Brunswick Mill, Ancoats

Last updated
Brunswick
Brunswick Mill, Ancoats 0001.png
Greater Manchester UK location map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Location within Greater Manchester
Cotton
Spinning (ring mill)
Architectural style Fireproof
Location Ancoats, Manchester
Serving canal Ashton Canal
Owner Henry Bannerman
Further ownership
Coordinates 53°29′07″N2°12′51″W / 53.4852°N 2.2143°W / 53.4852; -2.2143 Coordinates: 53°29′07″N2°12′51″W / 53.4852°N 2.2143°W / 53.4852; -2.2143
Construction
Built 1840s 1840
Renovated
  • 1:
Design team
Architect David Bellhouse
Structural engineer William Fairbairn
Power
Engine type Beam then horizontal then electric
Equipment
Mule Frames 77000 (1850s)
References
[1]

Brunswick Mill, Ancoats is a former cotton spinning mill in Ancoats, Manchester, England. The mill was built around 1840, part of a group of mills built along the Ashton Canal, and at that time it was one of the country's largest mills. It was built round a quadrangle, a seven-storey block facing the canal. [2] It was taken over by the Lancashire Cotton Corporation in the 1930s and passed to Courtaulds in 1964. Production finished in 1967.

Cotton mill factory housing powered spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton

A cotton mill is a building housing spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution in the development of the factory system.

Ancoats inner city area of Manchester, in North West England

Ancoats is an area of Manchester in North West England, next to the Northern Quarter, the northern part of Manchester city centre.

Manchester City and metropolitan borough in England

Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 2.8 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, and an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation. The local authority is Manchester City Council.

Contents

Location

Ancoats is an inner city area of Manchester, in North West England, next to the Northern Quarter and the northern part of Manchester's commercial centre. Historically a part of Lancashire, Ancoats became one of the cradles of the Industrial Revolution, and has been called "the world's first industrial suburb". [3] From the late-18th century, Ancoats became a thriving industrial district and from 1798 has been served by the Rochdale and Ashton Canals facilitating the movement of cotton, coal and finished goods. All Manchester's major railway stations were on the boundaries of Ancoats: Ancoats railway station on the Midland Railway, Ducie Street railway station and Manchester London Road railway station on the Great Central Railway, Cheshire Lines Committee, Oldham Road railway station and Victoria Station on the Manchester and Leeds Railway, Exchange station on the London and North Western Railway.

Inner city central area of a major city or metropolis

The term "inner city" has been used as a euphemism for lower-income residential districts in the city center and nearby areas. Sociologists sometimes turn this euphemism into a formal designation, applying the term "inner city" to such residential areas, rather than to geographically more central commercial districts. Some inner city areas of American cities have undergone gentrification, especially since the 1990s.

North West England Place in England

North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011. It is the third-most populated region in the United Kingdom after the South East and Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester, Liverpool, Warrington, Preston, and Blackpool.

Northern Quarter (Manchester) area in Manchester, England

The Northern Quarter is an area of Manchester city centre, England, between Piccadilly station, Victoria station and Ancoats, centred on Oldham Street, just off Piccadilly Gardens. It was defined and named in the 1990s as part of the regeneration and gentrification of Manchester.

Background

Surveying for the Rochdale Canal was carried out by James Brindley in 1765. The knowledge that its construction would make the transport of raw materials and finished goods more convenient, gave industrialists the confidence to build cotton mills. The first mills were built in Ancoats as early as 1790. In 1792 commissioners were appointed to improve the township of Manchester which included Ancoats. Towards the end of the 18th century steam power was used to power the cotton mills. Murray's Mills were built next to the Rochdale canal on Union Street (now Redhill Street) off Great Ancoats Street, by Adam and George Murray in 1798 and were known as Ancoats Mills when they were operated by McConnel & Company Ltd. The streets of Ancoats were laid out during the latter part of the 18th century, with little development taking place other than small houses and shops along Great Ancoats Street and Oldham Road. The Ashton Canal was linked to the Rochdale Canal at the Piccadilly Basin in 1798.

Rochdale Canal

The Rochdale Canal is a navigable broad canal in Northern England, between Manchester and Sowerby Bridge, part of the connected system of the canals of Great Britain. Its name refers to the town of Rochdale, in Greater Manchester, through which it passes.

James Brindley English engineer

James Brindley was an English engineer. He was born in Tunstead, Derbyshire, and lived much of his life in Leek, Staffordshire, becoming one of the most notable engineers of the 18th century.

Great Ancoats Street

Great Ancoats Street is a street in the inner suburb of Ancoats, Manchester, England. Much of Great Ancoats Street was originally named Ancoats Lane and was the location of Ancoats Hall. The street passed through a thriving manufacturing area during the 19th century. It was in close proximity to the Ashton and Rochdale canals. A number of cotton mills built in the early and mid-Victorian period are nearby, some of which have been converted into residential or office buildings, such as Albion Mills. The Pin Mill Works at the junction with Fairfield Street was a late 18th-century pin works, that became a cotton mill run by J & J Thompson and works for dyeing and calico-printing. Brownsfield Mill, a Grade II* listed building, was built in 1825.

From the opening of the canals, development of mills continued on a much larger scale. Mills in Ancoats included, Victoria Mills, Wellington Mill, Brunswick Mill, India Mills, Dolton Mills, Lonsdale Mills, Phoenix Mill, Lloydsfield Mill and Sedgewick Mill, Decker Mill (owned by the Murray brothers), New Mill, Beehive Mill, Little Mill, Paragon Mill, Royal Mill and Pin Mill.

Victoria Mill

Victoria Mill is a Grade II* listed nineteenth century cotton spinning mill in Miles Platting, Manchester. It was a double mill designed by George Woodhouse completed in 1869.

Beehive Mill

Beehive Mill is a Grade II* listed former cotton mill in the district of Ancoats, Manchester, England. It is located at on a site surrounded by Radium Street, Jersey Street, Bengal Street and Naval Street.

History

Brunswick Mill was built around 1840 in one phase. [2] The main seven-storey block facing the Ashton Canal was used for spinning. Preparation was done on the second floor and self-acting mules with 400 spindles were arranged transversely on the floors above. The wings contained some spinning and ancillary processes like winding. The mill is of fireproof construction and was built by David Bellhouse, but it is suspected that William Fairbairn was involved in the design. It was powered by a large double beam engine. [2]

David Bellhouse (1764–1840) was an English builder who did much to shape Victorian-era Manchester, both physically and socially.

William Fairbairn Scottish civil engineer, structural engineer and shipbuilder

Sir William Fairbairn, 1st Baronet of Ardwick was a Scottish civil engineer, structural engineer and shipbuilder. In 1854 he succeeded George Stephenson and Robert Stephenson to become the third president of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers.

Beam engine

A beam engine is a type of steam engine where a pivoted overhead beam is used to apply the force from a vertical piston to a vertical connecting rod. This configuration, with the engine directly driving a pump, was first used by Thomas Newcomen around 1705 to remove water from mines in Cornwall. The efficiency of the engines was improved by engineers including James Watt who added a separate condenser, Jonathan Hornblower and Arthur Woolf who compounded the cylinders, and William McNaught (Glasgow) who devised a method of compounding an existing engine. Beam engines were first used to pump water out of mines or into canals, but could be used to pump water to supplement the flow for a waterwheel powering a mill.

Late in the century, Henry Bannermann of Stalybridge took over the mill. Its beam engine was replaced by a horizontal engine, and rope drives were fitted. New mules were installed longitudinally. In 1909, two towers were constructed and electric motors installed connected by a transformer to the Manchester Corporation Electricity mains. Brunswick was the first mill to be converted to electric in Manchester. [2]

The industry peaked in 1912 when it produced eight billion yards of cloth. World War I caused a halt to the supply of raw cotton, and the government encouraged its colonies to build mills to spin and weave cotton. The war over, Lancashire never regained its markets. The independent mills were struggling. The Bank of England set up the Lancashire Cotton Corporation (LCC) in 1929 in an attempt to rationalise and save the industry. [4] Brunswick Mill, Ancoats was one of 104 mills bought by the LCC, and one of the 53 mills that survived until 1950.

LCC replaced the mules with ring frames, which required the floors to be strengthened. The ring frames operated till the mid-1960s. [2]

The mill structure was classified as a Grade II listed building in June 1994. [5]

Architecture

Brunswick Mill, Bradford Road, alongside the Ashton Canal, was a seven-storey mill with 35 loading bays facing directly onto the canal, with a smaller three 3/4-storey block of warehouses and offices backing onto Bradford Road.

Power

Equipment

The Brunswick Mill was one of the largest in Britain at that time and by the 1850s held some 276 carding machines, and 77,000 mule spindles, [6] 20 drawing frames, fifty slubbing frames and eighty one roving frames. [7]

Usage

Owners

The building is now used by a variety of businesses. [5]

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. LCC 1951
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Williams & Farnie 1992 , pp. 154–156
  3. "Explore Manchester". Pevsner Architectural Guides. Archived from the original on 2007-04-18. Retrieved 2007-05-22.
  4. Dunkerley 2009
  5. 1 2 Historic England. "Brunswick Mill (1197807)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 12 May 2014.
  6. "Manchester Cotton Mills". Archived from the original on 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2014-05-12.
  7. Parkinson-Bailey, John (2000). Manchester: An architectural history. Manchester University Press. ISBN   978-0-7190-5606-2 . Retrieved January 2009.Check date values in: |access-date= (help)

Bibliography