Hole

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A hole through a tree. Hole in wood.jpg
A hole through a tree.

A hole is an opening in or through a particular medium, usually a solid body. Holes occur through natural and artificial processes, and may be useful for various purposes, or may represent a problem needing to be addressed in many fields of engineering. Depending on the material and the placement, a hole may be an indentation in a surface (such as a hole in the ground), or may pass completely through that surface (such as a hole created by a hole puncher in a piece of paper). In engineering, a hole may be blind or through if it is partial or complete depth.

Contents

Types of hole

Perforation holes between a pair of postage stamps from a coil of stamps. Stamp US 1954 2c Jefferson coil pair.jpg
Perforation holes between a pair of postage stamps from a coil of stamps.

Holes can occur for a number of reasons, including natural processes and intentional actions by humans or animals. Holes in the ground that are made intentionally, such as holes made while searching for food, for replanting trees, or postholes made for securing an object, are usually made through the process of digging. Unintentional holes in an object are often a sign of damage. Potholes and sinkholes can damage human settlements. [1]

Holes can occur in a wide variety of materials, and at a wide range of scales. The smallest holes observable by humans include pinholes and perforations, but the smallest phenomenon described as a hole is an electron hole, which is a position in an atom or atomic lattice where an electron is missing. The largest phenomenon described as a hole is a supermassive black hole, an astronomical object which can be billions of times more massive than Earth's sun.

The deepest hole on Earth is the man-made Kola Superdeep Borehole, with a true vertical drill-depth of more than 7.5 miles (12 kilometers), which is only a fraction of the nearly 4,000 mile (6,400 kilometer) distance to the center of the Earth. [2]

Mathematical and scientific senses

Holes in mathematics

In geometric topology, the doughnut and the coffee cup are considered to fall into the same mathematical "genus" because each has one hole. Mug and Torus morph.gif
In geometric topology, the doughnut and the coffee cup are considered to fall into the same mathematical "genus" because each has one hole.

In mathematics, holes are examined in a number of ways. One of these is in homology, which is a general way of associating certain algebraic objects to other mathematical objects such as topological spaces. Homology groups were originally defined in algebraic topology, and homology was originally a rigorous mathematical method for defining and categorizing holes in a mathematical object called a manifold. The initial motivation for defining homology groups was the observation that two shapes can be distinguished by examining their holes. [3] For instance, a circle is not a disk because the circle has a hole through it while the disk is solid, [4] and the ordinary sphere is not a circle because the sphere encloses a two-dimensional hole while the circle encloses a one-dimensional hole. However, because a hole is "not there", it is not immediately obvious how to define a hole or how to distinguish different types of hole.

In geometric topology, however, holes are determined differently. In this field, the genus of a connected, orientable surface is an integer representing the maximum number of cuttings along non-intersecting closed simple curves without rendering the resultant manifold disconnected. [5] In layman's terms, it is the number of "holes" an object has ("holes" interpreted in the sense of doughnut holes; a hollow sphere would be considered as having zero holes in this sense). A doughnut, or torus, has 1 such hole. A sphere has 0.

Holes in physics

In physics, antimatter is pervasively described as a hole, a location that, when brought together with ordinary matter to fill the hole, results in both the hole and the matter cancelling each-other out. This is analogous to patching a pothole with asphalt, or filling a bubble below the surface of water with an equal amount of water to cancel it out. The most direct example is the electron hole; a fairly general theoretical description is provided by the Dirac sea, which treats positrons (or anti-particles in general) as holes. Holes provide one of the two primary forms of conduction in a semi-conductor, that is, the material from which transistors are made; without holes, current could not flow, and transistors turn on and off by enabling or disabling the creation of holes.

Holes in biology

Animal bodies tend to contain specialized holes which serve various biological functions, such as the intake of oxygen or food, the excretion of waste, and the intake or expulsion of other fluids for reproductive purposes. In some simple animals, however, there is a single hole that serves all of these purposes. [6] The formation of holes is a significant event in the development of an animal:

All animals start out in development with one hole, the blastopore. If there are two holes, the second hole forms later. The blastopore can arise at the top or the bottom of the embryo. [6]

Gramicidin A, a polypeptide with a helical shape, has been described as a portable hole. When it forms a dimer, it can embed itself in cellular bilayer membranes and form a hole through which water molecules can pass. [7]

Engineering senses

Blind holes and through holes

Hole types in engineering: blind (left), through (middle), interrupted (right). Drill - Hole Types.png
Hole types in engineering: blind (left), through (middle), interrupted (right).

In engineering, machining, and tooling, a hole may be a blind hole or a through hole (also called a thru-hole or clearance hole). A blind hole is a hole that is reamed, drilled, or milled to a specified depth without breaking through to the other side of the workpiece. A through hole is a hole that is made to go completely through the material of an object. In other words, a through hole is a hole that goes all the way through something. Taps used for through holes are generally tapered since it will tap faster and the chips will be released when the tap exits the hole.

The etymology of the blind hole is that it is not possible to see through it. It may also refer to any feature that is taken to a specific depth, more specifically referring to internally threaded hole (tapped holes). Not considering the drill point, the depth of the blind hole, conventionally, may be slightly deeper than that of the threaded depth.

There are three accepted methods of threading blind holes:

  1. Conventional tapping, especially with bottom taps
  2. Single-point threading, where the workpiece is rotated, and a pointed cutting tool is fed into the workpiece at the same rate as the pitch of the internal thread. Single-pointing inside a blind hole, like boring inside one, is inherently more challenging than doing so in a through hole. This was especially true in the era when manual machining was the only method of control. Today, CNC makes these tasks less stressful, but nevertheless still more challenging than with through holes.
  3. Helical interpolation, where the workpiece remains stationary and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) moves a milling cutter in the correct helical path for a given thread, milling the thread.

At least two U.S. tool manufacturers have manufactured tools for thread milling in blind holes: Ingersoll Cutting Tools of Rockford, Illinois, and Tooling Systems of Houston, Texas, who introduced the Thread Mill in 1977, a device that milled large internal threads in the blind holes of oil well blowout preventers. Today many CNC milling machines can run such a thread milling cycle (see a video of such a cut in the "External links" section).

One use of through holes in electronics is with through-hole technology, a mounting scheme involving the use of leads on the components that are inserted into holes drilled in printed circuit boards (PCB) and soldered to pads on the opposite side either by manual assembly (hand placement) or by the use of automated insertion mount machines. [8] [9]

Pinholes

A pinhole is a small hole, usually made by pressing a thin, pointed object such as a pin through an easily penetrated material such as a fabric or a very thin layer of metal. Similar holes made by other means are also often called pinholes. Pinholes may be intentionally made for various reasons. For example, in optics pinholes are used as apertures to select certain rays of light. This is used in pinhole cameras to form an image without the use of a lens. [10] Pinholes on produce packaging have been used to control the atmosphere and relative humidity within the packaging. [11]

In many fields, however, pinholes are a harmful and unwanted side-effect of manufacturing processes. For example, in the assembly of microcircuits, pinholes in the dielectric insulator layer coating the circuit can cause the circuit to fail. Therefore, "[t]o avoid pinholes that might protrude through the entire thickness of the dielectric layer, it is a common practice to screen several layers of dielectric with drying and firing after each screening", thereby preventing the pinholes from becoming continuous. [12]

Philosophy and psychology of holes

Shallow potholes in a road surface. Pothole.jpg
Shallow potholes in a road surface.
The Great Blue Hole near Ambergris Caye, Belize, is an underwater sinkhole. Great Blue Hole.jpg
The Great Blue Hole near Ambergris Caye, Belize, is an underwater sinkhole.

It has been noted that holes occupy an unusual ontological position in human psychology, as people tend to refer to them as tangible and countable objects, when in fact they are the absence of something in another object. [13] An example of this reasoning can be found in the Beatles lyric from the song, "A Day in the Life", from their 1967 album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band :

I read the news today, oh boy:
Four thousand holes in Blackburn Lancashire.
And though the holes were rather small,
They had to count them all,
Now they know how many holes it takes to fill the Albert Hall. [14]

The reference to 4,000 holes was written by John Lennon, and inspired by a Far & Near news brief from the same 17 January edition of the Daily Mail, which had also provided inspiration for previous verses of the song. Under the headline "The holes in our roads", the brief stated: "There are 4,000 holes in the road in Blackburn, Lancashire, or one twenty-sixth of a hole per person, according to a council survey. If Blackburn is typical, there are two million holes in Britain's roads and 300,000 in London". [15] Holes have also been described as ontological parasites because they can only exist as aspects of another object. [13] The psychological concept of a hole as a physical object is taken to its logical extreme in the fictional concept of a portable hole, exemplified in role-playing games and characterized as a "hole" that a person can carry with them, keep things in, and enter themselves as needed. [16]

Some people have an aversion to the sight of irregular patterns or clusters of small holes, a condition called trypophobia. [17] [18] Researchers hypothesize that this is the result of a biological revulsion that associates trypophobic shapes with danger or disease, and may therefore have an evolutionary basis. [19] [17]

Metaphorical holes

Holes can also be referenced metaphorically as existing in non-tangible things. For example, a person who provides an account of an event that lacks important details can be said to have "holes in their story", and a fictional work with unexplained narrative elements can be said to have plot holes. [20] A person who has suffered loss is often referred to as having a "hole in their heart". The concept of a "God-shaped hole" occurs in religious discourse:

[H]umans are commonly said to have “a God-shaped hole” in our souls. If you are a religious person, you can explain the hole by saying that God put it there in order to make it easier for us to receive Him. If you are a naturalist or an atheist, you believe the God-shaped hole is in our minds, not our souls. You then look for reasons that the concept of God might have evolved in our species. [21]

Unicode

The Unicode symbol for HOLE, U+1F573, was approved in 2014 as part of the Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs chart in Unicode 7.0, [22] and was part of Emoji 1.0, published in 2015. [23] As pictorial representations for emoji are platform-dependent, Emojipedia shows images of the hole symbol as depicted on various platforms. [24]

See also

Related Research Articles

Electrical discharge machining

Electrical discharge machining (EDM), also known as spark machining, spark eroding, die sinking, wire burning or wire erosion, is a metal fabrication process whereby a desired shape is obtained by using electrical discharges (sparks). Material is removed from the work piece by a series of rapidly recurring current discharges between two electrodes, separated by a dielectric liquid and subject to an electric voltage. One of the electrodes is called the tool-electrode, or simply the tool or electrode, while the other is called the workpiece-electrode, or work piece. The process depends upon the tool and work piece not making physical contact.

Lathe Machine tool which rotates the work piece on its axis

A lathe is a machine tool that rotates a workpiece about an axis of rotation to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, deformation, facing, and turning, with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object with symmetry about that axis.

Drill

A drill or drilling machine is a tool primarily used for making round holes or driving fasteners. It is fitted with a bit, either a drill or driver, depending on application, secured by a chuck. Some powered drills also include a hammer function.

Shaper Machine that uses linear motion to cut

A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear toolpath. Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe, except that it is (archetypally) linear instead of helical.

Metalworking Process of making items from metal

Metalworking is the process of shaping and reshaping metals to create useful objects, parts, assemblies, and large scale structures. As a term it covers a wide and diverse range of processes, skills, and tools for producing objects on every scale: from huge ships, buildings, and bridges down to precise engine parts and delicate jewelry.

Taps and dies are tools used to create screw threads, which is called threading. Many are cutting tools; others are forming tools. A tap is used to cut or form the female portion of the mating pair. A die is used to cut or form the male portion of the mating pair. The process of cutting or forming threads using a tap is called tapping, whereas the process using a die is called threading.

Machining Material-removal process; Manufacturing process

Machining is a process in which a metal is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The processes that have this common theme, controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive manufacturing, in distinction from processes of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing. Exactly what the "controlled" part of the definition implies can vary, but it almost always implies the use of machine tools.

Drill bit

Drill bits are cutting tools used to remove material to create holes, almost always of circular cross-section. Drill bits come in many sizes and shapes and can create different kinds of holes in many different materials. In order to create holes drill bits are usually attached to a drill, which powers them to cut through the workpiece, typically by rotation. The drill will grasp the upper end of a bit called the shank in the chuck.

Drilling

Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is usually a rotary cutting tool, often multi-point. The bit is pressed against the work-piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the work-piece, cutting off chips (swarf) from the hole as it is drilled.

Speeds and feeds Two separate velocities in machine tool practice, cutting speed and feed rate

The phrase speeds and feeds or feeds and speeds refers to two separate velocities in machine tool practice, cutting speed and feed rate. They are often considered as a pair because of their combined effect on the cutting process. Each, however, can also be considered and analyzed in its own right.

Chuck (engineering) Clamp used to hold an object with radial symmetry, especially a cylinder

A chuck is a specialized type of clamp used to hold an object with radial symmetry, especially a cylinder. In drills and mills it holds the rotating tool whereas in lathes it holds the rotating workpiece. On a lathe the chuck is mounted on the spindle which rotates within the headstock. For some purposes an additional chuck may be mounted on the non-rotating tailstock.

Turning

Turning is a machining process in which a cutting tool, typically a non-rotary tool bit, describes a helix toolpath by moving more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates.

Milling cutters are cutting tools typically used in milling machines or machining centres to perform milling operations. They remove material by their movement within the machine or directly from the cutter's shape.

Metal lathe

A metal lathe or metalworking lathe is a large class of lathes designed for precisely machining relatively hard materials. They were originally designed to machine metals; however, with the advent of plastics and other materials, and with their inherent versatility, they are used in a wide range of applications, and a broad range of materials. In machining jargon, where the larger context is already understood, they are usually simply called lathes, or else referred to by more-specific subtype names. These rigid machine tools remove material from a rotating workpiece via the movements of various cutting tools, such as tool bits and drill bits.

Rotary table

A rotary table is a precision work positioning device used in metalworking. It enables the operator to drill or cut work at exact intervals around a fixed axis. Some rotary tables allow the use of index plates for indexing operations, and some can also be fitted with dividing plates that enable regular work positioning at divisions for which indexing plates are not available. A rotary fixture used in this fashion is more appropriately called a dividing head.

Indexing head

An indexing head, also known as a dividing head or spiral head, is a specialized tool that allows a workpiece to be circularly indexed; that is, easily and precisely rotated to preset angles or circular divisions. Indexing heads are usually used on the tables of milling machines, but may be used on many other machine tools including drill presses, grinders, and boring machines. Common jobs for a dividing head include machining the flutes of a milling cutter, cutting the teeth of a gear, milling curved slots, or drilling a bolt hole circle around the circumference of a part.

Boring (manufacturing)

In machining, boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled by means of a single-point cutting tool, such as in boring a gun barrel or an engine cylinder. Boring is used to achieve greater accuracy of the diameter of a hole, and can be used to cut a tapered hole. Boring can be viewed as the internal-diameter counterpart to turning, which cuts external diameters.

In mechanical engineering, a key is a machine element used to connect a rotating machine element to a shaft. The key prevents relative rotation between the two parts and may enable torque transmission. For a key to function, the shaft and rotating machine element must have a keyway and a keyseat, which is a slot and pocket in which the key fits. The whole system is called a keyed joint.[1][2] A keyed joint may allow relative axial movement between the parts.

Threading is the process of creating a screw thread. More screw threads are produced each year than any other machine element. There are many methods of generating threads, including subtractive methods ; deformative or transformative methods ; additive methods ; or combinations thereof.

Milling (machining) Removal of material from a workpiece using rotating tools

Milling is the process of machining using rotary cutters to remove material by advancing a cutter into a work piece. This may be done varying direction on one or several axes, cutter head speed, and pressure. Milling covers a wide variety of different operations and machines, on scales from small individual parts to large, heavy-duty gang milling operations. It is one of the most commonly used processes for machining custom parts to precise tolerances.

References

  1. "The hole story". The Economist. 2016-06-11. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
  2. "What's At The Bottom Of The Deepest Hole On Earth?" . Retrieved 2016-08-17.
  3. Richeson, D.; Euler's Gem: The Polyhedron Formula and the Birth of Topology , Princeton University (2008), p. 254.
  4. Arnold, B. H. (2013), Intuitive Concepts in Elementary Topology, Dover Books on Mathematics, Courier Dover Publications, p. 58, ISBN   9780486275765 .
  5. Munkres, James R. Topology. Vol. 2. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2000.
  6. 1 2 Dunn, Casey (November 6, 2009). "A tale of two holes – Creature Cast – Learn Science at Scitable". www.nature.com.
  7. Mouritsen, Ole G. (2005). Life - As a Matter of Fat: The Emerging Science of Lipidomics. Springer. p. 186. ISBN   9783540232483.
  8. Electronic Packaging:Solder Mounting Technologies in K.H. Buschow et al (ed), Encyclopedia of Materials:Science and Technology, Elsevier, 2001 ISBN   0-08-043152-6, pages 2708-2709
  9. Horowitz, Paul; Hill, Winfield (1989). The art of electronics (2nd ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN   9780521370950.
  10. What is a Pinhole Camera?, pinhole.cz.
  11. Enrique Ortega-Rivas, Processing Effects on Safety and Quality of Foods (2010)m p. 280.
  12. James J. Licari, Leonard R. Enlow, Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook, 2nd Edition (2008), p. 162.
  13. 1 2 Casati, Roberto; Varzi, Achille (18 December 2018). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  14. "Photographic impressions of Beatle songs by Art Kane", LIFE, Vol. 65, No. 12 (September 20, 1968), p. 67.
  15. "Far & Near: The holes in our roads". The Daily Mail (21994). 17 January 1967. p. 7.
  16. David Zeb Cook, Jean Rabe, Warren Spector, Dungeon Master Guide for the AD&D Game (1995), p. 235.
  17. 1 2 Martínez-Aguayo, Juan Carlos; Lanfranco, Renzo C.; Arancibia, Marcelo; Sepúlveda, Elisa; Madrid, Eva (2018). "Trypophobia: What Do We Know So Far? A Case Report and Comprehensive Review of the Literature". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 9: 15. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00015. ISSN   1664-0640. PMC   5811467 . PMID   29479321. CC-BY-icon-80x15.png  This article incorporates text by Juan Carlos Martínez-Aguay, Renzo C. Lanfranco, Marcelo Arancibia, Elisa Sepúlveda and Eva Madrid available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  18. Le, An T. D.; Cole, Geoff G.; Wilkins, Arnold J. (January 30, 2015). "Assessment of trypophobia and an analysis of its visual precipitation". Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology . 68 (11): 2304–22. doi:10.1080/17470218.2015.1013970. PMID   25635930. S2CID   42086559.
  19. Milosevic, Irena; McCabe, Randi E. (2015). Phobias: The Psychology of Irrational Fear. ABC-CLIO. pp. 401–402. ISBN   978-1610695763 . Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  20. "plot hole | Definition of plot hole in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
  21. Blakey Vermeule, Why Do We Care about Literary Characters? (2010), p. 10.
  22. "Unicode: Miscellaneous Symbols and Pictographs" . Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  23. "Emoji Version 1.0" . Retrieved 2018-08-20.
  24. "Emojipedia: Hole" . Retrieved 2018-08-20.