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This is a list of **important publications** in mathematics, organized by field.

- Algebra
- Theory of equations
- Līlāvatī, Siddhānta Shiromani and Bijaganita
- Abstract algebra
- Algebraic geometry
- Theorie der Abelschen Functionen
- Faisceaux Algébriques Cohérents
- Géométrie Algébrique et Géométrie Analytique
- Le théorème de Riemann–Roch, d'après A. Grothendieck
- Éléments de géométrie algébrique
- Séminaire de géométrie algébrique
- Number theory
- Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta 2
- De fractionibus continuis dissertatio
- Recherches d'Arithmétique
- Disquisitiones Arithmeticae
- "Beweis des Satzes, daß jede unbegrenzte arithmetische Progression, deren erstes Glied und Differenz ganze Zahlen ohne gemeinschaftlichen Factor sind, unendlich viele Primzahlen enthält"
- "Über die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse"
- Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie
- Zahlbericht
- Fourier Analysis in Number Fields and Hecke's Zeta-Functions
- "Automorphic Forms on GL(2)"
- "La conjecture de Weil. I."
- "Endlichkeitssätze für abelsche Varietäten über Zahlkörpern"
- "Modular Elliptic Curves and Fermat's Last Theorem"
- The geometry and cohomology of some simple Shimura varieties
- "Le lemme fondamental pour les algèbres de Lie"
- Analysis
- Introductio in analysin infinitorum
- Calculus
- Complex analysis
- Functional analysis
- Fourier analysis
- Geometry
- Baudhayana Sulba Sutra 2
- Euclid's Elements
- The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art 2
- The Conics
- Surya Siddhanta
- Aryabhatiya 2
- La Géométrie
- Grundlagen der Geometrie
- Regular Polytopes
- Differential geometry
- Topology
- Analysis situs
- L'anneau d'homologie d'une représentation, Structure de l'anneau d'homologie d'une représentation
- Quelques propriétés globales des variétés differentiables
- Category theory
- "General Theory of Natural Equivalences"
- Categories for the Working Mathematician
- Higher Topos Theory
- Set theory
- "Über eine Eigenschaft des Inbegriffes aller reellen algebraischen Zahlen"
- Grundzüge der Mengenlehre
- "The consistency of the axiom of choice and of the generalized continuum-hypothesis with the axioms of set theory"
- "The Independence of the Continuum Hypothesis"
- Logic
- The Laws of Thought
- Begriffsschrift
- Formulario mathematico
- Principia Mathematica
- Systems of Logic Based on Ordinals
- "Über formal unentscheidbare Sätze der Principia Mathematica und verwandter Systeme, I"
- Combinatorics
- "On sets of integers containing no k elements in arithmetic progression"
- Graph theory
- Computational complexity theory
- Probability theory and statistics
- Game theory
- "Zur Theorie der Gesellschaftsspiele"
- Theory of Games and Economic Behavior
- "Equilibrium Points in N-person Games"
- On Numbers and Games
- Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays
- Fractals
- How Long Is the Coast of Britain? Statistical Self-Similarity and Fractional Dimension
- Numerical analysis
- Optimization
- Early manuscripts
- Moscow Mathematical Papyrus
- Rhind Mathematical Papyrus
- Archimedes Palimpsest
- The Sand Reckoner
- Textbooks
- Abstract Algebra 2
- Synopsis of Pure Mathematics
- Éléments de mathématique
- Arithmetick: or, The Grounde of Arts
- Cocker's Arithmetick
- The Schoolmaster's Assistant, Being a Compendium of Arithmetic both Practical and Theoretical
- Geometry 2
- A Course of Pure Mathematics
- Moderne Algebra
- Algebra 2
- Calculus, Vol. 1
- Algebraic Geometry 2
- Naive Set Theory
- Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers
- Set Theory: An Introduction to Independence Proofs
- Topologie
- General Topology
- Topology from the Differentiable Viewpoint
- Number Theory, An approach through history from Hammurapi to Legendre
- An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers
- Foundations of Differential Geometry
- Hodge Theory and Complex Algebraic Geometry I
- Hodge Theory and Complex Algebraic Geometry II
- Popular writings
- Gödel, Escher, Bach
- The World of Mathematics
- References

Some reasons why a particular publication might be regarded as important:

**Topic creator**– A publication that created a new topic**Breakthrough**– A publication that changed scientific knowledge significantly**Influence**– A publication which has significantly influenced the world or has had a massive impact on the teaching of mathematics.

Among published compilations of important publications in mathematics are *Landmark writings in Western mathematics 1640–1940* by Ivor Grattan-Guinness ^{ [2] } and *A Source Book in Mathematics* by David Eugene Smith.^{ [3] }

- Baudhayana (8th century BCE)

Believed to have been written around the 8th century BCE, this is one of the oldest mathematical texts. It laid the foundations of Indian mathematics and was influential in South Asia and its surrounding regions, and perhaps even Greece. Though this was primarily a geometrical text, it also contained some important algebraic developments, including the earliest list of Pythagorean triples discovered algebraically, geometric solutions of linear equations, the earliest use of quadratic equations of the forms ax^{2} = c and ax^{2} + bx = c, and integral solutions of simultaneous Diophantine equations with up to four unknowns.

*The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art*from the 10th–2nd century BCE.

Contains the earliest description of Gaussian elimination for solving system of linear equations, it also contains method for finding square root and cubic root.

- Liu Hui (220-280 CE)

Contains the application of right angle triangles for survey of depth or height of distant objects.

- Sunzi (5th century CE)

Contains the earliest description of Chinese remainder theorem.

- Aryabhata (499 CE)

Aryabhata introduced the method known as "Modus Indorum" or the method of the Indians that has become our algebra today. This algebra came along with the Hindu Number system to Arabia and then migrated to Europe. The text contains 33 verses covering mensuration (kṣetra vyāvahāra), arithmetic and geometric progressions, gnomon / shadows (shanku-chhAyA), simple, quadratic, simultaneous, and indeterminate equations. It also gave the modern standard algorithm for solving first-order diophantine equations.

Jigu Suanjing (626 CE)

This book by Tang dynasty mathematician Wang Xiaotong Contains the world's earliest third order equation.

- Brahmagupta (628 CE)

Contained rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers, rules for dealing the number zero, a method for computing square roots, and general methods of solving linear and some quadratic equations, solution to Pell's equation. ^{ [4] }^{ [5] }^{ [6] }^{ [7] }

- Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (820 CE)

The first book on the systematic algebraic solutions of linear and quadratic equations by the Persian scholar Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī. The book is considered to be the foundation of modern algebra and Islamic mathematics.^{[ citation needed ]} The word "algebra" itself is derived from the *al-Jabr* in the title of the book.^{ [8] }

One of the major treatises on mathematics by Bhāskara II provides the solution for indeterminate equations of 1st and 2nd order.

- Liu Yi (12th century)

Contains the earliest invention of 4th order polynomial equation.

- Qin Jiushao (1247)

This 13th century book contains the earliest complete solution of 19th century Horner's method of solving high order polynomial equations (up to 10th order). It also contains a complete solution of Chinese remainder theorem, which predates Euler and Gauss by several centuries.

- Li Zhi (1248)

Contains the application of high order polynomial equation in solving complex geometry problems.

- Zhu Shijie (1303)

Contains the method of establishing system of high order polynomial equations of up to four unknowns.

- Gerolamo Cardano (1545)

Otherwise known as *The Great Art*, provided the first published methods for solving cubic and quartic equations (due to Scipione del Ferro, Niccolò Fontana Tartaglia, and Lodovico Ferrari), and exhibited the first published calculations involving non-real complex numbers.^{ [9] }^{ [10] }

- Leonhard Euler (1770)

Also known as Elements of Algebra, Euler's textbook on elementary algebra is one of the first to set out algebra in the modern form we would recognize today. The first volume deals with determinate equations, while the second part deals with Diophantine equations. The last section contains a proof of Fermat's Last Theorem for the case *n* = 3, making some valid assumptions regarding **Q**(√−3) that Euler did not prove.^{ [11] }

- Carl Friedrich Gauss (1799)

Gauss' doctoral dissertation,^{ [12] } which contained a widely accepted (at the time) but incomplete proof^{ [13] } of the fundamental theorem of algebra.

- Joseph Louis Lagrange (1770)

The title means "Reflections on the algebraic solutions of equations". Made the prescient observation that the roots of the Lagrange resolvent of a polynomial equation are tied to permutations of the roots of the original equation, laying a more general foundation for what had previously been an ad hoc analysis and helping motivate the later development of the theory of permutation groups, group theory, and Galois theory. The Lagrange resolvent also introduced the discrete Fourier transform of order 3.

- Journal de Mathematiques pures et Appliquées, II (1846)

Posthumous publication of the mathematical manuscripts of Évariste Galois by Joseph Liouville. Included are Galois' papers *Mémoire sur les conditions de résolubilité des équations par radicaux* and *Des équations primitives qui sont solubles par radicaux*.

- Camille Jordan (1870)

**Online version:** Online version

Traité des substitutions et des équations algébriques (Treatise on Substitutions and Algebraic Equations). The first book on group theory, giving a then-comprehensive study of permutation groups and Galois theory. In this book, Jordan introduced the notion of a simple group and epimorphism (which he called *l'isomorphisme mériédrique*),^{ [14] } proved part of the Jordan–Hölder theorem, and discussed matrix groups over finite fields as well as the Jordan normal form.^{ [15] }

- Sophus Lie, Friedrich Engel (1888–1893).

**Publication data:** 3 volumes, B.G. Teubner, Verlagsgesellschaft, mbH, Leipzig, 1888–1893. Volume 1, Volume 2, Volume 3.

The first comprehensive work on transformation groups, serving as the foundation for the modern theory of Lie groups.

- Walter Feit and John Thompson (1960)

**Description:** Gave a complete proof of the solvability of finite groups of odd order, establishing the long-standing Burnside conjecture that all finite non-abelian simple groups are of even order. Many of the original techniques used in this paper were used in the eventual classification of finite simple groups.

- Henri Cartan and Samuel Eilenberg (1956)

Provided the first fully worked out treatment of abstract homological algebra, unifying previously disparate presentations of homology and cohomology for associative algebras, Lie algebras, and groups into a single theory.

- Alexander Grothendieck (1957)

Often referred to as the "Tôhoku paper", it revolutionized homological algebra by introducing abelian categories and providing a general framework for Cartan and Eilenberg's notion of derived functors.

- Bernhard Riemann (1857)

**Publication data:***Journal für die Reine und Angewandte Mathematik*

Developed the concept of Riemann surfaces and their topological properties beyond Riemann's 1851 thesis work, proved an index theorem for the genus (the original formulation of the Riemann–Hurwitz formula), proved the Riemann inequality for the dimension of the space of meromorphic functions with prescribed poles (the original formulation of the Riemann–Roch theorem), discussed birational transformations of a given curve and the dimension of the corresponding moduli space of inequivalent curves of a given genus, and solved more general inversion problems than those investigated by Abel and Jacobi. André Weil once wrote that this paper "*is one of the greatest pieces of mathematics that has ever been written; there is not a single word in it that is not of consequence.*"^{ [16] }

**Publication data:***Annals of Mathematics*, 1955

*FAC*, as it is usually called, was foundational for the use of sheaves in algebraic geometry, extending beyond the case of complex manifolds. Serre introduced Čech cohomology of sheaves in this paper, and, despite some technical deficiencies, revolutionized formulations of algebraic geometry. For example, the long exact sequence in sheaf cohomology allows one to show that some surjective maps of sheaves induce surjective maps on sections; specifically, these are the maps whose kernel (as a sheaf) has a vanishing first cohomology group. The dimension of a vector space of sections of a coherent sheaf is finite, in projective geometry, and such dimensions include many discrete invariants of varieties, for example Hodge numbers. While Grothendieck's derived functor cohomology has replaced Čech cohomology for technical reasons, actual calculations, such as of the cohomology of projective space, are usually carried out by Čech techniques, and for this reason Serre's paper remains important.

- Jean-Pierre Serre (1956)

In mathematics, algebraic geometry and analytic geometry are closely related subjects, where *analytic geometry* is the theory of complex manifolds and the more general analytic spaces defined locally by the vanishing of analytic functions of several complex variables. A (mathematical) theory of the relationship between the two was put in place during the early part of the 1950s, as part of the business of laying the foundations of algebraic geometry to include, for example, techniques from Hodge theory. (*NB* While analytic geometry as use of Cartesian coordinates is also in a sense included in the scope of algebraic geometry, that is not the topic being discussed in this article.) The major paper consolidating the theory was *Géometrie Algébrique et Géométrie Analytique* by Serre, now usually referred to as *GAGA*. A *GAGA-style result* would now mean any theorem of comparison, allowing passage between a category of objects from algebraic geometry, and their morphisms, and a well-defined subcategory of analytic geometry objects and holomorphic mappings.

- Armand Borel, Jean-Pierre Serre (1958)

Borel and Serre's exposition of Grothendieck's version of the Riemann–Roch theorem, published after Grothendieck made it clear that he was not interested in writing up his own result. Grothendieck reinterpreted both sides of the formula that Hirzebruch proved in 1953 in the framework of morphisms between varieties, resulting in a sweeping generalization.^{ [17] } In his proof, Grothendieck broke new ground with his concept of Grothendieck groups, which led to the development of K-theory.^{ [18] }

- Alexander Grothendieck (1960–1967)

Written with the assistance of Jean Dieudonné, this is Grothendieck's exposition of his reworking of the foundations of algebraic geometry. It has become the most important foundational work in modern algebraic geometry. The approach expounded in EGA, as these books are known, transformed the field and led to monumental advances.

- Alexander Grothendieck et al.

These seminar notes on Grothendieck's reworking of the foundations of algebraic geometry report on work done at IHÉS starting in the 1960s. SGA 1 dates from the seminars of 1960–1961, and the last in the series, SGA 7, dates from 1967 to 1969. In contrast to EGA, which is intended to set foundations, SGA describes ongoing research as it unfolded in Grothendieck's seminar; as a result, it is quite difficult to read, since many of the more elementary and foundational results were relegated to EGA. One of the major results building on the results in SGA is Pierre Deligne's proof of the last of the open Weil conjectures in the early 1970s. Other authors who worked on one or several volumes of SGA include Michel Raynaud, Michael Artin, Jean-Pierre Serre, Jean-Louis Verdier, Pierre Deligne, and Nicholas Katz.

- Brahmagupta (628)

Brahmagupta's Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta is the first book that mentions zero as a number, hence Brahmagupta is considered the first to formulate the concept of zero. The current system of the four fundamental operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) based on the Hindu-Arabic number system also first appeared in Brahmasphutasiddhanta. It was also one of the first texts to provide concrete ideas on positive and negative numbers.

- Leonhard Euler (1744)

First presented in 1737, this paper ^{ [19] } provided the first then-comprehensive account of the properties of continued fractions. It also contains the first proof that the number e is irrational.^{ [20] }

- Joseph Louis Lagrange (1775)

Developed a general theory of binary quadratic forms to handle the general problem of when an integer is representable by the form . This included a reduction theory for binary quadratic forms, where he proved that every form is equivalent to a certain canonically chosen reduced form.^{ [21] }^{ [22] }

- Carl Friedrich Gauss (1801)

The * Disquisitiones Arithmeticae * is a profound and masterful book on number theory written by German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss and first published in 1801 when Gauss was 24. In this book Gauss brings together results in number theory obtained by mathematicians such as Fermat, Euler, Lagrange and Legendre and adds many important new results of his own. Among his contributions was the first complete proof known of the Fundamental theorem of arithmetic, the first two published proofs of the law of quadratic reciprocity, a deep investigation of binary quadratic forms going beyond Lagrange's work in Recherches d'Arithmétique, a first appearance of Gauss sums, cyclotomy, and the theory of constructible polygons with a particular application to the constructibility of the regular 17-gon. Of note, in section V, article 303 of Disquisitiones, Gauss summarized his calculations of class numbers of imaginary quadratic number fields, and in fact found all imaginary quadratic number fields of class numbers 1, 2, and 3 (confirmed in 1986) as he had conjectured.^{ [23] } In section VII, article 358, Gauss proved what can be interpreted as the first non-trivial case of the Riemann Hypothesis for curves over finite fields (the Hasse–Weil theorem).^{ [24] }

Pioneering paper in analytic number theory, which introduced Dirichlet characters and their L-functions to establish Dirichlet's theorem on arithmetic progressions.^{ [25] } In subsequent publications, Dirichlet used these tools to determine, among other things, the class number for quadratic forms.

- Bernhard Riemann (1859)

"Über die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse" (or "On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude") is a seminal 8-page paper by Bernhard Riemann published in the November 1859 edition of the *Monthly Reports of the Berlin Academy*. Although it is the only paper he ever published on number theory, it contains ideas which influenced dozens of researchers during the late 19th century and up to the present day. The paper consists primarily of definitions, heuristic arguments, sketches of proofs, and the application of powerful analytic methods; all of these have become essential concepts and tools of modern analytic number theory. It also contains the famous Riemann Hypothesis, one of the most important open problems in mathematics.^{ [26] }

* Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie * (*Lectures on Number Theory*) is a textbook of number theory written by German mathematicians P. G. Lejeune Dirichlet and R. Dedekind, and published in 1863. The *Vorlesungen* can be seen as a watershed between the classical number theory of Fermat, Jacobi and Gauss, and the modern number theory of Dedekind, Riemann and Hilbert. Dirichlet does not explicitly recognise the concept of the group that is central to modern algebra, but many of his proofs show an implicit understanding of group theory.

- David Hilbert (1897)

Unified and made accessible many of the developments in algebraic number theory made during the nineteenth century. Although criticized by André Weil (who stated "*more than half of his famous Zahlbericht is little more than an account of Kummer's number-theoretical work, with inessential improvements*")^{ [27] } and Emmy Noether,^{ [28] } it was highly influential for many years following its publication.

- John Tate (1950)

Generally referred to simply as * Tate's Thesis *, Tate's Princeton PhD thesis, under Emil Artin, is a reworking of Erich Hecke's theory of zeta- and *L*-functions in terms of Fourier analysis on the adeles. The introduction of these methods into number theory made it possible to formulate extensions of Hecke's results to more general *L*-functions such as those arising from automorphic forms.

- Hervé Jacquet and Robert Langlands (1970)

This publication offers evidence towards Langlands' conjectures by reworking and expanding the classical theory of modular forms and their *L*-functions through the introduction of representation theory.

- Pierre Deligne (1974)

Proved the Riemann hypothesis for varieties over finite fields, settling the last of the open Weil conjectures.

- Gerd Faltings (1983)

Faltings proves a collection of important results in this paper, the most famous of which is the first proof of the Mordell conjecture (a conjecture dating back to 1922). Other theorems proved in this paper include an instance of the Tate conjecture (relating the homomorphisms between two abelian varieties over a number field to the homomorphisms between their Tate modules) and some finiteness results concerning abelian varieties over number fields with certain properties.

- Andrew Wiles (1995)

This article proceeds to prove a special case of the Shimura–Taniyama conjecture through the study of the deformation theory of Galois representations. This in turn implies the famed Fermat's Last Theorem. The proof's method of identification of a deformation ring with a Hecke algebra (now referred to as an *R=T* theorem) to prove modularity lifting theorems has been an influential development in algebraic number theory.

- Michael Harris and Richard Taylor (2001)

Harris and Taylor provide the first proof of the local Langlands conjecture for GL(*n*). As part of the proof, this monograph also makes an in depth study of the geometry and cohomology of certain Shimura varieties at primes of bad reduction.

Ngô Bảo Châu proved a long-standing unsolved problem in the classical Langlands program, using methods from the Geometric Langlands program.

- Leonhard Euler (1748)

The eminent historian of mathematics Carl Boyer once called Euler's * Introductio in analysin infinitorum * the greatest modern textbook in mathematics.^{ [29] } Published in two volumes,^{ [30] }^{ [31] } this book more than any other work succeeded in establishing analysis as a major branch of mathematics, with a focus and approach distinct from that used in geometry and algebra.^{ [32] } Notably, Euler identified functions rather than curves to be the central focus in his book.^{ [33] } Logarithmic, exponential, trigonometric, and transcendental functions were covered, as were expansions into partial fractions, evaluations of ζ(2k) for k a positive integer between 1 and 13, infinite series and infinite product formulas,^{ [29] } continued fractions, and partitions of integers.^{ [34] } In this work, Euler proved that every rational number can be written as a finite continued fraction, that the continued fraction of an irrational number is infinite, and derived continued fraction expansions for e and .^{ [30] } This work also contains a statement of Euler's formula and a statement of the pentagonal number theorem, which he had discovered earlier and would publish a proof for in 1751.

- Jyeshtadeva (1501)

Written in India in 1530, this was the world's first calculus text. "This work laid the foundation for a complete system of fluxions"^{ [35] }^{[ citation needed ]} and served as a summary of the Kerala School's achievements in calculus, trigonometry and mathematical analysis, most of which were earlier discovered by the 14th century mathematician Madhava. It is possible that this text influenced the later development of calculus in Europe. Some of its important developments in calculus include: the fundamental ideas of differentiation and integration, the derivative, differential equations, term by term integration, numerical integration by means of infinite series, the relationship between the area of a curve and its integral, and the mean value theorem.

- Gottfried Leibniz (1684)

Leibniz's first publication on differential calculus, containing the now familiar notation for differentials as well as rules for computing the derivatives of powers, products and quotients.

- Isaac Newton (1687)

The * Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica* (Latin: "mathematical principles of natural philosophy", often

- Leonhard Euler (1755)

Published in two books,^{ [37] } Euler's textbook on differential calculus presented the subject in terms of the function concept, which he had introduced in his 1748 *Introductio in analysin infinitorum*. This work opens with a study of the calculus of finite differences and makes a thorough investigation of how differentiation behaves under substitutions.^{ [38] } Also included is a systematic study of Bernoulli polynomials and the Bernoulli numbers (naming them as such), a demonstration of how the Bernoulli numbers are related to the coefficients in the Euler–Maclaurin formula and the values of ζ(2n),^{ [39] } a further study of Euler's constant (including its connection to the gamma function), and an application of partial fractions to differentiation.^{ [40] }

- Bernhard Riemann (1867)

Written in 1853, Riemann's work on trigonometric series was published posthumously. In it, he extended Cauchy's definition of the integral to that of the Riemann integral, allowing some functions with dense subsets of discontinuities on an interval to be integrated (which he demonstrated by an example).^{ [41] } He also stated the Riemann series theorem,^{ [41] } proved the Riemann–Lebesgue lemma for the case of bounded Riemann integrable functions,^{ [42] } and developed the Riemann localization principle.^{ [43] }

- Henri Lebesgue (1901)

Lebesgue's doctoral dissertation, summarizing and extending his research to date regarding his development of measure theory and the Lebesgue integral.

- Bernhard Riemann (1851)

Riemann's doctoral dissertation introduced the notion of a Riemann surface, conformal mapping, simple connectivity, the Riemann sphere, the Laurent series expansion for functions having poles and branch points, and the Riemann mapping theorem.

- Stefan Banach (1932; originally published 1931 in Polish under the title
*Teorja operacyj*.) - Banach, Stefan (1932).
*Théorie des Opérations Linéaires*[*Theory of Linear Operations*](PDF). Monografie Matematyczne (in French).**1**. Warszawa: Subwencji Funduszu Kultury Narodowej. Zbl 0005.20901. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2014. Retrieved 11 July 2020.

The first mathematical monograph on the subject of linear metric spaces, bringing the abstract study of functional analysis to the wider mathematical community. The book introduced the ideas of a normed space and the notion of a so-called *B*-space, a complete normed space. The *B*-spaces are now called Banach spaces and are one of the basic objects of study in all areas of modern mathematical analysis. Banach also gave proofs of versions of the open mapping theorem, closed graph theorem, and Hahn–Banach theorem.

- Grothendieck, Alexander (1955). "Produits Tensoriels Topologiques et Espaces Nucléaires" [Topological Tensor Products and Nuclear Spaces].
*Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society Series*(in French). Providence: American Mathematical Society.**16**. ISBN 978-0-8218-1216-7. MR 0075539. OCLC 1315788.

Grothendieck's thesis introduced the notion of a nuclear space, tensor products of locally convex topological vector spaces, and the start of Grothendieck's work on tensor products of Banach spaces.^{ [44] }

Alexander Grothendieck also wrote a textbook on topological vector spaces:

- Grothendieck, Alexander (1973).
*Topological Vector Spaces*. Translated by Chaljub, Orlando. New York: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers. ISBN 978-0-677-30020-7. OCLC 886098.

- Bourbaki, Nicolas (1987) [1981].
*Sur certains espaces vectoriels topologiques*[*Topological Vector Spaces: Chapters 1–5*].*Annales de l'Institut Fourier*. Éléments de mathématique.**2**. Translated by Eggleston, H.G.; Madan, S. Berlin New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-540-42338-6. OCLC 17499190.

- Joseph Fourier (1807)
^{ [45] }

Introduced Fourier analysis, specifically Fourier series. Key contribution was to not simply use trigonometric series, but to model *all* functions by trigonometric series:

Multiplying both sides by , and then integrating from to yields:

When Fourier submitted his paper in 1807, the committee (which included Lagrange, Laplace, Malus and Legendre, among others) concluded: *...the manner in which the author arrives at these equations is not exempt of difficulties and [...] his analysis to integrate them still leaves something to be desired on the score of generality and even rigour*. Making Fourier series rigorous, which in detail took over a century, led directly to a number of developments in analysis, notably the rigorous statement of the integral via the Dirichlet integral and later the Lebesgue integral.

- Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1829, expanded German edition in 1837)

In his habilitation thesis on Fourier series, Riemann characterized this work of Dirichlet as "*the first profound paper about the subject*".^{ [46] } This paper gave the first rigorous proof of the convergence of Fourier series under fairly general conditions (piecewise continuity and monotonicity) by considering partial sums, which Dirichlet transformed into a particular Dirichlet integral involving what is now called the Dirichlet kernel. This paper introduced the nowhere continuous Dirichlet function and an early version of the Riemann–Lebesgue lemma.^{ [47] }

- Lennart Carleson (1966)

Settled Lusin's conjecture that the Fourier expansion of any function converges almost everywhere.

Written around the 8th century BC^{[ citation needed ]}, this is one of the oldest geometrical texts. It laid the foundations of Indian mathematics and was influential in South Asia and its surrounding regions, and perhaps even Greece. Among the important geometrical discoveries included in this text are: the earliest list of Pythagorean triples discovered algebraically, the earliest statement of the Pythagorean theorem, geometric solutions of linear equations, several approximations of π, the first use of irrational numbers, and an accurate computation of the square root of 2, correct to a remarkable five decimal places. Though this was primarily a geometrical text, it also contained some important algebraic developments, including the earliest use of quadratic equations of the forms ax^{2} = c and ax^{2} + bx = c, and integral solutions of simultaneous Diophantine equations with up to four unknowns.

**Publication data:** c. 300 BC

**Online version:** Interactive Java version

This is often regarded as not only the most important work in geometry but one of the most important works in mathematics. It contains many important results in plane and solid geometry, algebra (books II and V), and number theory (book VII, VIII, and IX).^{ [48] } More than any specific result in the publication, it seems that the major achievement of this publication is the promotion of an axiomatic approach as a means for proving results. Euclid's *Elements* has been referred to as the most successful and influential textbook ever written.^{ [49] }

- Unknown author

This was a Chinese mathematics book, mostly geometric, composed during the Han Dynasty, perhaps as early as 200 BC. It remained the most important textbook in China and East Asia for over a thousand years, similar to the position of Euclid's *Elements* in Europe. Among its contents: Linear problems solved using the principle known later in the West as the * rule of false position *. Problems with several unknowns, solved by a principle similar to Gaussian elimination. Problems involving the principle known in the West as the Pythagorean theorem. The earliest solution of a matrix using a method equivalent to the modern method.

The Conics was written by Apollonius of Perga, a Greek mathematician. His innovative methodology and terminology, especially in the field of conics, influenced many later scholars including Ptolemy, Francesco Maurolico, Isaac Newton, and René Descartes. It was Apollonius who gave the ellipse, the parabola, and the hyperbola the names by which we know them.

- Unknown (400 CE)

Contains the roots of modern trigonometry. It describes the archeo-astronomy theories, principles and methods of the ancient Hindus. This siddhanta is supposed to be the knowledge that the Sun god gave to an Asura called Maya. It uses sine (jya), cosine (kojya or "perpendicular sine") and inverse sine (otkram jya) for the first time, and also contains the earliest use of the tangent and secant. Later Indian mathematicians such as Aryabhata made references to this text, while later Arabic and Latin translations were very influential in Europe and the Middle East.

- Aryabhata (499 CE)

This was a highly influential text during the Golden Age of mathematics in India. The text was highly concise and therefore elaborated upon in commentaries by later mathematicians. It made significant contributions to geometry and astronomy, including introduction of sine/ cosine, determination of the approximate value of pi and accurate calculation of the earth's circumference.

La Géométrie was published in 1637 and written by René Descartes. The book was influential in developing the Cartesian coordinate system and specifically discussed the representation of points of a plane, via real numbers; and the representation of curves, via equations.

**Online version:** English

**Publication data:**Hilbert, David (1899). *Grundlagen der Geometrie*. Teubner-Verlag Leipzig. ISBN 978-1-4020-2777-2.

Hilbert's axiomatization of geometry, whose primary influence was in its pioneering approach to metamathematical questions including the use of models to prove axiom independence and the importance of establishing the consistency and completeness of an axiomatic system.

*Regular Polytopes* is a comprehensive survey of the geometry of regular polytopes, the generalisation of regular polygons and regular polyhedra to higher dimensions. Originating with an essay entitled *Dimensional Analogy* written in 1923, the first edition of the book took Coxeter 24 years to complete. Originally written in 1947, the book was updated and republished in 1963 and 1973.

- Leonhard Euler (1760)

**Publication data:** Mémoires de l'académie des sciences de Berlin **16** (1760) pp. 119–143; published 1767. (Full text and an English translation available from the Dartmouth Euler archive.)

Established the theory of surfaces, and introduced the idea of principal curvatures, laying the foundation for subsequent developments in the differential geometry of surfaces.

- Carl Friedrich Gauss (1827)

**Publication data:** "Disquisitiones generales circa superficies curvas", *Commentationes Societatis Regiae Scientiarum Gottingesis Recentiores* Vol. **VI** (1827), pp. 99–146; "General Investigations of Curved Surfaces" (published 1965) Raven Press, New York, translated by A.M.Hiltebeitel and J.C.Morehead.

Groundbreaking work in differential geometry, introducing the notion of Gaussian curvature and Gauss' celebrated Theorema Egregium.

- Bernhard Riemann (1854)

**Publication data:** "Über die Hypothesen, welche der Geometrie zu Grunde Liegen", *Abhandlungen der Königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen*, Vol. 13, 1867. English translation

Riemann's famous Habiltationsvortrag, in which he introduced the notions of a manifold, Riemannian metric, and curvature tensor.

**Publication data:**Darboux, Gaston (1887,1889,1896) (1890). *Leçons sur la théorie génerale des surfaces*. Gauthier-Villars. Volume I, Volume II, Volume III, Volume IV

Leçons sur la théorie génerale des surfaces et les applications géométriques du calcul infinitésimal (on the General Theory of Surfaces and the Geometric Applications of Infinitesimal Calculus). A treatise covering virtually every aspect of the 19th century differential geometry of surfaces.

- Henri Poincaré (1895, 1899–1905)

**Description:** Poincaré's Analysis Situs and his Compléments à l'Analysis Situs laid the general foundations for algebraic topology. In these papers, Poincaré introduced the notions of homology and the fundamental group, provided an early formulation of Poincaré duality, gave the Euler–Poincaré characteristic for chain complexes, and mentioned several important conjectures including the Poincaré conjecture.

- Jean Leray (1946)

These two Comptes Rendus notes of Leray from 1946 introduced the novel concepts of sheafs, sheaf cohomology, and spectral sequences, which he had developed during his years of captivity as a prisoner of war. Leray's announcements and applications (published in other Comptes Rendus notes from 1946) drew immediate attention from other mathematicians. Subsequent clarification, development, and generalization by Henri Cartan, Jean-Louis Koszul, Armand Borel, Jean-Pierre Serre, and Leray himself allowed these concepts to be understood and applied to many other areas of mathematics.^{ [50] } Dieudonné would later write that these notions created by Leray "*undoubtedly rank at the same level in the history of mathematics as the methods invented by Poincaré and Brouwer*".^{ [51] }

- René Thom (1954)

In this paper, Thom proved the Thom transversality theorem, introduced the notions of oriented and unoriented cobordism, and demonstrated that cobordism groups could be computed as the homotopy groups of certain Thom spaces. Thom completely characterized the unoriented cobordism ring and achieved strong results for several problems, including Steenrod's problem on the realization of cycles.^{ [52] }^{ [53] }

- Samuel Eilenberg and Saunders Mac Lane (1945)

The first paper on category theory. Mac Lane later wrote in *Categories for the Working Mathematician* that he and Eilenberg introduced categories so that they could introduce functors, and they introduced functors so that they could introduce natural equivalences. Prior to this paper, "natural" was used in an informal and imprecise way to designate constructions that could be made without making any choices. Afterwards, "natural" had a precise meaning which occurred in a wide variety of contexts and had powerful and important consequences.

- Saunders Mac Lane (1971, second edition 1998)

Saunders Mac Lane, one of the founders of category theory, wrote this exposition to bring categories to the masses. Mac Lane brings to the fore the important concepts that make category theory useful, such as adjoint functors and universal properties.

- Jacob Lurie (2010)

*This purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a general introduction to higher category theory (using the formalism of "quasicategories" or "weak Kan complexes"), and to apply this theory to the study of higher versions of Grothendieck topoi. A few applications to classical topology are included.* (see arXiv.)

- Georg Cantor (1874)

**Online version:** Online version

Contains the first proof that the set of all real numbers is uncountable; also contains a proof that the set of algebraic numbers is countable. (See Georg Cantor's first set theory article.)

First published in 1914, this was the first comprehensive introduction to set theory. Besides the systematic treatment of known results in set theory, the book also contains chapters on measure theory and topology, which were then still considered parts of set theory. Here Hausdorff presents and develops highly original material which was later to become the basis for those areas.

- Kurt Gödel (1938)

Gödel proves the results of the title. Also, in the process, introduces the class L of constructible sets, a major influence in the development of axiomatic set theory.

- Paul J. Cohen (1963, 1964)

Cohen's breakthrough work proved the independence of the continuum hypothesis and axiom of choice with respect to Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory. In proving this Cohen introduced the concept of * forcing * which led to many other major results in axiomatic set theory.

- George Boole (1854)

Published in 1854, The Laws of Thought was the first book to provide a mathematical foundation for logic. Its aim was a complete re-expression and extension of Aristotle's logic in the language of mathematics. Boole's work founded the discipline of algebraic logic and would later be central for Claude Shannon in the development of digital logic.

- Gottlob Frege (1879)

Published in 1879, the title * Begriffsschrift* is usually translated as

- Giuseppe Peano (1895)

First published in 1895, the **Formulario mathematico** was the first mathematical book written entirely in a formalized language. It contained a description of mathematical logic and many important theorems in other branches of mathematics. Many of the notations introduced in the book are now in common use.

- Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead (1910–1913)

The * Principia Mathematica* is a three-volume work on the foundations of mathematics, written by Bertrand Russell and Alfred North Whitehead and published in 1910–1913. It is an attempt to derive all mathematical truths from a well-defined set of axioms and inference rules in symbolic logic. The questions remained whether a contradiction could be derived from the Principia's axioms, and whether there exists a mathematical statement which could neither be proven nor disproven in the system. These questions were settled, in a rather surprising way, by Gödel's incompleteness theorem in 1931.

- Alan Turing's PhD thesis

(On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia Mathematica and Related Systems)

- Kurt Gödel (1931)

**Online version:** Online version

In mathematical logic, ** Gödel's incompleteness theorems ** are two celebrated theorems proved by Kurt Gödel in 1931. The first incompleteness theorem states:

For any formal system such that (1) it is -consistent (omega-consistent), (2) it has a recursively definable set of axioms and rules of derivation, and (3) every recursive relation of natural numbers is definable in it, there exists a formula of the system such that, according to the intended interpretation of the system, it expresses a truth about natural numbers and yet it is not a theorem of the system.

- Endre Szemerédi (1975)

Settled a conjecture of Paul Erdős and Pál Turán (now known as Szemerédi's theorem) that if a sequence of natural numbers has positive upper density then it contains arbitrarily long arithmetic progressions. Szemerédi's solution has been described as a "masterpiece of combinatorics"^{ [54] } and it introduced new ideas and tools to the field including a weak form of the Szemerédi regularity lemma.^{ [55] }

- Leonhard Euler (1741)
- Euler's original publication (in Latin)

Euler's solution of the Königsberg bridge problem in *Solutio problematis ad geometriam situs pertinentis* (*The solution of a problem relating to the geometry of position*) is considered to be the first theorem of graph theory.

- Paul Erdős and Alfréd Rényi (1960)

Provides a detailed discussion of sparse random graphs, including distribution of components, occurrence of small subgraphs, and phase transitions.^{ [56] }

- L. R. Ford, Jr. & D. R. Fulkerson
*Flows in Networks*. Prentice-Hall, 1962.

Presents the Ford-Fulkerson algorithm for solving the maximum flow problem, along with many ideas on flow-based models.

*See List of important publications in theoretical computer science.*

- John von Neumann (1928)

Went well beyond Émile Borel's initial investigations into strategic two-person game theory by proving the minimax theorem for two-person, zero-sum games.

- Oskar Morgenstern, John von Neumann (1944)

This book led to the investigation of modern game theory as a prominent branch of mathematics. This work contained the method for finding optimal solutions for two-person zero-sum games.

The book is in two, {0,1|}, parts. The zeroth part is about numbers, the first part about games – both the values of games and also some real games that can be played such as Nim, Hackenbush, Col and Snort amongst the many described.

A compendium of information on mathematical games. It was first published in 1982 in two volumes, one focusing on Combinatorial game theory and surreal numbers, and the other concentrating on a number of specific games.

A discussion of self-similar curves that have fractional dimensions between 1 and 2. These curves are examples of fractals, although Mandelbrot does not use this term in the paper, as he did not coin it until 1975. Shows Mandelbrot's early thinking on fractals, and is an example of the linking of mathematical objects with natural forms that was a theme of much of his later work.

* Method of Fluxions * was a book written by Isaac Newton. The book was completed in 1671, and published in 1736. Within this book, Newton describes a method (the Newton–Raphson method) for finding the real zeroes of a function.

- Joseph Louis Lagrange (1761)

Major early work on the calculus of variations, building upon some of Lagrange's prior investigations as well as those of Euler. Contains investigations of minimal surface determination as well as the initial appearance of Lagrange multipliers.

- Leonid Kantorovich (1939) "[The Mathematical Method of Production Planning and Organization]" (in Russian).

Kantorovich wrote the first paper on production planning, which used Linear Programs as the model. He received the Nobel prize for this work in 1975.

- George Dantzig and P. Wolfe
- Operations Research 8:101–111, 1960.

Dantzig's is considered the father of linear programming in the western world. He independently invented the simplex algorithm. Dantzig and Wolfe worked on decomposition algorithms for large-scale linear programs in factory and production planning.

- Victor Klee and George J. Minty
- Klee, Victor; Minty, George J. (1972). "How good is the simplex algorithm?". In Shisha, Oved (ed.).
*Inequalities III (Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Inequalities held at the University of California, Los Angeles, Calif., September 1–9, 1969, dedicated to the memory of Theodore S. Motzkin)*. New York-London: Academic Press. pp. 159–175. MR 0332165.

Klee and Minty gave an example showing that the simplex algorithm can take exponentially many steps to solve a linear program.

- Khachiyan, Leonid Genrikhovich (1979). Полиномиальный алгоритм в линейном программировании[A polynomial algorithm for linear programming].
*Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR*(in Russian).**244**: 1093–1096..

Khachiyan's work on the ellipsoid method. This was the first polynomial time algorithm for linear programming.

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These are publications that are not necessarily relevant to a mathematician nowadays, but are nonetheless important publications in the history of mathematics.

This is one of the earliest mathematical treatises that still survives today.

One of the oldest mathematical texts, dating to the Second Intermediate Period of ancient Egypt. It was copied by the scribe Ahmes (properly *Ahmose*) from an older Middle Kingdom papyrus. It laid the foundations of Egyptian mathematics and in turn, later influenced Greek and Hellenistic mathematics. Besides describing how to obtain an approximation of π only missing the mark by less than one per cent, it is describes one of the earliest attempts at squaring the circle and in the process provides persuasive evidence against the theory that the Egyptians deliberately built their pyramids to enshrine the value of π in the proportions. Even though it would be a strong overstatement to suggest that the papyrus represents even rudimentary attempts at analytical geometry, Ahmes did make use of a kind of an analogue of the cotangent.

Although the only mathematical tools at its author's disposal were what we might now consider secondary-school geometry, he used those methods with rare brilliance, explicitly using infinitesimals to solve problems that would now be treated by integral calculus. Among those problems were that of the center of gravity of a solid hemisphere, that of the center of gravity of a frustum of a circular paraboloid, and that of the area of a region bounded by a parabola and one of its secant lines. For explicit details of the method used, see Archimedes' use of infinitesimals.

**Online version:** Online version

The first known (European) system of number-naming that can be expanded beyond the needs of everyday life.

"Dummit and Foote * has become the modern dominant abstract algebra textbook following Jacobson's Basic Algebra.*

Contains over 6000 theorems of mathematics, assembled by George Shoobridge Carr for the purpose of training his students for the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos exams. Studied extensively by Ramanujan. (first half here)

One of the most influential books in French mathematical literature. It introduces some of the notations and definitions that are now usual (the symbol ∅ or the term bijective for example). Characterized by an extreme level of rigour, formalism and generality (up to the point of being highly criticized for that), its publication started in 1939 and is still unfinished today.

Written in 1542, it was the first really popular arithmetic book written in the English Language.

- Edward Cocker (authorship disputed)

Textbook of arithmetic published in 1678 by John Hawkins, who claimed to have edited manuscripts left by Edward Cocker, who had died in 1676. This influential mathematics textbook used to teach arithmetic in schools in the United Kingdom for over 150 years.

An early and popular English arithmetic textbook published in America in the 18th century. The book reached from the introductory topics to the advanced in five sections.

**Publication data:** 1892

The most widely used and influential textbook in Russian mathematics. (See Kiselyov page.)

A classic textbook in introductory mathematical analysis, written by G. H. Hardy. It was first published in 1908, and went through many editions. It was intended to help reform mathematics teaching in the UK, and more specifically in the University of Cambridge, and in schools preparing pupils to study mathematics at Cambridge. As such, it was aimed directly at "scholarship level" students – the top 10% to 20% by ability. The book contains a large number of difficult problems. The content covers introductory calculus and the theory of infinite series.

The first introductory textbook (graduate level) expounding the abstract approach to algebra developed by Emil Artin and Emmy Noether. First published in German in 1931 by Springer Verlag. A later English translation was published in 1949 by Frederick Ungar Publishing Company.

A definitive introductory text for abstract algebra using a category theoretic approach. Both a rigorous introduction from first principles, and a reasonably comprehensive survey of the field.

The first comprehensive introductory (graduate level) text in algebraic geometry that used the language of schemes and cohomology. Published in 1977, it lacks aspects of the scheme language which are nowadays considered central, like the functor of points.

An undergraduate introduction to not-very-naive set theory which has lasted for decades. It is still considered by many to be the best introduction to set theory for beginners. While the title states that it is naive, which is usually taken to mean without axioms, the book does introduce all the axioms of Zermelo–Fraenkel set theory and gives correct and rigorous definitions for basic objects. Where it differs from a "true" axiomatic set theory book is its character: There are no long-winded discussions of axiomatic minutiae, and there is next to nothing about topics like large cardinals. Instead it aims, and succeeds, in being intelligible to someone who has never thought about set theory before.

The *nec plus ultra* reference for basic facts about cardinal and ordinal numbers. If you have a question about the cardinality of sets occurring in everyday mathematics, the first place to look is this book, first published in the early 1950s but based on the author's lectures on the subject over the preceding 40 years.

This book is not really for beginners, but graduate students with some minimal experience in set theory and formal logic will find it a valuable self-teaching tool, particularly in regard to forcing. It is far easier to read than a true reference work such as Jech, *Set Theory*. It may be the best textbook from which to learn forcing, though it has the disadvantage that the exposition of forcing relies somewhat on the earlier presentation of Martin's axiom.

First published round 1935, this text was a pioneering "reference" text book in topology, already incorporating many modern concepts from set-theoretic topology, homological algebra and homotopy theory.

First published in 1955, for many years the only introductory graduate level textbook in the US, teaching the basics of point set, as opposed to algebraic, topology. Prior to this the material, essential for advanced study in many fields, was only available in bits and pieces from texts on other topics or journal articles.

This short book introduces the main concepts of differential topology in Milnor's lucid and concise style. While the book does not cover very much, its topics are explained beautifully in a way that illuminates all their details.

An historical study of number theory, written by one of the 20th century's greatest researchers in the field. The book covers some thirty six centuries of arithmetical work but the bulk of it is devoted to a detailed study and exposition of the work of Fermat, Euler, Lagrange, and Legendre. The author wishes to take the reader into the workshop of his subjects to share their successes and failures. A rare opportunity to see the historical development of a subject through the mind of one of its greatest practitioners.

* An Introduction to the Theory of Numbers * was first published in 1938, and is still in print, with the latest edition being the 6th (2008). It is likely that almost every serious student and researcher into number theory has consulted this book, and probably has it on their bookshelf. It was not intended to be a textbook, and is rather an introduction to a wide range of differing areas of number theory which would now almost certainly be covered in separate volumes. The writing style has long been regarded as exemplary, and the approach gives insight into a variety of areas without requiring much more than a good grounding in algebra, calculus and complex numbers.

* Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid* is a Pulitzer Prize-winning book, first published in 1979 by Basic Books. It is a book about how the creative achievements of logician Kurt Gödel, artist M. C. Escher and composer Johann Sebastian Bach interweave. As the author states: "I realized that to me, Gödel and Escher and Bach were only shadows cast in different directions by some central solid essence. I tried to reconstruct the central object, and came up with this book."

* The World of Mathematics * was specially designed to make mathematics more accessible to the inexperienced. It comprises nontechnical essays on every aspect of the vast subject, including articles by and about scores of eminent mathematicians, as well as literary figures, economists, biologists, and many other eminent thinkers. Includes the work of Archimedes, Galileo, Descartes, Newton, Gregor Mendel, Edmund Halley, Jonathan Swift, John Maynard Keynes, Henri Poincaré, Lewis Carroll, George Boole, Bertrand Russell, Alfred North Whitehead, John von Neumann, and many others. In addition, an informative commentary by distinguished scholar James R. Newman precedes each essay or group of essays, explaining their relevance and context in the history and development of mathematics. Originally published in 1956, it does not include many of the exciting discoveries of the later years of the 20th century but it has no equal as a general historical survey of important topics and applications.

In mathematics, a **conjecture** is a conclusion or a proposition which is suspected to be true due to preliminary supporting evidence, but for which no proof or disproof has yet been found. Some conjectures, such as the Riemann hypothesis or Fermat's Last Theorem, have shaped much of mathematical history as new areas of mathematics are developed in order to prove them.

**Number theory** is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers and integer-valued functions. German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855) said, "Mathematics is the queen of the sciences—and number theory is the queen of mathematics." Number theorists study prime numbers as well as the properties of mathematical objects made out of integers or defined as generalizations of the integers.

**Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann** was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry. In the field of real analysis, he is mostly known for the first rigorous formulation of the integral, the Riemann integral, and his work on Fourier series. His contributions to complex analysis include most notably the introduction of Riemann surfaces, breaking new ground in a natural, geometric treatment of complex analysis. His famous 1859 paper on the prime-counting function, containing the original statement of the Riemann hypothesis, is regarded as one of the most influential papers in analytic number theory. Through his pioneering contributions to differential geometry, Riemann laid the foundations of the mathematics of general relativity. He is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

**Algebraic number theory** is a branch of number theory that uses the techniques of abstract algebra to study the integers, rational numbers, and their generalizations. Number-theoretic questions are expressed in terms of properties of algebraic objects such as algebraic number fields and their rings of integers, finite fields, and function fields. These properties, such as whether a ring admits unique factorization, the behavior of ideals, and the Galois groups of fields, can resolve questions of primary importance in number theory, like the existence of solutions to Diophantine equations.

**Johann Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet** was a German mathematician who made deep contributions to number theory, and to the theory of Fourier series and other topics in mathematical analysis; he is credited with being one of the first mathematicians to give the modern formal definition of a function.

In mathematics, the **Weil conjectures** were highly influential proposals by André Weil (1949). They led to a successful multi-decade program to prove them, in which many leading researchers developed the framework of modern algebraic geometry and number theory.

In mathematics, **analytic number theory** is a branch of number theory that uses methods from mathematical analysis to solve problems about the integers. It is often said to have begun with Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet's 1837 introduction of Dirichlet *L*-functions to give the first proof of Dirichlet's theorem on arithmetic progressions. It is well known for its results on prime numbers and additive number theory.

In mathematics, the **uniformization theorem** says that every simply connected Riemann surface is conformally equivalent to one of three Riemann surfaces: the open unit disk, the complex plane, or the Riemann sphere. In particular it implies that every Riemann surface admits a Riemannian metric of constant curvature. For compact Riemann surfaces, those with universal cover the unit disk are precisely the hyperbolic surfaces of genus greater than 1, all with non-abelian fundamental group; those with universal cover the complex plane are the Riemann surfaces of genus 1, namely the complex tori or elliptic curves with fundamental group **Z**^{2}; and those with universal cover the Riemann sphere are those of genus zero, namely the Riemann sphere itself, with trivial fundamental group.

**Pierre René, Viscount Deligne** is a Belgian mathematician. He is best known for work on the Weil conjectures, leading to a complete proof in 1973. He is the winner of the 2013 Abel Prize, 2008 Wolf Prize, 1988 Crafoord Prize, and 1978 Fields Medal.

The * Disquisitiones Arithmeticae* is a textbook of number theory written in Latin by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1798 when Gauss was 21 and first published in 1801 when he was 24. It is notable for having had a revolutionary impact on the field of number theory as it not only made the field truly rigorous and systematic but also paved the path for modern number theory. In this book Gauss brought together and reconciled results in number theory obtained by mathematicians such as Fermat, Euler, Lagrange, and Legendre and added many profound and original results of his own.

** Vorlesungen über Zahlentheorie** is the name of several different textbooks of number theory. The best known was written by Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet and Richard Dedekind, and published in 1863. Others were written by Leopold Kronecker, Edmund Landau, and Helmut Hasse. They all cover elementary number theory, Dirichlet's theorem, quadratic fields and forms, and sometimes more advanced topics.

This is a **timeline of the theory of abelian varieties** in algebraic geometry, including elliptic curves.

**Geometry** is, with arithmetic, one of the oldest branches of mathematics. It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position of figures. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer.

A timeline of **algebra** and **geometry**

This is a timeline of pure and applied mathematics history. It is divided here into three stages, corresponding to stages in the development of mathematical notation: a "rhetorical" stage in which calculations are described purely by words, a "syncopated" stage in which quantities and common algebraic operations are beginning to be represented by symbolic abbreviations, and finally a "symbolic" stage, in which comprehensive notational systems for formulas are the norm.

* The Story of Maths* is a four-part British television series outlining aspects of the history of mathematics. It was a co-production between the Open University and the BBC and aired in October 2008 on BBC Four. The material was written and presented by University of Oxford professor Marcus du Sautoy. The consultants were the Open University academics Robin Wilson, professor Jeremy Gray and June Barrow-Green. Kim Duke is credited as series producer.

**Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind** was a German mathematician who made important contributions to number theory, abstract algebra, and the axiomatic foundations of arithmetic. His best known contribution is the definition of real numbers through the notion of Dedekind cut. He is also considered a pioneer in the development of modern set theory and of the philosophy of mathematics known as *Logicism*.

- ↑ Bill Casselman. "One of the Oldest Extant Diagrams from Euclid". University of British Columbia. Archived from the original on 4 June 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2008.
- ↑ Grattan-Guinness, Ivor (2005).
*Landmark Writings in Western Mathematics 1640–1940*. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-08-045744-4. - ↑ Smith, David Eugene (2012) [1929].
*A Source Book in Mathematics*. Courier. ISBN 978-0-486-15829-7. - ↑ Shashi S. Sharma.
*Mathematics & Astronomers of Ancient India*. Pitambar. p. 29. ISBN 978-81-209-1421-6.Brahmagupta is believed to have composed many important works of mathematics and astronomy. However, two of his most important works are: Brahmasphutasiddhanta (BSS) written in 628 AD, and the Khandakhadyaka...

- ↑ Miodrag Petković (2009).
*Famous puzzles of great mathematicians*. American Mathematical Society. pp. 77, 299. ISBN 978-0-8218-4814-2.many important results from astronomy, arithmetic and algebra", "major work

- ↑ Helaine Selin, ed. (1997).
*Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures*. Springer. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-7923-4066-9.holds a remarkable place in the history of Eastern civilization", "most important work", "remarkably modern in outlook", "marvelous piece of pure mathematics", "more remarkable algebraic contributions", "important step towards the integral solutions of [second-order indeterminate] equations", "In geometry, Brahmagupta's achievements were equally praiseworthy.

- ↑ John Tabak (2004).
*Algebra: sets, symbols, and the language of thought*. Infobase Publishing. pp. 38*ff*. ISBN 978-0-8160-4954-7.Brahmagupta's masterpiece", "a great deal of important algebra", "The

*Brahma-sphuta-siddhānta*was quickly recognized by Brahmagupta's contemporaries as an important and imaginative work. It inspired numerous commentaries by many generations of mathematicians. - ↑ Clark, Allan (1984).
*Elements of abstract algebra*. United States: Courier Dover Publications. p. ix. ISBN 978-0-486-64725-8. - ↑ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (1998). "Girolamo Cardano". Archived from the original on 18 August 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2008.
- ↑ Markus Fierz (1983).
*Girolamo Cardano: 1501-1576. Physician, Natural Philosopher, Mathematician*. Birkhäuser Boston. ISBN 978-0-8176-3057-7. - ↑ Weil, André (1984).
*Number Theory: An approach through history From Hammurapi to Legendre*. Birkhäuser. pp. 239–242. ISBN 978-0-8176-3141-3. - ↑ Gauss, Carl Friedrich (1799).
*Demonstratio nova theorematis omnem functionem algebraicam*. C.G. Fleckeisen. - ↑ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (1996). "The fundamental theorem of algebra". Archived from the original on 17 March 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2008.
- ↑ Kolmogorov, A.N., ed. (2001).
*Mathematics of the 19th Century: Mathematical Logic, Algebra, Number Theory, and Probability Theory*. Birkhäuser Verlag. pp. 39, 63, 66–68. ISBN 978-3-7643-6441-0. - ↑ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (2001). "Marie Ennemond Camille Jordan". Archived from the original on 11 February 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2008.
- ↑ Krieger, Martin H. (March 2007). "A 1940 Letter of André Weil on Analogy in Mathematics" (PDF).
*Notices of the American Mathematical Society*.**52**(3): 338. - ↑ Jackson, Allyn (October 2004). "Comme Appelé du Néant – As If Summoned from the Void: The Life of Alexandre Grothendieck" (PDF).
*Notices of the American Mathematical Society*.**51**(9): 1045–6. - ↑ Dieudonné, Jean (1989).
*A history of algebraic and differential topology 1900–1960*. Birkhäuser. pp. 598–600. ISBN 978-0-8176-3388-2. - ↑ Euler, L. (1744). "De fractionibus continuis dissertatio" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- ↑ Sandifer, Ed (February 2006). "How Euler Did It: Who proved e is irrational?" (PDF).
*MAA Online*. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009. - ↑ Goldfeld, Dorian (July 1985). "Gauss' Class Number Problem For Imaginary Quadratic Fields" (PDF).
*Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society*.**13**(1): 24. doi: 10.1090/S0273-0979-1985-15352-2 . - ↑ Weil, André (1984).
*Number Theory: An approach through history From Hammurapi to Legendre*. Birkhäuser. pp. 316–322. ISBN 978-0-8176-3141-3. - ↑ Ireland, K.; Rosen, M. (1993).
*A Classical Introduction to Modern Number Theory*. New York, New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 358–361. ISBN 978-0-387-97329-6. - ↑ Silverman, J.; Tate, J. (1992).
*Rational Points on Elliptic Curves*. New York, New York: Springer-Verlag. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-387-97825-3. - ↑ Elstrodt, Jürgen (2007). "The Life and Work of Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet (1805–1859)".
*Analytic Number Theory: A Tribute to Gauss and Dirichlet. Gauss-Dirichlet Conference (2005: Göttingen)*. Clay Mathematics Proceedings.**7**. American Mathematical Society. pp. 1–38. ISBN 978-0-8218-4307-9. - ↑ Edwards, Harold M. (2001) [1974].
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*MAA Online*. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009. - ↑ Sandifer, Ed (June 2007). "How Euler Did It: Partial Fractions" (PDF).
*MAA Online*. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 May 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009. - 1 2 Bressoud, David (2007).
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*A History of Mathematics*(2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 100–119. ISBN 0471097632. - ↑ Boyer, Carl Benjamin (1991).
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