Cardinalfishes are a family, Apogonidae, of ray-finned fishes found in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans; they are chiefly marine, but some species are found in brackish water and a few (notably Glossamia ) are found in fresh water. A handful of species are kept in the aquarium and are popular as small, peaceful, and colourful fish. The family includes about 370 species.
They are generally small fish, with most species being less than 10 cm (3.9 in), and are often brightly coloured. They are distinguished by their large mouths, and the division of the dorsal fin into two separate fins. Most species live in tropical or subtropical waters, where they inhabit coral reefs and lagoons.
They are nocturnal, spending the day in dark crevices within the reef. At least some species brood their eggs inside the mouths of the males.
The fifth edition of Fishes of the World recognises only two subfamilies of the Apogonidae:
Apogon is a large genus of fish in the family Apogonidae, the cardinalfishes. They are among the most common fish on coral reefs. Over 200 species have been classified in genus Apogon as members of several subgenera. Some of these subgenera, such as Ostorhinchus, have been elevated to genus status, leaving just over 50 species in the genus.
Sargocentron is a genus of squirrelfish found in tropical parts of the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, with the greatest species diversity near reefs in the Indo-Pacific. Being largely or entirely nocturnal, they have relatively large eyes. Red and silvery colours dominate. The preopercle spines are venomous and can give painful wounds. Most have a maximum length of 15–25 cm (6–10 in), but S. iota barely reaches 8 cm (3 in), and S. spiniferum can reach more than 50 cm (20 in).
Ostorhinchus cyanosoma, commonly known as the yellow-striped cardinalfish, goldenstriped cardinalfish, or the orange-lined cardinalfish, is a species of marine fish in the cardinalfish family of order Perciformes. It is native to the Indo-West Pacific.
The Gobionellinae are a subfamily of fish which was formerly classified in the family Gobiidae, the gobies, but the 5th Edition of Fishes of the World classifies the subfamily as part of the family Oxudercidae. Members of Gobionellinae mostly inhabit estuarine and freshwater habitats; the main exception is the genus Gnatholepis, which live with corals in marine environments. The subfamily is distributed in tropical and temperate regions around the world with the exception of the northeastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Ponto-Caspian region. It includes around 370 species and 55 genera: Wikipedia articles about genera list about 389 species.
Apogonichthyoides is a genus of fish in the family Apogonidae, the cardinalfishes. They are native to the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean.
Cheilodipterus is a genus of fishes in the family Apogonidae, the cardinalfishes. They are native to the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean.
Foa is a genus of fishes in the family Apogonidae, the cardinalfishes, native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Fowleria is a genus of fishes in the family Apogonidae native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans. The name of this genus honors the American ichthyologist Henry Weed Fowler ( ) of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, who attended Stanford University, where he was a student of David Starr Jordan's.
Glossamia is a genus of freshwater fish in the family Apogonidae. The majority of the species are endemic to New Guinea, but G. aprion is also found in Australia.
Gymnapogon is a genus of fish in the family Apogonidae. They are native to the Indo-West Pacific and central Pacific Oceans, where they occur in reefs and nearby habitat types. These species are usually no more than 5 centimeters long and have semitransparent bodies without scales. The genus name is a compound noun formed by combining the Greek gymnos meaning "naked", referring to the lack of scales in the type species, Gymnapogon japonicus, and Apogon, the type genus of the Apogonidae. One species, the B-spot cardinalfish, is notable for its larvae being rather large, conspicuous and fast-swimming.
Jaydia is a genus of fishes in the family Apogonidae native to the western Pacific Ocean.
Ostorhinchus is a genus of ray-finned fish in the family Apogonidae native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Paxton concilians, also known as the Paxton's cardinalfish, is a species of cardinalfish native to the Indian Ocean waters off of western Australia where it is found over the continental shelf at depths of from 46 to 80 metres. This species grows to a length of 7.6 centimetres (3.0 in) SL. This species was previously classified as the only known member of its genus and of its subfamily but the 5th edition of Fishes of the World placed the genus in the subfamily Pseudaminae. The genus name honours the Australian zoologist John R. Paxton of the Australian Museum in Sydney who provided the describers with the type specimens while the specific name means the uniting of disparate parts into a whole, a reference to this species continuous dorsal fin.
Pseudamia is a genus of cardinalfishes native to the Indian and Pacific oceans.
Rhabdamia is a genus of cardinalfishes native to the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Zapogon is a genus of fishes in the family Apogonidae, the cardinalfishes.
Zoramia is a genus of cardinalfishes native to the Indian and Pacific Ocean.
Taeniamia is a genus of cardinalfishes native to the Indian Ocean and the western Pacific Ocean.
The Apogoninae are the most species-rich and, of its shape, size, color and habitat, most diverse subfamily of cardinalfishes (Apogonidae). It can be found in coastal tropical and subtropical regions of the Indian Ocean, the eastern Pacific and the Atlantic, down to depths of 300 meters.
The Pseudaminae is a subfamily of ray-finned fishes, one of two subfamilies of the family Apogonidae, the cardinalfishes. They are characterised by having large caniform teeth which are placed on the on dentary and premaxillae, by having the lateral line absent or incomplete, by having no scales or if scales are present they are cycloid. One species, Gymnapogon urospilotus, is notable for its larvae being rather large and fast-swimming.
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