In mathematics, **orientability** is a property of some topological spaces such as real vector spaces, Euclidean spaces, surfaces, and more generally manifolds that allows a consistent definition of "clockwise" and "counterclockwise".^{ [1] } A space is **orientable** if such a consistent definition exists. In this case, there are two possible definitions, and a choice betwen them is an **orientation** of the space. Real vector spaces, Euclidean spaces, and spheres are orientables. A space is **non-orientable** if "clockwise" is changed into "counterclockwise" after running through some loops in it, and coming back to the starting point. This means that a Geometric shape, such as , that moves continuously along such a loop is changed in its own mirror image . Möbius strip is an example of a non-orientable space.

- Orientable surfaces
- Examples
- Orientation by triangulation
- Orientability and homology
- Orientability of manifolds
- Orientability of differentiable manifolds
- Homology and the orientability of general manifolds
- Orientation and cohomology
- The orientation double cover
- Manifolds with boundary
- Orientable double cover
- Orientation of vector bundles
- Related concepts
- Lorentzian geometry
- See also
- References
- External links

Various equivalent formulations of orientability can be given, depending on the desired application and level of generality. Formulations applicable to general topological manifolds often employ methods of homology theory, whereas for differentiable manifolds more structure is present, allowing a formulation in terms of differential forms. An generalization of the notion of orientability of a space is that of orientability of a family of spaces parameterized by some other space (a fiber bundle) for which an orientation must be selected in each of the spaces which varies continuously with respect to changes in the parameter values.

A surface *S* in the Euclidean space **R**^{3} is orientable if a two-dimensional figure (for example, ) cannot be moved around the surface and back to where it started so that it looks like its own mirror image ( ). Otherwise the surface is **non-orientable**. An abstract surface (i.e., a two-dimensional manifold) is orientable if a consistent concept of clockwise rotation can be defined on the surface in a continuous manner. That is to say that a loop going around one way on the surface can never be continuously deformed (without overlapping itself) to a loop going around the opposite way. This turns out to be equivalent to the question of whether the surface contains no subset that is homeomorphic to the Möbius strip. Thus, for surfaces, the Möbius strip may be considered the source of all non-orientability.

For an orientable surface, a consistent choice of "clockwise" (as opposed to counter-clockwise) is called an **orientation**, and the surface is called **oriented**. For surfaces embedded in Euclidean space, an orientation is specified by the choice of a continuously varying surface normal **n** at every point. If such a normal exists at all, then there are always two ways to select it: **n** or −**n**. More generally, an orientable surface admits exactly two orientations, and the distinction between an orient*ed* surface and an orient*able* surface is subtle and frequently blurred. An orientable surface is an abstract surface that admits an orientation, while an oriented surface is a surface that is abstractly orientable, and has the additional datum of a choice of one of the two possible orientations.

Most surfaces we encounter in the physical world are orientable. Spheres, planes, and tori are orientable, for example. But Möbius strips, real projective planes, and Klein bottles are non-orientable. They, as visualized in 3-dimensions, all have just one side. The real projective plane and Klein bottle cannot be embedded in **R**^{3}, only immersed with nice intersections.

Note that locally an embedded surface always has two sides, so a near-sighted ant crawling on a one-sided surface would think there is an "other side". The essence of one-sidedness is that the ant can crawl from one side of the surface to the "other" without going through the surface or flipping over an edge, but simply by crawling far enough.

In general, the property of being orientable is not equivalent to being two-sided; however, this holds when the ambient space (such as **R**^{3} above) is orientable. For example, a torus embedded in

can be one-sided, and a Klein bottle in the same space can be two-sided; here refers to the Klein bottle.

Any surface has a triangulation: a decomposition into triangles such that each edge on a triangle is glued to at most one other edge. Each triangle is oriented by choosing a direction around the perimeter of the triangle, associating a direction to each edge of the triangle. If this is done in such a way that, when glued together, neighboring edges are pointing in the opposite direction, then this determines an orientation of the surface. Such a choice is only possible if the surface is orientable, and in this case there are exactly two different orientations.

If the figure can be consistently positioned at all points of the surface without turning into its mirror image, then this will induce an orientation in the above sense on each of the triangles of the triangulation by selecting the direction of each of the triangles based on the order red-green-blue of colors of any of the figures in the interior of the triangle.

This approach generalizes to any *n*-manifold having a triangulation. However, some 4-manifolds do not have a triangulation, and in general for *n* > 4 some *n*-manifolds have triangulations that are inequivalent.

If *H*_{1}(*S*) denotes the first homology group of a surface *S*, then *S* is orientable if and only if *H*_{1}(*S*) has a trivial torsion subgroup. More precisely, if *S* is orientable then *H*_{1}(*S*) is a free abelian group, and if not then *H*_{1}(*S*) = *F* + **Z**/2**Z** where *F* is free abelian, and the **Z**/2**Z** factor is generated by the middle curve in a Möbius band embedded in *S*.

Let *M* be a connected topological *n*-manifold. There are several possible definitions of what it means for *M* to be orientable. Some of these definitions require that *M* has extra structure, like being differentiable. Occasionally, *n* = 0 must be made into a special case. When more than one of these definitions applies to *M*, then *M* is orientable under one definition if and only if it is orientable under the others.^{ [2] }^{ [3] }

The most intuitive definitions require that *M* be a differentiable manifold. This means that the transition functions in the atlas of *M* are *C*^{1}-functions. Such a function admits a Jacobian determinant. When the Jacobian determinant is positive, the transition function is said to be **orientation preserving**. An **oriented atlas** on *M* is an atlas for which all transition functions are orientation preserving. *M* is **orientable** if it admits an oriented atlas. When *n*> 0, an **orientation** of *M* is a maximal oriented atlas. (When *n* = 0, an orientation of *M* is a function *M* → {±1}.)

Orientability and orientations can also be expressed in terms of the tangent bundle. The tangent bundle is a vector bundle, so it is a fiber bundle with structure group GL(*n*, **R**). That is, the transition functions of the manifold induce transition functions on the tangent bundle which are fiberwise linear transformations. If the structure group can be reduced to the group GL^{+}(*n*, **R**) of positive determinant matrices, or equivalently if there exists an atlas whose transition functions determine an orientation preserving linear transformation on each tangent space, then the manifold *M* is orientable. Conversely, *M* is orientable if and only if the structure group of the tangent bundle can be reduced in this way. Similar observations can be made for the frame bundle.

Another way to define orientations on a differentiable manifold is through volume forms. A volume form is a nowhere vanishing section *ω* of ⋀^{n}*T*^{∗}*M*, the top exterior power of the cotangent bundle of *M*. For example, **R**^{n} has a standard volume form given by *dx*^{1} ∧ ... ∧ *dx*^{n}. Given a volume form on *M*, the collection of all charts *U* → **R**^{n} for which the standard volume form pulls back to a positive multiple of *ω* is an oriented atlas. The existence of a volume form is therefore equivalent to orientability of the manifold.

Volume forms and tangent vectors can be combined to give yet another description of orientability. If *X*_{1}, ..., *X*_{n} is a basis of tangent vectors at a point *p*, then the basis is said to be **right-handed** if ω(*X*_{1}, ..., *X*_{n}) > 0. A transition function is orientation preserving if and only if it sends right-handed bases to right-handed bases. The existence of a volume form implies a reduction of the structure group of the tangent bundle or the frame bundle to GL^{+}(*n*, **R**). As before, this implies the orientability of *M*. Conversely, if *M* is orientable, then local volume forms can be patched together to create a global volume form, orientability being necessary to ensure that the global form is nowhere vanishing.

At the heart of all the above definitions of orientability of a differentiable manifold is the notion of an orientation preserving transition function. This raises the question of what exactly such transition functions are preserving. They cannot be preserving an orientation of the manifold because an orientation of the manifold is an atlas, and it makes no sense to say that a transition function preserves or does not preserve an atlas of which it is a member.

This question can be resolved by defining local orientations. On a one-dimensional manifold, a local orientation around a point *p* corresponds to a choice of left and right near that point. On a two-dimensional manifold, it corresponds to a choice of clockwise and counter-clockwise. These two situations share the common feature that they are described in terms of top-dimensional behavior near *p* but not at *p*. For the general case, let *M* be a topological *n*-manifold. A **local orientation** of *M* around a point *p* is a choice of generator of the group

To see the geometric significance of this group, choose a chart around *p*. In that chart there is a neighborhood of *p* which is an open ball *B* around the origin *O*. By the excision theorem, is isomorphic to . The ball *B* is contractible, so its homology groups vanish except in degree zero, and the space *B* \ *O* is an (*n* − 1)-sphere, so its homology groups vanish except in degrees *n* − 1 and 0. A computation with the long exact sequence in relative homology shows that the above homology group is isomorphic to . A choice of generator therefore corresponds to a decision of whether, in the given chart, a sphere around *p* is positive or negative. A reflection of **R**^{n} through the origin acts by negation on , so the geometric significance of the choice of generator is that it distinguishes charts from their reflections.

On a topological manifold, a transition function is **orientation preserving** if, at each point *p* in its domain, it fixes the generators of . From here, the relevant definitions are the same as in the differentiable case. An **oriented atlas** is one for which all transition functions are orientation preserving, *M* is **orientable** if it admits an oriented atlas, and when *n*> 0, an **orientation** of *M* is a maximal oriented atlas.

Intuitively, an orientation of *M* ought to define a unique local orientation of *M* at each point. This is made precise by noting that any chart in the oriented atlas around *p* can be used to determine a sphere around *p*, and this sphere determines a generator of . Moreover, any other chart around *p* is related to the first chart by an orientation preserving transition function, and this implies that the two charts yield the same generator, whence the generator is unique.

Purely homological definitions are also possible. Assuming that *M* is closed and connected, *M* is **orientable** if and only if the *n*th homology group is isomorphic to the integers **Z**. An **orientation** of *M* is a choice of generator α of this group. This generator determines an oriented atlas by fixing a generator of the infinite cyclic group and taking the oriented charts to be those for which α pushes forward to the fixed generator. Conversely, an oriented atlas determines such a generator as compatible local orientations can be glued together to give a generator for the homology group .^{ [4] }

A manifold *M* is orientable if and only if the first Stiefel–Whitney class vanishes. In particular, if the first cohomology group with **Z**/2 coefficients is zero, then the manifold is orientable. Moreover if *M* is orientable and *w*_{1} vanishes, then parametrizes the choices of orientations.^{ [5] } This characterization of orientability extends to orientability of general vector bundles over *M*, not just the tangent bundle.

Around each point of *M* there are two local orientations. Intuitively, there is a way to move from a local orientation at a point *p* to a local orientation at a nearby point *p*′: when the two points lie in the same coordinate chart *U* → **R**^{n}, that coordinate chart defines compatible local orientations at *p* and *p*′. The set of local orientations can therefore be given a topology, and this topology makes it into a manifold.

More precisely, let *O* be the set of all local orientations of *M*. To topologize *O* we will specify a subbase for its topology. Let *U* be an open subset of *M* chosen such that is isomorphic to **Z**. Assume that α is a generator of this group. For each *p* in *U*, there is a pushforward function . The codomain of this group has two generators, and α maps to one of them. The topology on *O* is defined so that

is open.

There is a canonical map π : *O* → *M* that sends a local orientation at *p* to *p*. It is clear that every point of *M* has precisely two preimages under π. In fact, π is even a local homeomorphism, because the preimages of the open sets *U* mentioned above are homeomorphic to the disjoint union of two copies of *U*. If *M* is orientable, then *M* itself is one of these open sets, so *O* is the disjoint union of two copies of *M*. If *M* is non-orientable, however, then *O* is connected and orientable. The manifold *O* is called the **orientation double cover**.

If *M* is a manifold with boundary, then an orientation of *M* is defined to be an orientation of its interior. Such an orientation induces an orientation of ∂*M*. Indeed, suppose that an orientation of *M* is fixed. Let *U* → **R**^{n}_{+} be a chart at a boundary point of *M* which, when restricted to the interior of *M*, is in the chosen oriented atlas. The restriction of this chart to ∂*M* is a chart of ∂*M*. Such charts form an oriented atlas for ∂*M*.

When *M* is smooth, at each point *p* of ∂*M*, the restriction of the tangent bundle of *M* to ∂*M* is isomorphic to *T*_{p}∂*M* ⊕ **R**, where the factor of **R** is described by the inward pointing normal vector. The orientation of *T*_{p}∂*M* is defined by the condition that a basis of *T*_{p}∂*M* is positively oriented if and only if it, when combined with the inward pointing normal vector, defines a positively oriented basis of *T*_{p}*M*.

A closely related notion uses the idea of covering space. For a connected manifold *M* take *M*^{∗}, the set of pairs (*x*, o) where *x* is a point of *M* and *o* is an orientation at *x*; here we assume *M* is either smooth so we can choose an orientation on the tangent space at a point or we use singular homology to define orientation. Then for every open, oriented subset of *M* we consider the corresponding set of pairs and define that to be an open set of *M*^{∗}. This gives *M*^{∗} a topology and the projection sending (*x*, o) to *x* is then a 2-to-1 covering map. This covering space is called the **orientable double cover**, as it is orientable. *M*^{∗} is connected if and only if *M* is not orientable.

Another way to construct this cover is to divide the loops based at a basepoint into either orientation-preserving or orientation-reversing loops. The orientation preserving loops generate a subgroup of the fundamental group which is either the whole group or of index two. In the latter case (which means there is an orientation-reversing path), the subgroup corresponds to a connected double covering; this cover is orientable by construction. In the former case, one can simply take two copies of *M*, each of which corresponds to a different orientation.

A real vector bundle, which *a priori* has a GL(n) structure group, is called *orientable* when the structure group may be reduced to , the group of matrices with positive determinant. For the tangent bundle, this reduction is always possible if the underlying base manifold is orientable and in fact this provides a convenient way to define the orientability of a smooth real manifold: a smooth manifold is defined to be orientable if its tangent bundle is orientable (as a vector bundle). Note that as a manifold in its own right, the tangent bundle is *always* orientable, even over nonorientable manifolds.

In Lorentzian geometry, there are two kinds of orientability: space orientability and time orientability. These play a role in the causal structure of spacetime.^{ [6] } In the context of general relativity, a spacetime manifold is space orientable if, whenever two right-handed observers head off in rocket ships starting at the same spacetime point, and then meet again at another point, they remain right-handed with respect to one another. If a spacetime is time-orientable then the two observers will always agree on the direction of time at both points of their meeting. In fact, a spacetime is time-orientable if and only if any two observers can agree which of the two meetings preceded the other.^{ [7] }

Formally, the pseudo-orthogonal group O(*p*,*q*) has a pair of characters: the space orientation character σ_{+} and the time orientation character σ_{−},

Their product σ = σ_{+}σ_{−} is the determinant, which gives the orientation character. A space-orientation of a pseudo-Riemannian manifold is identified with a section of the associated bundle

where O(*M*) is the bundle of pseudo-orthogonal frames. Similarly, a time orientation is a section of the associated bundle

In mathematics, a **diffeomorphism** is an isomorphism of smooth manifolds. It is an invertible function that maps one differentiable manifold to another such that both the function and its inverse are smooth.

In mathematics, particularly topology, one describes a manifold using an **atlas**. An atlas consists of individual *charts* that, roughly speaking, describe individual regions of the manifold. If the manifold is the surface of the Earth, then an atlas has its more common meaning. In general, the notion of atlas underlies the formal definition of a manifold and related structures such as vector bundles and other fibre bundles.

In mathematics, particularly in complex analysis, a **Riemann surface** is a one-dimensional complex manifold. These surfaces were first studied by and are named after Bernhard Riemann. Riemann surfaces can be thought of as deformed versions of the complex plane: locally near every point they look like patches of the complex plane, but the global topology can be quite different. For example, they can look like a sphere or a torus or several sheets glued together.

In the mathematical fields of differential geometry and tensor calculus, **differential forms** are an approach to multivariable calculus that is independent of coordinates. Differential forms provide a unified approach to define integrands over curves, surfaces, solids, and higher-dimensional manifolds. The modern notion of differential forms was pioneered by Élie Cartan. It has many applications, especially in geometry, topology and physics.

In mathematics, a **characteristic class** is a way of associating to each principal bundle of *X* a cohomology class of *X*. The cohomology class measures the extent the bundle is "twisted" and whether it possesses sections. Characteristic classes are global invariants that measure the deviation of a local product structure from a global product structure. They are one of the unifying geometric concepts in algebraic topology, differential geometry, and algebraic geometry.

This is a glossary of terms specific to differential geometry and differential topology. The following three glossaries are closely related:

In differential geometry and complex geometry, a **complex manifold** is a manifold with an atlas of charts to the open unit disk in **C**^{n}, such that the transition maps are holomorphic.

In mathematics, the **Poincaré duality** theorem, named after Henri Poincaré, is a basic result on the structure of the homology and cohomology groups of manifolds. It states that if *M* is an *n*-dimensional oriented closed manifold, then the *k*th cohomology group of *M* is isomorphic to the th homology group of *M*, for all integers *k*

In mathematics, the **fundamental class** is a homology class [*M*] associated to a connected orientable compact manifold of dimension *n*, which corresponds to the generator of the homology group . The fundamental class can be thought of as the orientation of the top-dimensional simplices of a suitable triangulation of the manifold.

In mathematics, **complex projective space** is the projective space with respect to the field of complex numbers. By analogy, whereas the points of a real projective space label the lines through the origin of a real Euclidean space, the points of a complex projective space label the *complex* lines through the origin of a complex Euclidean space. Formally, a complex projective space is the space of complex lines through the origin of an (*n*+1)-dimensional complex vector space. The space is denoted variously as **P**(**C**^{n+1}), **P**_{n}(**C**) or **CP**^{n}. When *n* = 1, the complex projective space **CP**^{1} is the Riemann sphere, and when *n* = 2, **CP**^{2} is the complex projective plane.

In mathematics, in the subfield of geometric topology, the **mapping class group** is an important algebraic invariant of a topological space. Briefly, the mapping class group is a certain discrete group corresponding to symmetries of the space.

In mathematics, **real projective space**, or **RP**^{n} or , is the topological space of lines passing through the origin 0 in **R**^{n+1}. It is a compact, smooth manifold of dimension *n*, and is a special case **Gr**(1, **R**^{n+1}) of a Grassmannian space.

A **Seifert fiber space** is a 3-manifold together with a decomposition as a disjoint union of circles. In other words, it is a -bundle over a 2-dimensional orbifold. Many 3-manifolds are Seifert fiber spaces, and they account for all compact oriented manifolds in 6 of the 8 Thurston geometries of the geometrization conjecture.

In mathematics, a **volume form** on a differentiable manifold is a top-dimensional form. Thus on a manifold of dimension , a volume form is an -form, a section of the line bundle . A manifold admits a nowhere-vanishing volume form if and only if it is orientable. An orientable manifold has infinitely many volume forms, since multiplying a volume form by a function yields another volume form. On non-orientable manifolds, one may instead define the weaker notion of a density.

In mathematics, a **manifold** is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point. More precisely, an n-dimensional manifold, or *n-manifold* for short, is a topological space with the property that each point has a neighborhood that is homeomorphic to an open subset of n-dimensional Euclidean space.

In mathematics, a **differentiable manifold** is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a linear space to allow one to do calculus. Any manifold can be described by a collection of charts, also known as an atlas. One may then apply ideas from calculus while working within the individual charts, since each chart lies within a linear space to which the usual rules of calculus apply. If the charts are suitably compatible, then computations done in one chart are valid in any other differentiable chart.

In differential geometry, a **spin structure** on an orientable Riemannian manifold (*M*, *g*) allows one to define associated spinor bundles, giving rise to the notion of a spinor in differential geometry.

In mathematics, specifically in algebraic topology, the **Euler class** is a characteristic class of oriented, real vector bundles. Like other characteristic classes, it measures how "twisted" the vector bundle is. In the case of the tangent bundle of a smooth manifold, it generalizes the classical notion of Euler characteristic. It is named after Leonhard Euler because of this.

In differential topology, a branch of mathematics, a **stratifold** is a generalization of a differentiable manifold where certain kinds of singularities are allowed. More specifically a stratifold is stratified into differentiable manifolds of (possibly) different dimensions. Stratifolds can be used to construct new homology theories. For example, they provide a new geometric model for ordinary homology. The concept of stratifolds was invented by Matthias Kreck. The basic idea is similar to that of a topologically stratified space, but adapted to differential topology.

In mathematics, an **orientation** of a real vector bundle is a generalization of an orientation of a vector space; thus, given a real vector bundle π: *E* →*B*, an orientation of *E* means: for each fiber *E*_{x}, there is an orientation of the vector space *E*_{x} and one demands that each trivialization map

- ↑ Munroe, Marshall Evans (1963).
*Modern multidimensional calculus*. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co. p. 263. - ↑ Spivak, Michael (1965).
*Calculus on Manifolds*. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-8053-9021-6. - ↑ Hatcher, Allen (2001).
*Algebraic Topology*. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521795401. - ↑ Hatcher, Allen (2001).
*Algebraic Topology*. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0521795401., Theorem 3.26(a) on p. 236 - ↑ Lawson, H. Blaine; Michelsohn, Marie-Louise (1989).
*Spin Geometry*. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-08542-0., Theorem 1.2 on p. 79 - ↑ S.W. Hawking, G.F.R. Ellis (1973).
*The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time*. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20016-4. - ↑ Mark J. Hadley (2002) The Orientability of Spacetime, Classical and Quantum Gravity 19: 4565-4571 arXiv:gr-qc/0202031v4

- Orientation of manifolds at the Manifold Atlas.
- Orientation covering at the Manifold Atlas.
- Orientation of manifolds in generalized cohomology theories at the Manifold Atlas.
- The Encyclopedia of Mathematics article on Orientation.

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