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Hobbs meter is a genericized trademark for devices used in aviation to measure the time that an aircraft is in use. The meters typically display hours and tenths of an hour, but there are several ways in which the meter may be activated:
For general aviation, Hobbs time is usually recorded in the pilot's log book, and many fixed-base operators that rent airplanes charge an hourly rate based on Hobbs Time. Tach Time is recorded in the engine's log books and is used, for example, to determine when the oil should be changed and the time between overhauls. Tach (tachometer) time differs from Hobbs Time in that it is linked to engine revolutions per minute (RPM). Tach Time records the time at some specific RPM. It is most accurate at cruise RPM, and least accurate while taxiing or stationary with the engine running. At these times, the clock runs slower. Depending on the type of flight, Tach Time can be 10–20% less than Hobbs Time. Many organizations such as flying clubs charge by Tach Time so as to differentiate themselves from fixed-base operators by the fact that 10-20% less time recorded makes it 10-20% cheaper to fly (if the hourly rate is the same). In the case where flying clubs use Tach Time, many will charge a dry rate, thus requiring the renter to pay for fuel on top of the hourly Tach Time rate.
The Hobbs Meter is named after John Weston Hobbs (1889–1968), who in 1938 founded the company named after him in Springfield, Illinois which manufactured the first electrically wound clocks for vehicle use. World War II created the demand for aviation hour meters which led to the development of the original Hobbs Meter. The company was eventually renamed Honeywell Hobbs after being acquired by Honeywell International, who in 2009 announced plans to move manufacturing to Mexico.
A turbocharger, formally a turbosupercharger and colloquially known as turbo, is a turbine-driven, forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's power output by forcing extra compressed air into the combustion chamber. This improvement over a naturally aspirated engine's power output is because the compressor can force more air—and proportionately more fuel—into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone.
An auxiliary power unit (APU) is a device on a vehicle that provides energy for functions other than propulsion. They are commonly found on large aircraft and naval ships as well as some large land vehicles. Aircraft APUs generally produce 115 V AC voltage at 400 Hz, to run the electrical systems of the aircraft; others can produce 28 V DC voltage. APUs can provide power through single or three-phase systems.
Flight instruments are the instruments in the cockpit of an aircraft that provide the pilot with data about the flight situation of that aircraft, such as altitude, airspeed, vertical speed, heading and much more other crucial information in flight. They improve safety by allowing the pilot to fly the aircraft in level flight, and make turns, without a reference outside the aircraft such as the horizon. Visual flight rules (VFR) require an airspeed indicator, an altimeter, and a compass or other suitable magnetic direction indicator. Instrument flight rules (IFR) additionally require a gyroscopic pitch-bank, direction and rate of turn indicator, plus a slip-skid indicator, adjustable altimeter, and a clock. Flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) require radio navigation instruments for precise takeoffs and landings.
A tachometer is an instrument measuring the rotation speed of a shaft or disk, as in a motor or other machine. The device usually displays the revolutions per minute (RPM) on a calibrated analogue dial, but digital displays are increasingly common.
A dead man's switch is a switch that is designed to be activated or deactivated if the human operator becomes incapacitated, such as through death, loss of consciousness, or being bodily removed from control. Originally applied to switches on a vehicle or machine, it has since come to be used to describe other intangible uses, as in computer software.
Flight training is a course of study used when learning to pilot an aircraft. The overall purpose of primary and intermediate flight training is the acquisition and honing of basic airmanship skills.
Aircraft engine controls provide a means for the pilot to control and monitor the operation of the aircraft's powerplant. This article describes controls used with a basic internal-combustion engine driving a propeller. Some optional or more advanced configurations are described at the end of the article. Jet turbine engines use different operating principles and have their own sets of controls and sensors.
The Pilatus PC-12 is a single-engine turboprop passenger and cargo aircraft manufactured by Pilatus Aircraft of Stans, Switzerland, since 1991. The main market for the aircraft is corporate transport and regional airliner operators. The PC-12 is the best-selling pressurized single-engine turbine-powered aircraft in the world and has been for several consecutive years, with 1,700 deliveries as of October 2019.
The Robinson R22 is a two-seat, two-bladed, single-engine light utility helicopter manufactured by Robinson Helicopter Company. It was designed in 1973 by Frank D. Robinson, and has been in production since 1979.
An electricity meter, electric meter, electrical meter, energy meter, or kilowatt-hour meter is a device that measures the amount of electric energy consumed by a residence, a business, or an electrically powered device.
The Learjet 25 is an American ten-seat, twin-engine, high-speed business jet aircraft manufactured by Learjet. It is a stretched version of the Learjet 24.
In aeronautics, a variable-pitch propeller is a type of propeller (airscrew) with blades that can be rotated around their long axis to change the blade pitch. A controllable-pitch propeller is one where the pitch is controlled manually by the pilot. Alternatively, a constant-speed propeller is one where the pilot sets the desired engine speed (RPM), and the blade pitch is controlled automatically without the pilot's intervention so that the rotational speed remains constant. The device which controls the propeller pitch and thus speed is called a propeller governor or constant speed unit.
United Airlines Flight 266 was a scheduled passenger flight from Los Angeles International Airport, California, to General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, via Stapleton International Airport, Denver, Colorado. On January 18, 1969, at approximately 18:21 PST, the Boeing 727 operating the flight crashed into Santa Monica Bay, Pacific Ocean, about 11.5 miles (18.5 km) west of Los Angeles International Airport, four minutes after takeoff, killing all 38 on board.
The tach(ometer) timer is an instrument used in aviation to accumulate the total number of revolutions performed by the engine. The unit of measure is equivalent to the number of hours of running at a certain, specific reference speed of rotation. If the reference speed of rotation is 2400 RPM then the timer runs in real time when the engine is running at 2400 RPM, half speed while the engine is run at 1200 RPM or at 5/6ths real time at 2000 RPM . The tach timer integrates over time the instantaneous rotation speed displayed by the tachometer. The displayed number is incremented by one if the engine is run at its reference speed for one hour. The quantity recorded is referred to as tach(ometer) hours. If the reference rotation speed is 2400 RPM then the tach timer records
Overspeed is a condition in which an engine is allowed or forced to turn beyond its design limit. The consequences of running an engine too fast vary by engine type and model and depend upon several factors, the most important of which are the duration of the overspeed and the speed attained. With some engines, a momentary overspeed can result in greatly reduced engine life or catastrophic failure. The speed of an engine is typically measured in revolutions per minute (rpm).
The Learjet 45 (LJ45) aircraft is a mid-size business jet aircraft produced by the Learjet Division of Bombardier Aerospace.
The de Havilland Gipsy Six is a British six-cylinder, air-cooled, inverted inline piston engine developed for aircraft use in the 1930s. It was based on the cylinders of the four-cylinder Gipsy Major and went on to spawn a whole series of similar aero engines that were still in common use until the 1980s.
Electronic Diesel Control is a diesel engine fuel injection control system for the precise metering and delivery of fuel into the combustion chamber of modern diesel engines used in trucks and cars.
Honeywell Aerospace is a manufacturer of aircraft engines and avionics, as well as a producer of auxiliary power units (APUs) and other aviation products. Headquartered in Phoenix, Arizona, it is a division of the Honeywell International conglomerate. It generates approximately $10 billion in annual revenue from a 50/50 mix of commercial and defense contracts.
Aeroflot Flight 5484 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight from Odessa to Kazan with a stopover in Kyiv that experienced loss of control followed by breaking up in the air on 29 August 1979 over the Tambov Oblast, killing all 63 people on board. It remains the deadliest Tu-124 crash and regular passenger services with the Tu-124 were permanently suspended after the accident, but the Tu-124 was still used by the Soviet military after the accident.