1]
  • Simeon I (the Great), ruler ( khan ) of the Bulgarian Empire, seeks refuge in the fortress of Drastar, while the Magyars reach the outskirts of the capital Preslav. Facing a difficult situation with war on two fronts, Simeon calls for a truce. Leo VI sends the diplomat Leo Choirosphaktes to Bulgaria, to negotiate the terms. [2]
  • King Odo (or Eudes) takes a large army against Rheims, and forces anti-king Charles the Simple to flee to Germany. King Arnulf of Carinthia, throwing off his agreements with Odo, charges his son Zwentibold to invade the West Frankish Kingdom, and re-install Charles on the throne.
  • May Arnulf of Carinthia summons the Imperial Diet in his residence at Worms. Angered by the non-appearance of Charles the Simple, he again supports Odo's claim to the throne of the West Frankish Kingdom. In the same assembly, he crowns Zwentibold as king of Lotharingia.
  • Guy IV, duke of Spoleto, conquers Benevento (after the Byzantines have moved the capital of Byzantine Italy from Benevento to Bari). Guy makes himself prince, thereby uniting the two Italian states. The Byzantines attempt to retake Benevento, but are defeated by Lombard troops.
  • December Arnulf of Carinthia invades Italy, at the head of an East Frankish expeditionary army. He arrives in Pavia and reorganizes the Lombard state. Arnulf partitions the northern part of the kingdom: the western half (March of Lombardy) and the eastern half (March of Verona).
  • Arnulf of Carinthia crosses the Po River and divides his army in two: one corps (Swabian) proceeds to Florence (via Bologna), while the other corps (Franks) moves through the Lunigiana to the precincts of Rome.
  • Spytihněv I, duke of Bohemia, together with the Slavník prince Witizla, breaks away from Great Moravia, and swears allegiance to Arnulf of Carinthia in Regensburg.
Hungarians ethnic group

Hungarians, also known as Magyars, are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary and historical Hungarian lands who share a common culture, history and speak the Hungarian language. Hungarians belong to the Uralic speaking peoples. There are an estimated 14.2–14.5 million ethnic Hungarians and their descendants worldwide, of whom 9.6 million live in today's Hungary. About 2.2 million Hungarians live in areas that were part of the Kingdom of Hungary before the Treaty of Trianon and are now parts of Hungary's seven neighbouring countries, especially Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia and Austria. Significant groups of people with Hungarian ancestry live in various other parts of the world, most of them in the United States, Canada, Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Brazil, Australia, and Argentina. Hungarians can be classified into several subgroups according to local linguistic and cultural characteristics; subgroups with distinct identities include the Székelys, the Csángós, the Palóc, the Matyó and the Jász people, the last being considered an Iranic ethnic group being closely related to the Ossetians.

Russia transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia

Russia, officially the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres (6,612,100 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is the largest metropolitan area in Europe proper and one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.

The Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin, also Hungarian conquest or Hungarian land-taking, was a series of historical events ending with the settlement of the Hungarians in Central Europe at the turn of the 9th and 10th centuries. Before the arrival of the Hungarians, three early medieval powers, the First Bulgarian Empire, East Francia and Moravia, had fought each other for control of the Carpathian Basin. They occasionally hired Hungarian horsemen as soldiers. Therefore, the Hungarians who dwelt on the Pontic steppes east of the Carpathians were familiar with their future homeland when their "land-taking" started.

Britain

Anarawd ap Rhodri was a King of Gwynedd and referenced as "King of the Britons" in the Annales Cambriae.

Kingdom of Gwynedd Kingdom in north Wales

The Principality or Kingdom of Gwynedd was a Roman Empire successor state that emerged in sub-Roman Britain in the 5th century during the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain.

Seisyllwg kingdom in west Britain

Seisyllwg was a petty kingdom of medieval Wales. It is unclear when it emerged as a distinct unit, but according to later sources it consisted of the former Kingdom of Ceredigion plus the region known as Ystrad Tywi. Thus it covered the modern county of Ceredigion, part of Carmarthenshire, and the Gower Peninsula. It is evidently named after Seisyll, king of Ceredigion in the 7th or early 8th century, but it is unknown if he was directly responsible for its establishment. In the 10th century Seisyllwg became the center of power for Hywel Dda, who came to rule most of Wales. In 920 Hywel merged Seisyllwg with the Kingdom of Dyfed to form the new kingdom of Deheubarth.

Arabian Empire

Hamdan ibn Hamdun ibn al-Harith al-Taghlibi was a Taghlibi Arab chieftain in the Jazira, and the patriarch of the Hamdanid dynasty. Alongside other Arab chieftains of the area, he resisted the attempts at re-imposition of Abbasid control over the Jazira in the 880s, and joined the Kharijite Rebellion. He was finally defeated and captured by Caliph al-Mu'tadid in 895, but was later released as a reward for the distinguished services of his son Husayn to the Caliph.

The Banu Taghlib, also known as Taghlib ibn Wa'il, were an Arab tribe that originated in Najd, but inhabited Upper Mesopotamia from the late 6th century onward. Their parent tribe was the Rabi'ah, and they thus traced their descent to the Adnanites. The Taghlib were among the most powerful and cohesive nomadic tribes of the pre-Islamic era and were known for their bitter wars with their kinsmen from the Banu Bakr, as well as their struggles with the Lakhmid kings of al-Hira in Iraq. The tribe embraced Monophysite Christianity and remained largely Christian long after the advent of Islam in the mid-7th century. After early opposition to the Muslims, the Taghlib eventually secured for themselves an important place in Umayyad politics. They allied with the Umayyads and engaged in numerous battles with the rebellious Qaysi tribes during the Qays–Yaman feuding in the late 7th century.

Al-Mutadid Abbasid caliph

Abu'l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Talha al-Muwaffaq, better known by his regnal name al-Mu'tadid bi-llah was the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad from 892 until his death in 902.

Mexico

Ce Acatl Topiltzin Mexican priest

Cē Ācatl Topiltzin Quetzalcoatl is a mythologised figure appearing in 16th-century accounts of Nahua historical traditions, where he is identified as a ruler in the 10th century of the Toltecs— by Aztec tradition their predecessors who had political control of the Valley of Mexico and surrounding region several centuries before the Aztecs themselves arrived on the scene.

Toltec Empire

According to Mesoamerican historiography, the Toltec Empire, Toltec Kingdom or Altepetl Tollan was a political entity in Mexico. It existed through the classic and post-classic periods of Mesoamerican chronology, but gained most of its power in the post-classic. During this time its sphere of influence reached as far away as the Yucatan Peninsula.

Morelos State of Mexico

Morelos, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Morelos, is one of the 32 states, which comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 36 municipalities and its capital city is Cuernavaca.

By topic

Music

<i>Musica enchiriadis</i> anonymous 9th century treatise on music

Musica enchiriadis is an anonymous musical treatise of the 9th century. It is the first surviving attempt to set up a system of rules for polyphony in western art music. The treatise was once attributed to Hucbald, but this is no longer accepted. Some historians once attributed it to Odo of Cluny (879-942). It has also been attributed to Abbot Hoger.

Polyphony

In music, polyphony is one type of musical texture, where a texture is, generally speaking, the way that melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic aspects of a musical composition are combined to shape the overall sound and quality of the work. In particular, polyphony consists of two or more simultaneous lines of independent melody, as opposed to a musical texture with just one voice, monophony, or a texture with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords, which is called homophony.

Births

Deaths

Related Research Articles

The 880s decade ran from January 1, 880, to December 31, 889.

The 890s decade ran from January 1, 890, to December 31, 899.

814 Year

Year 814 (DCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

The 910s decade ran from January 1, 910, to December 31, 919.

899 Year

Year 899 (DCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

846 Year

Year 846 (DCCCXLVI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

891 Year

Year 891 (DCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

836 Year

Year 836 (DCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

887 Year

Year 887 (DCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

900 Year

Year 900 (CM) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

Year 922 (CMXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

896 Year

Year 896 (DCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar.

904 Year

Year 904 (CMIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar.

905 Year

Year 905 (CMV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

908 Year

Year 908 (CMVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar.

894 Year

Year 894 (DCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar.

892 Year

Year 892 (DCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar.

893 Year

Year 893 (DCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

889 Year

Year 889 (DCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar.

888 Year

Year 888 (DCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar.

References

  1. John V.A. Fine, Jr. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, p. 138. ISBN   978-0-472-08149-3.
  2. John V.A. Fine, Jr. (1991). The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century, pp. 138–139. ISBN   978-0-472-08149-3.
  3. Paul Hill (2009). The Viking Wars of Alfred the Great, pp. 134–135. ISBN   978-1-59416-087-5.