I. I. Chundrigar

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Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar
 ابراہیم اسماعیل چندریگر
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar.jpg
6th Prime Minister of Pakistan
In office
17 October 1957 11 December 1957
President Iskander Mirza
Preceded by Huseyn Suhrawardy
Succeeded by Feroze Khan
Minister of Law and Justice
In office
12 August 1955 9 August 1957
Prime Minister H. S. Suhrawardy
(1956-57)
Muhammad Ali
(1955-56)
Leader of the Opposition
In office
12 August 1955 23 March 1956
Servingwith H. S. Suhrawardy
Preceded byOffice established
Succeeded by Fatima Jinnah
(Appointed in 1965)
Pakistani Ambassador to Turkey
In office
21 June 1953 12 August 1955
Prime Minister Mohammad Ali Bogra
Governor of West Punjab
In office
24 November 1951 2 May 1953
Chief Minister M. Daultana
Preceded by Abdur Rab Nishtar
Succeeded by M. Aminuddin
Governor of North-West Frontier Province
In office
17 February 1950 23 November 1951
Chief Minister A. Q. Khan
Preceded by Mohammad Khurshid
Succeeded by Khwaja Shahabuddin
Pakistani Ambassador to Afghanistan
In office
1 May 1948 17 February 1950
Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan
Minister of Commerce and Trade
In office
15 August 1947 1 may 1948
Prime MinisterLiaquat Ali Khan
Minister of Commerce and Industry
In office
2 September 1946 15 August 1947
President
Vice President Jawaharlal Nehru
Preceded byPost created
Succeeded by Syama Prasad Mukherjee
Member of the Bombay Legislative Assembly
In office
1937 1 September 1946
Governor
Parliamentary group Muslim League (Nationalist Group)
Constituency Muhammadan Ubran
Majority Muslim League
President of Pakistan Muslim League
In office
17 October 1957 11 December 1957
Preceded by Muhammad Ali
Succeeded by Nurul Amin
(Took presidency in 1967)
President of the Supreme Court Bar Association
In office
1958–1960
Personal details
Born
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar

(1897-09-15)15 September 1897 [1]
Godhra, Bombay Presidency, British India
(Present-day Gujarat, India)
Died26 September 1960(1960-09-26) (aged 63)
London, England [2]
Cause of death Haemorrhage
Resting place Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan
Citizenship British Raj Red Ensign.svg British India
(1897–47)
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan
(1947–60)
Political party Muslim League
(1936-1960)
Children2 sons, including Abdullah [2] and Abu Bakr, [2]
Alma mater University of Bombay
(BA in Phil. and LLB)
ProfessionLawyer, diplomat
Website I. I. Chundrigar
Official website

Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar [3] (Urdu : ابراہیم اسماعیل چندریگر; 15 September 1897 [1] – 26 September 1960), best known as I. I. Chundrigar, was the sixth Prime Minister of Pakistan, appointed in this capacity on 17 October 1957 until being removed due to the vote of noconfidence movement on 11 December 1957.

Contents

Trained in the constitutional law from Bombay and one of the Founding Fathers of the Dominion of Pakistan, Chundrigar's tenure is the second shortest served in the parliamentary history of Pakistan just after that of Nurul Amin who served as prime minister for 13 days. Chundrigar served only for just 55 days into his term himself. [4] [5]

Biography

Early life and law practice

Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar was born in Godhra, Gujarat in India on September 15, 1897.:106 [1] [6] He was the only child of his Gujarati-speaking Chundrigar family, a Muslim community in India. [7] From his Chundriger community, he was of the Arabian descent. [8]

Chundrigar was initially schooled in Ahmedabad where he finished his matriculation and moved to Bombay for his higher studies. He went to attend Bombay University where he secured his graduation with the BA degree in philosophy, and later the LLB degree from Bombay University in 1929. [9] [10] [11] From 1929 till 1932, Chundrigar served as a lawyer for the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. [12]

From 1932 until 1937, Chundrigar began practicing civil law, and moved to practice and read law at the Bombay High Court in 1937, where he established his reputation. [11] During this time, he became acquainted with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, sharing the similar ideology, work ethics, and political views. [13] [7]

In 1935, Chudrigar was represented by the Muslim League to give a response to the Government of India Act 1935 introduced by the British government in India. Over the role of the Governor-General as head of state, Chundrigar notably contradicted the powers enjoyed by the Governor-General under the act introduced in 1935. [14]

From 1937 till 1946, Chundrigar practiced and read law, taking several cases on civil matters where he advocated for his clients at the Bombay High Court. [15]

Legislative career in India and Pakistan Movement

In 1936, Chundrigar joined the Muslim League and successfully participated in the provincial elections to be elected as a member of the Bombay Legislative Assembly in 1937. [10] [7] He took over the Muslim League's provincial presidency based in Bombay, and successfully retained his role as the member of the legislative assembly (MLA) of the Bombay Assembly for a Muhammadan Urban constituency until 1946. [16] [10]

In 1946, he was named and appointed as Commerce Minister under the presidential administrations of Viceroys of India, Archibald Wavell (1946) and Louis Mountbatten (1946-47). [10] Peter Lyon, a reader emeritus in international relations, describes Chundrigar as a "close supporter" of Mohammad Ali Jinnah in the Pakistan Movement. [17]

Public service in Pakistan

Diplomacy and governorships

After the partition of India by the act of the British Empire that laid the establishment of Pakistan, Chundrigar endorsed Liaquat Ali Khan's bid for the Premiership and was retained as the Commerce Minister in the administration of Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan on 15 August 1947. [18] [19]

On 1 May 1948, Chundrigar was relieved his Commerce ministry and was appointed as the Pakistan Ambassador to Afghanistan, presenting his credentials to Afghan King Zahir Shah in Kabul. [20] [21] Though, his appointment was met with favorable views in Afghanistan, Chundrigar was at odd with the Afghan government of supporting the issue of separating the country's north-west frontier, with Indian involvement as early as 1949. [22]

His tenureship remained for a short brief of time when he was recalled to Pakistan due to Foreign Office's objections, which viewed Chundrigar's inability to understand the Pashtun culture may have factor in fracturing relations between two nations. [23] In 1950, Chundrigar was appointed Governor of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, which he tenured until 1951. [10] A Cabinet reshuffle in 1951 allowed him to be appointed as the Governor of Punjab but was removed amid differences developed in 1953 with Governor-General M.G. Muhammad when he enforced martial law at the request of Prime Minister K. Nazimuddin to control violent religious riots that occurred in Lahore, Pakistan. [4] He was appointed as Pakistan's Ambassador to Turkey and presented his diplomatic credentials in Ankara. [24]

Law ministry in Coalition administration

In 1955, Chundrigar returned to Pakistan from his ambassadorship from Turkey when he was invited to join the central government of three-party coalition: the Awami League, Muslim League and the Republican Party. [4] He was appointed as Minister of Law and Justice. [25] During this time, he also acted as a Leader of the Opposition, opposing the mainstream agenda presented by the Republican Party. [26]

At the National Assembly, he established his reputation as more of constitutional lawyer than a politician and gained a lot of prominence in public for his arguments in favour of parliamentarianism when he pleaded the case of "Maulvi Tamizuddin vs. Federation of Pakistan". [10]

Prime Minister of Pakistan (1957)

Shortest tenure as Prime Minister

After the resignation of Prime Minister Suhrawardy in 1956, Chudrigar was nominated as the Prime Minister and was supported by Awami League, Krishak Sramik Party, Nizem-i-Islam Party, and the Republican Party. [27] However, this coalition of mixed parties weakened him to exercise his authority to run the central government, with reaching a compromise with the Republican Party led by its presidents Feroze Khan and Iskander Mirza to amend the Electoral College. [10] On 18 October 1957, Chundrigar became the Prime Minister of Pakistan oath from Chief Justice M. Munir. [27]

At the first session of the National Assembly, Chundrigar presented his plans to reform the Electoral College which was met with great parliamentary opposition even by his Cabinet ministers from the Republican Party and the Awami League. [28] [27] With President Iskander Mirza and his Republican Party exploiting and manipulating the opponents of Muslim League, a successful vote of no-confidence movement in the National Assembly by Republicans and Awami Party effectively ended Chundrigar's term when he was forced to resign from his office on 11 December 1957. [28] [27]

Chundrigar served the shortest term of any Prime Ministers' tenure served in Pakistan: 17 October 1957 – 11 December 1957, 55 days into his term. [5] [4]

Death and reputation

In 1958, Chudrigar was appointed as president of the Supreme Court Bar Association which he remained until his death. [2] In 1960, Chundrigar traveled to Hamburg where he addressed the International Law Conference and suffered a haemorrhage while visiting in London. [2] For treatment, he was taken to the Royal Northern Hospital and suddenly died. [2] His body was brought back to Karachi in Pakistan, where he was buried in a local cemetery. [2]

In his honour, the Government of Pakistan renamed the McLeod Road in Karachi after his namesake. [7]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Biographical Encyclopedia of Pakistan. Biographical Research Institute, Pakistan. 1961. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Chundrigar dies in London". Dawn. Pakistan. 29 September 1960. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  3. His birth name is given as "Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar". There's a major road in the corporate downtown in Karachi bearing his namesake as Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar Road. The Bombay University confirms his name written as Ismail Ibrahim Chundrigar in their graduating listings.
  4. 1 2 3 4 Burki, Shahid Javed (2015). "§I.I. Chundrigar". Historical Dictionary of Pakistan. New York, U.S.: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 136. ISBN   9781442241480 . Retrieved 24 January 2018.
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Political offices
Preceded by
Mohammad Ibrahim Khan Jhagra
Acting
Governor of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
1950–1951
Succeeded by
Khwaja Shahabuddin
Preceded by
Abdur Rab Nishtar
Governor of Punjab
1951–1953
Succeeded by
Mian Aminuddin
Preceded by
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
Prime Minister of Pakistan
1957
Succeeded by
Feroz Khan Noon