L'Hoest's monkey

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L'Hoest's monkey [1]
L'Hoest's monkey (Cercopithecus lhoesti).jpg
At the Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Primates
Suborder: Haplorhini
Infraorder: Simiiformes
Family: Cercopithecidae
Genus: Allochrocebus
A. lhoesti
Binomial name
Allochrocebus lhoesti
P. Sclater, 1899
Cercopithecus lhoesti distribution.svg
Geographic distribution
feeding, Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda L'Hoest's monkey (Cercopithecus lhoesti) feeding.jpg
feeding, Bwindi Impenetrable Forest, Uganda
Colchester Zoo, England Cercopithecus lhoesti (L'Hoest's monkey - Colchester Zoo, England, 2008).jpg
Colchester Zoo, England

L'Hoest's monkey (Allochrocebus lhoesti) or mountain monkey, is a guenon found in the upper eastern Congo basin. They mostly live in mountainous forest areas in small, female-dominated groups. They have a dark coat and can be distinguished by a characteristic white beard.



L'Hoest's monkey is currently classified as a member of the genus Allochrocebus . [3] [4] Formerly, L'Hoest's monkey included the taxon preussi from the Gulf of Guinea region as a subspecies, [5] but it is now considered a separate species, Preuss's monkey (A. preussi).

L'Hoest's monkey was formerly included in the genus Cercopithecus . [1] Molecular studies published by Anthony Tosi in 2003 had raised doubts about the classification of L'Hoest's monkey as a member of the genus Cercopithecus. The studies indicated that L'Hoest's monkey (along with the others in its species group) is more closely related to the vervet monkeys of the genus Chlorocebus and the patas monkey (genus Erythrocebus) than to the other guenons of the genus Cercopithecus. [6] [7]

Physical characteristics

C. lhoesti has a short, dark brown coat, with a chestnut color across the back and a dark belly. Its cheeks are light gray with a pale moustache. It has a characteristic and prominent white bib, [8] In body length it is 12.5 to 27 inches (32 to 69 cm), with a 19-to-39-inch (48 to 99 cm) tail. [9] The male weighs about 6 kilograms (13 lb), while the smaller female weighs 3.5 kilograms (7.7 lb). Its tail is long and hook-shaped at the end. [10] They are born fully coated and with their eyes open. [9]

Habitat and distribution

L'Hoest's monkey occurs in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi, and western Uganda. [11] It is a forest monkey, which is typical of the moist and high primary forests. It will occupy a range of different kinds of forested areas, including gallery forest, mature lowland rain forests, wooded savanna at mountain slopes, and forest borders. However, it also will live on cultivated lands. In lowland forests it shows a preference toward areas where the forest is regenerating, while in mountain areas it will frequent the mature, tangled, undergrowth below the broken canopy. One study found this population only above 900 metres (3,000 ft) but another found it as low as 610 metres (2,000 ft). Another mostly observed it from 1,500 to 2,500 metres (4,900 to 8,200 ft). [12]


C. lhoesti lives in fairly small groups dominated by females and have only a single male. The females are usually related, while the male stays only a couple of weeks or at most a couple of years. The adult male will make very loud and distinct calls. [10] They are active during the day, mostly during early morning and late afternoon. They sleep in trees in a sitting position, usually either holding branches or each other. When they are alarmed or see they are being observed they will flee and take shelter in trees, and after become very still. [9] [13] They are mostly terrestrial. [5]


L'Hoest's monkey breeds seasonally, with the timing depending on the area. After about a five-month gestation period, a single young will be born. The mother gives birth typically at night and where ever she happens to be at the time. Birth usually occurs at the end of the dry season, which allows lactation when rainfall is highest. [9] She will eat the placenta and lick the baby clean while it hangs on to her belly. The other females in the group will show much interest in the newborn and will try to hold it. After a few months nursing becomes less frequent, but will continue for about two years when there is another birth. When male offspring reach sexual maturity they will leave the group. [10] In captivity they have been known to live for more than 30 years. [14]


In the wild L'Hoest's monkey is primarily a herbivore, which will mostly eat fruit, mushrooms, herbs, [15] roots, and leaves. However, it will also occasionally eat eggs, lizards, and small birds. [9]

Related Research Articles

Patas monkey

The patas monkey, also known as the wadi monkey or hussar monkey, is a ground-dwelling monkey distributed over semi-arid areas of West Africa, and into East Africa. It was formerly considered the only member of the genus Erythrocebus, but the Blue Nile patas monkey, previously synonymized with this species, was resurrected in 2018.

Old World monkey Family of mammals

Old World monkey is the common English name for a family of primates known taxonomically as the Cercopithecidae. Twenty-four genera and 138 species are recognized, making it the largest primate family. Old World monkey genera include baboons and macaques. Common names for other Old World monkeys include the talapoin, guenon, colobus, douc, vervet, gelada, mangabey, langur, mandrill, surili (Presbytis), patas, and proboscis monkey. Phylogenetically, they are more closely related to apes than to New World monkeys. They diverged from a common ancestor of New World monkeys around 55 million years ago.


The guenons are the genus Cercopithecus of Old World monkeys. Not all members of this genus have the word "guenon" in their common names; also, because of changes in scientific classification, some monkeys in other genera may have common names that include the word "guenon". Nonetheless, the use of the term guenon for monkeys of this genus is widely accepted.

Blue monkey

The blue monkey or diademed monkey is a species of Old World monkey native to Central and East Africa, ranging from the upper Congo River basin east to the East African Rift and south to northern Angola and Zambia. It sometimes includes Sykes', silver, and golden monkeys as subspecies.

Dryas monkey

The Dryas monkey, also known as Salonga monkey, ekele, or inoko, is a little-known species of guenon found only in the Congo Basin, restricted to the left bank of the Congo River. It is now established that the animals that had been classified as Cercopithecus salongo were in fact Dryas monkeys. Some older sources treat the Dryas monkey as a subspecies of the Diana monkey and classify it as C. diana dryas, but it is geographically isolated from any known Diana monkey population.

White-throated guenon

The white-throated guenon, also known as the red-bellied monkey and the red-bellied guenon, is a diurnal primate that lives on trees of rainforests or tropical areas of Nigeria and Benin.

Sclaters guenon

Sclater's guenon, also known as Sclater's monkey and the Nigerian monkey, is an Old World monkey that was first described by Reginald Innes Pocock in 1904 and named after Philip Sclater. It is an arboreal and diurnal primate that lives in the forests of southern Nigeria. It should not be confused with the closely related species, the white-throated guenon, which occurs in Nigeria and Benin. Sclater's guenon was formerly classified as a subspecies of the red-eared guenon.

Preusss monkey

The Preuss's monkey, also known as Preuss's guenon, is a diurnal primate that lives terrestrially in mountainous forests of eastern Nigeria, western Cameroon and Bioko in Equatorial Guinea. It was formerly classified as a subspecies of the L'Hoest's monkey.

Sun-tailed monkey

The sun-tailed monkey from Gabon is one of the least studied primates in its habitat. It was discovered as a new species in 1988, and is classified as a guenon, which is a member of the genus Cercopithecus, but was subsequently moved to the genus Allochrocebus. It is closely related to A. preussi and A. Ihoesti, which has been determined by chromosomal analysis. Sun-tailed monkeys prefer shady areas with dense vegetation. However, even after small amounts of logging activity, populations can be unaffected. Much of their diet remains unknown and is still being studied, but they are known to prefer fruit. Their social groups are made up of one male and multiple females. Generally, the sun-tailed monkey is less aggressive towards related individuals, which is noteworthy because it has been found that, in other primate species, aggression rates towards related individuals are generally as high or higher than aggression rates towards non-related individuals. Within their social groups, individual monkeys show preference for their mothers over their fathers, and are overall less aggressive to other monkeys that they are associated with spatially.

Kibale National Park

Kibale National Park is a national park in Western Uganda, protecting moist evergreen rain forest. It is 766 square kilometres (296 sq mi) in size and is located between 1,100 metres (3,600 ft) to 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) in elevation. Despite encompassing primarily moist evergreen forest, it contains a diverse array of landscapes. Kibale is one of the last remaining expanses to contain both lowland and montane forests. In eastern Africa, it sustains the last significant expanse of pre-montane forest.

De Brazzas monkey

De Brazza's monkey is an Old World monkey endemic to the riverine and swamp forests of central Africa. The largest species in the guenon family, it is one of the most widespread arboreal African primates. Aside from size, it can be differentiated from other cercopithecus monkeys by its orange diadem and white beard. Due to its cryptic nature, the species is not well documented in all of its habitats but has shown unique traits such as pair-bonding and aggressive behavior towards other guenons.

Hamlyns monkey

The Hamlyn's monkey, also known as the owl-faced monkey, is a species of Old World monkey that inhabits the bamboo and primary rainforests of the Congo. This species is exceedingly rare and known only from a few specimens; little is known about it. However these specimens tend to be widely dispersed throughout the eastern part of Congo, from the Epulu River to the Lukuga River and from the Congo River to the Kabale Forest, with one example in northwestern Rwanda. Geographically it corresponds quite closely to another species of monkey, L'Hoest's monkey C. lhoesti. It travels on the ground, and researchers think that it may be awake primarily by night.

Wolfs mona monkey

Wolf's mona monkey, also called Wolf's guenon, is a colourful Old World monkey in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in central Africa, primarily between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda. It lives in primary and secondary lowland rainforest and swamp forest.

Red-eared guenon

The red-eared guenon, red-eared monkey, or russet-eared guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Nigeria. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss, illegal bushmeat hunting and pet trade.

Lesser spot-nosed monkey

The lesser spot-nosed monkey, lesser spot-nosed guenon, lesser white-nosed guenon, or lesser white-nosed monkey is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae. It is found in Ivory Coast, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Togo, Guinea-Bissau, and possibly Senegal.

Crested mona monkey

The crested mona monkey, also known as the crowned guenon, crowned monkey, golden-bellied guenon, or golden-bellied monkey,, is a species of African primate in the family Cercopithecidae found in west central Africa.

Roloway monkey

The roloway monkey is an endangered species of Old World monkey endemic to tropical West Africa. It was previously considered a subspecies of the Diana monkey. It is classified as Critically Endangered due to habitat loss and continued hunting for the bushmeat trade. The roloway monkeys are mainly arboreal species, for the most part inhabiting forests in Ghana and some reserves in South-Eastern Côte-D'Ivoire. More specifically studies have shown that the C. diana roloway is mostly concentrated in Tanoé forest because of their heavy threats to extinction.

Ugandan red colobus

The Ugandan red colobus or ashy red colobus is an endangered species of red colobus monkey, recognised as a distinct species since 2001. There is disagreement however over taxonomy with many considering the Ugandan red colobus to be a subspecies. The Ugandan red colobus is an Old World monkey which is found in 5 different locations across Uganda and Tanzania.


Allochrocebus is a primate genus including the terrestrial guenons: the L'Hoest's monkey, the Preuss's monkey, and the sun-tailed monkey. Formerly included in genus Cercopithecus, the three species of terrestrial guenons are now included in genus Allochrocebus.

Red-tailed monkey

The red-tailed monkey, also known as the black-cheeked white-nosed monkey, red-tailed guenon, redtail monkey, or Schmidt's guenon is a species of primate in the family Cercopithecidae.


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