|Spinning (ring mill)|
|Serving canal||Ashton Canal|
|Structural engineer||William Fairbairn|
|Engine type||Beam then horizontal then electric|
|Mule Frames||77000 (1850s)|
Brunswick Mill, Ancoats is a former cotton spinning mill in Ancoats, Manchester, England. The mill was built around 1840, part of a group of mills built along the Ashton Canal, and at that time it was one of the country's largest mills. It was built round a quadrangle, a seven-storey block facing the canal.It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production finished in 1967.
A cotton mill is a building housing spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution in the development of the factory system.
Ancoats is an area of Manchester in North West England, next to the Northern Quarter, the northern part of Manchester city centre.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 2.8 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.
Ancoats is an inner city area of Manchester, in North West England, next to the Northern Quarter and the northern part of Manchester's commercial centre. Historically a part of Lancashire, Ancoats became one of the cradles of the Industrial Revolution, and has been called "the world's first industrial suburb".From the late-18th century, Ancoats became a thriving industrial district and from 1798 has been served by the Rochdale and Ashton Canals facilitating the movement of cotton, coal and finished goods. All Manchester's major railway stations were on the boundaries of Ancoats: Ancoats railway station on the Midland Railway, Ducie Street railway station and Manchester London Road railway station on the Great Central Railway, Cheshire Lines Committee, Oldham Road railway station and Victoria Station on the Manchester and Leeds Railway, Exchange station on the London and North Western Railway.
The term "inner city" has been used as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts in the city center and nearby areas. Sociologists sometimes turn this euphemism into a formal designation, applying the term "inner city" to such residential areas, rather than to geographically more central commercial districts. Some inner city areas of American cities have undergone gentrification, especially since the 1990s.
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011. It is the third-most populated region in the United Kingdom after the South East and Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester, Liverpool, Warrington, Preston, and Blackpool.
The Northern Quarter is an area of Manchester city centre, England, between Piccadilly station, Victoria station and Ancoats, centred on Oldham Street, just off Piccadilly Gardens. It was defined and named in the 1990s as part of the regeneration and gentrification of Manchester.
Surveying for the Rochdale Canal was carried out by James Brindley in 1765. The knowledge that its construction would make the transport of raw materials and finished goods more convenient, gave industrialists the confidence to build cotton mills. The first mills were built in Ancoats as early as 1790. In 1792 commissioners were appointed to improve the township of Manchester which included Ancoats. Towards the end of the 18th century steam power was used to power the cotton mills. Murray's Mills were built next to the Rochdale canal on Union Street (now Redhill Street) off Great Ancoats Street, by Adam and George Murray in 1798 and were known as Ancoats Mills when they were operated by McConnel & Company Ltd. The streets of Ancoats were laid out during the latter part of the 18th century, with little development taking place other than small houses and shops along Great Ancoats Street and Oldham Road. The Ashton Canal was linked to the Rochdale Canal at the Piccadilly Basin in 1798.
The Rochdale Canal is a navigable broad canal in Northern England, between Manchester and Sowerby Bridge, part of the connected system of the canals of Great Britain. Its name refers to the town of Rochdale, in Greater Manchester, through which it passes.
James Brindley was an English engineer. He was born in Tunstead, Derbyshire, and lived much of his life in Leek, Staffordshire, becoming one of the most notable engineers of the 18th century.
Great Ancoats Street is a street in the inner suburb of Ancoats, Manchester, England. Much of Great Ancoats Street was originally named Ancoats Lane and was the location of Ancoats Hall. The street passed through a thriving manufacturing area during the 19th century. It was in close proximity to the Ashton and Rochdale canals. A number of cotton mills built in the early and mid-Victorian period are nearby, some of which have been converted into residential or office buildings, such as Albion Mills. The Pin Mill Works at the junction with Fairfield Street was a late 18th-century pin works, that became a cotton mill run by J & J Thompson and works for dyeing and calico-printing. Brownsfield Mill, a Grade II* listed building, was built in 1825.
From the opening of the canals, development of mills continued on a much larger scale. Mills in Ancoats included, Victoria Mills, Wellington Mill, Brunswick Mill, India Mills, Dolton Mills, Lonsdale Mills, Phoenix Mill, Lloydsfield Mill and Sedgewick Mill, Decker Mill (owned by the Murray brothers), New Mill, Beehive Mill, Little Mill, Paragon Mill, Royal Mill and Pin Mill.
Victoria Mill is a Grade II* listed nineteenth century cotton spinning mill in Miles Platting, Manchester. It was a double mill designed by George Woodhouse completed in 1869.
Beehive Mill is a Grade II* listed former cotton mill in the district of Ancoats, Manchester, England. It is located at on a site surrounded by Radium Street, Jersey Street, Bengal Street and Naval Street.
Brunswick Mill was built around 1840 in one phase.The main seven-storey block facing the Ashton Canal was used for spinning. Preparation was done on the second floor and self-acting mules with 400 spindles were arranged transversely on the floors above. The wings contained some spinning and ancillary processes like winding. The mill is of fireproof construction and was built by David Bellhouse, but it is suspected that William Fairbairn was involved in the design. It was powered by a large double beam engine.
David Bellhouse (1764–1840) was an English builder who did much to shape Victorian-era Manchester, both physically and socially.
Sir William Fairbairn, 1st Baronet of Ardwick was a Scottish civil engineer, structural engineer and shipbuilder. In 1854 he succeeded George Stephenson and Robert Stephenson to become the third president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.
A beam engine is a type of steam engine where a pivoted overhead beam is used to apply the force from a vertical piston to a vertical connecting rod. This configuration, with the engine directly driving a pump, was first used by Thomas Newcomen around 1705 to remove water from mines in Cornwall. The efficiency of the engines was improved by engineers including James Watt who added a separate condenser, Jonathan Hornblower and Arthur Woolf who compounded the cylinders, and William McNaught (Glasgow) who devised a method of compounding an existing engine. Beam engines were first used to pump water out of mines or into canals, but could be used to pump water to supplement the flow for a waterwheel powering a mill.
Late in the century, Henry Bannermann of Stalybridge took over the mill. Its beam engine was replaced by a horizontal engine, and rope drives were fitted. New mules were installed longitudinally. In 1909, two towers were constructed and electric motors installed connected by a transformer to the Manchester Corporation Electricity mains. Brunswick was the first mill to be converted to electric in Manchester.
The industry peaked in 1912 when it produced eight billion yards of cloth. World War I caused a halt to the supply of raw cotton, and the government encouraged its colonies to build mills to spin and weave cotton. The war over, Lancashire never regained its markets. The independent mills were struggling. The Bank of England set up the Lancashire Cotton Corporation (LCC) in 1929 in an attempt to rationalise and save the industry.Brunswick Mill, Ancoats was one of 104 mills bought by the LCC, and one of the 53 mills that survived until 1950.
LCC replaced the mules with ring frames, which required the floors to be strengthened. The ring frames operated till the mid-1960s.
The mill structure was classified as a Grade II listed building in June 1994.
Brunswick Mill, Bradford Road, alongside the Ashton Canal, was a seven-storey mill with 35 loading bays facing directly onto the canal, with a smaller three 3/4-storey block of warehouses and offices backing onto Bradford Road.
The Brunswick Mill was one of the largest in Britain at that time and by the 1850s held some 276 carding machines, and 77,000 mule spindles,20 drawing frames, fifty slubbing frames and eighty one roving frames.
The building is now used by a variety of businesses.
Tudor Mill was cotton spinning mill in Ashton-under-Lyne, in the historic county of Lancashire, England. It was built between 1901 and 1903 for the Ashton Syndicate by Sydney Stott of Oldham. Tudor Mill was next to the Ashton Canal Warehouse at Portland Basin. It ceased spinning cotton in the 1960s and was used as a warehouse until it was destroyed by fire in 1970
Atlas Mill was a cotton spinning mill in the Waterloo district of Ashton-under-Lyne, Greater Manchester, in England. It was built between 1898 and 1900 for the Ashton Syndicate by Sydney Stott of Oldham. It was last mill in Ashton to cease spinning. It was spinning artificial fibres in 1987, and was demolished in 1994; the site is now a housing estate.
Arkwright Mill, Rochdale is a cotton spinning mill in Rochdale, Greater Manchester. It was built in 1885 by the Arkwright Cotton Spinning Co. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964.
Waterside Mill, Ashton-under-Lyne was a combined cotton spinning weaving mill in Whitelands, Ashton-under-Lyne, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. It was built as two independent factories. The weaving sheds date from 1857; the four-storey spinning mill dates from 1863. The spinning was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s. Production finished in the 1950s. Waterside Mill was converted to electricity around 1911.
Coppull Mill is a former cotton spinning mill in Coppull, Chorley, Lancashire. It was opened in 1906, and its sister mill, Mavis Mill in 1908. Together they employed 700 workers. The mill was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. The building is a Grade II listed building and is now used as an enterprise centre.
Palmer Mills, Stockport were cotton spinning mills in Portwood, Stockport, Greater Manchester. Built in the late 19th century, It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and sold on. Renamed the Stockport Paper Mill they survived into the 21st century when they were demolished to be replaced by modern businesses.
Wilton Mill, Radcliffe was a cotton spinning mill in Radcliffe, Bury, Greater Manchester. It was built in 1907 and was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production finished, it was used by the East Lancashire Paper Company but has now been demolished leaving an empty site next to the railways and the River Irwell.
Saxon Mill, Droylsden was a cotton spinning mill in Droylsden, Tameside, Greater Manchester. It was built in the 1907, taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production finished in the 1960s, the engine was scrapped in 1967, and the mill demolished in 1995.
Stalybridge Mill, Stalybridge is a cotton spinning mill in Stalybridge, Tameside, Greater Manchester. It was built in 1868, and the engine reconfigured in around 1925. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964.
May Mill, Pemberton is a cotton spinning mill in Pemberton, Wigan, Greater Manchester. Historically in Lancashire, it was built in 1889. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1962–63 to produce carpet fibre, which it continued to do until its closure on 17 October 1980.
Monton Mill was a cotton spinning mill in Eccles, Greater Manchester, England, built in 1906. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production finished, it was demolished but its name is preserved in the street name.
Elm Mill, is a four storey cotton spinning mill in Shaw and Crompton, Greater Manchester. It was built in 1890 for the Elm Spinning Company Ltd., and closed in 1928, when it was revived by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation (1929) and called Newby Mill. LCC and all their assets passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production at Newby finished in 1970, and it was used for warehousing. Subsequently, now named Shaw No 3 Mill, it became part of Littlewood's Shaw National Distribution Centre.
Malta Mill, Middleton is a former cotton spinning mill in the Mills Hill area of Chadderton, Greater Manchester. It lies alongside the Rochdale Canal. It was built in 1904 as a new mule mill, by F. W. Dixon The engine stopped in 1963. The building still stands.
Laurel Mill was a cotton spinning mill in the Mills Hill/Middleton Junction area of Chadderton, in the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham, Greater Manchester, England.
Junction Mill, Middleton Junction is a cotton spinning mill at Middleton Junction, Chadderton, Greater Manchester, alongside the Rochdale Canal.
Harp Mill was a former cotton spinning mill in the Castleton area of Rochdale, Greater Manchester, England. Queensway, Castleton was a hub of cotton mills including the three 't', Th'Arrow, Th'Harp, and Th'Ensor. The 1908 Castleton map includes: Marland Cotton Mill, Castleton Cotton Mill, Globe Works, Arrow Cotton Mill, Harp Cotton Mill, Globe Leather Works, Castleton Size Works and Castleton Iron Works. Th'Harp was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. The site now houses industrial units.
Mars Mill was a former cotton spinning mill in Castleton, Rochdale, Greater Manchester. Castleton joined the Borough of Rochdale in 1899. Queensway, Castleton was a hub of cotton mills; Mars, Marland, and Castleton Mill were a group of three. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964 and demolished in the 1990s; Marland survived until 2004.
Kingston Mill, Stockport is a mid nineteenth century cotton spinning mill in Edgeley, Stockport, Greater Manchester. It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production finished, it was made over to multiple uses.
Empress Mill, Ince was a single storey shed mill alongside the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, spinning cotton in Ince, Wigan, Greater Manchester, England. It was operated by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation from the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production ceased in 1975. It was the last mill in Ince to close, despite the intervention of Member of Parliament Michael McGuire, and a debate in the House of Commons on 20 March 1975.
Ellenroad Mill was a cotton spinning mill in Newhey, Milnrow, Rochdale in England. It was built as a mule spinning mill in 1890 by Stott and Sons and extended in 1899. It was destroyed by fire on 19 Jan 1916. When it was rebuilt, it was designed and equipped as a ring spinning mill.
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