Liverpool (UK Parliament constituency)

Last updated

Liverpool
Former borough constituency
for the House of Commons
County Lancashire
1295–1885
Number of members1295–1868: Two
1868–1885: Three
Replaced by Abercromby, East Toxteth, Everton, Exchange, Kirkdale, Scotland, Walton, West Derby and West Toxteth

Liverpool was a borough constituency in the county of Lancashire of the House of Commons for the Parliament of England to 1706 then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1885. It was represented by two Members of Parliament (MPs). In 1868, this was increased to three Members of Parliament.

Contents

The borough franchise was held by the freemen of the borough. Each elector had as many votes as there were seats to be filled. Votes had to be cast by a spoken declaration, in public, at the hustings. In 1800 there were around 3000 electors, with elections in this seat being nearly always contested.

The borough returned several notable Members of Parliament including Prime Minister George Canning, William Huskisson, President of the Board of Trade, Banastre Tarleton, noted soldier in the American War of Independence and most notably, William Roscoe the abolitionist and Anti Slave Trade campaigner.

The constituency was abolished in 1885, the city being split into nine divisions of Abercromby, East Toxteth, Everton, Exchange, Kirkdale, Scotland, Walton, West Derby and West Toxteth.

History

The borough of Liverpool exercised the privilege of sending two members to Parliament in 1295 and 1307, but then for 240 years the right was wholly suspended. In the first Parliament of Edward VI, which met 4 November 1547, though Elective Franchise was restored to the two Lancashire boroughs of Liverpool and Wigan and has since continued almost without further interruption.

Representation was increased to three Members in 1868 and the constituency abolished in 1885, to be replaced by the nine new constituencies of Abercromby, East Toxteth, Everton, Exchange, Kirkdale, Scotland, Walton, West Derby and West Toxteth.

Members of Parliament

1295–1640

ParliamentFirst memberSecond member
1295 Adam fitz Richard Robert Pinklowe
1300–1307 Richard de la More John de la More
1545 Nicholas Cutler Gilbert Gerard [1]
1547 Thomas Stanley  ?Francis Cave or Richard Taverner [2]
1553 (Mar) William Bromley Ralph Assheton [2]
1553 (Oct) William Bromley Sir Giles Alington [2]
1554 (Apr) William Bromley Sir William Norris [2]
1554 (Nov) William Bromley John Beaumont [2]
1555 Sir Richard Sherborn John Beaumont [2]
1558William Stopford George White [2]
1559 (Jan) Sir Thomas Smith Ralph Browne [3]
1562–3 Sir Richard Molyneux Ralph Sekerston [3]
1571Thomas Avery Ralph Sekerston [3]
1572 Ralph Sekerston, died
and repl. 1576 by
Thomas Greenacres, died
and repl. April 1583 by
Arthur Atye
Mathew Dale [3]
1584 Arthur Atye John Molyneux [3]
1586 John Poole William Cavendish [3]
1588 (Oct) Edward Warren Francis Bacon [3]
1593 Michael Doughty John Wroth [3]
1597 (Oct) Thomas Gerard Peter Probie [3]
1601 (Oct) Edward Anderson Hugh Calverley [3]
1604 Giles Brook Thomas Remchinge
1614 Thomas Ireland Sir Hugh Beeston
1621–1622 Thomas May William Johnson
1624 Sir Thomas Gerard, 2nd Baronet George Ireland
1625 Lord Strange Edward Moore
1626 Edward Bridgeman Thomas Stanley
1628 Henry Jermyn John Newdigate
1629–1640No Parliaments summoned

1640–1868

Election1st member1st party2nd member2nd party
April 1640 Lord Cranfield John Holcroft
November 1640 Sir Richard Wynn, Bt. Parliamentarian John Moore Parliamentarian
December 1648Wynn excluded in Pride's Purge – seat vacant [n 1]
October 1649 Thomas Birch
June 1650Moore died June 1650 – seat left vacant
1653Liverpool was unrepresented in the Barebones Parliament
1654 Thomas Birch Liverpool had only one seat in the First and
Second Parliaments of the Protectorate
1656
January 1659 Gilbert Ireland Thomas Blackmore
May 1659 Liverpool was unrepresented in the restored Rump
April 1660 Sir Gilbert Ireland William Stanley
1670 Sir William Bucknall
1675 William Banks
1677 Sir Ralph Assheton, Bt. Richard Atherton
1679 Ruisshe Wentworth John Dubois
1685 Sir Richard Atherton Thomas Legh
1689 Richard Savage, Viscount Colchester Whig Thomas Norris
1694 Thomas Brotherton
January 1695 Jasper Maudit
November 1695 Sir William Norris, Bt.
1698 William Clayton
1701 (Dec) (Sir) Thomas Johnson [n 2] Whig
1708 Richard Norris
1710 John Cleiveland
1713 William Clayton
1715 Edward Norris
1722 William Cleiveland
1723 Langham Booth
April 1724 Thomas Bootle
November 1724 Thomas Brereton
1729 Sir Thomas Aston, Bt.
1734 Thomas Brereton [n 3] Richard Gildart
1754 John Hardman
1755 (Sir) Ellis Cunliffe [n 4]
1756 Charles Pole
1761 Sir William Meredith, Bt. Tory
1767 Richard Pennant Tory
1780 Bamber Gascoyne Tory [4] Henry Rawlinson
1784 Richard Pennant Whig [4]
1790 Banastre Tarleton Tory [4]
1796 Isaac Gascoyne Tory/Ultra-Tory [4]
1806 William Roscoe Whig [4]
1807 Banastre Tarleton Tory [4]
1812 George Canning [n 5] Tory [4]
1823 William Huskisson Tory [4]
November 1830 William Ewart Radicals [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]
May 1831 Evelyn Denison [n 6] Whig [4]
October 1831 Dudley Ryder Tory [4]
1834 Conservative [4]
1837 Cresswell Cresswell Conservative [4]
1842 Howard Douglas Conservative [4]
1847 Edward Cardwell Peelite [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] Sir Thomas Birch, Bt Whig [15] [16] [17]
1852 Charles Turner Conservative William Forbes Mackenzie Conservative
1853 Thomas Horsfall Conservative Henry Liddell Conservative
1855 Joseph Christopher Ewart Whig [18] [19]
1859 Liberal
1865 Samuel Robert Graves Conservative

1868–1885

Election1st member1st party2nd member2nd party3rd member3rd party
1868 Samuel Robert Graves Conservative Viscount Sandon Conservative William Rathbone Liberal
1873 by-election John Torr Conservative
Feb 1880 by-election Edward Whitley Conservative
1880 John Ramsay Liberal
Aug 1880 by-election Lord Claud Hamilton Conservative
1882 by-election Samuel Smith Liberal
1885 Constituency abolished (Redistribution of Seats Act 1885)

Elections

Pre-1832

General election 1830: Liverpool (2 seats) [4] [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Tory Isaac Gascoyne 191 40.5
Tory William Huskisson 188 39.8
Radical George Williams 9319.7
Majority9520.1
Turnout c.283c.5.3
Registered electors c.5,350
Tory hold Swing
Tory hold Swing

Huskisson's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 30 November 1830: Liverpool [4] [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Radical William Ewart 2,215 50.3 +30.6
Whig Evelyn Denison 2,18649.7New
Majority290.6N/A
Turnout 4,401c.82.3c.+77.0
Registered electors c.5,350
Radical gain from Tory Swing N/A
General election 1831: Liverpool (2 seats) [4] [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Radical William Ewart 1,919 43.5 +23.8
Whig Evelyn Denison 1,890 42.8 N/A
Tory Isaac Gascoyne 60713.766.6
Turnout 2,721c.50.9c.+45.6
Registered electors c.5,350
Majority290.7N/A
Radical gain from Tory Swing +28.9
Majority1,28329.1N/A
Whig gain from Tory Swing N/A

Denison was also elected for Nottinghamshire and chose to sit there, causing a by-election.

By-election, 21 October 1831: Liverpool [4] [20]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Tory Dudley Ryder 1,519 69.4 +55.7
Radical Thomas Thornely 670 30.6 12.9
Majority84938.8N/A
Turnout 2,189c.40.9c.10.0
Registered electors c.5,350
Tory gain from Whig Swing +34.3

1832–1868

General election 1832: Liverpool (2 seats) [21] [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Radical William Ewart 4,931 29.8 +8.1
Tory Dudley Ryder 4,260 25.8 +19.0
Radical Thomas Thornely [22] [23] 4,09624.8+3.1
Tory Howard Douglas 3,24919.6+12.8
Turnout 8,85178.4c.+27.5
Registered electors 11,283
Majority6714.0+3.3
Radical hold Swing 3.9
Majority1641.0N/A
Tory gain from Whig Swing +1.3
General election 1835: Liverpool (2 seats) [21] [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Dudley Ryder 4,407 27.6 +1.8
Radical William Ewart 4,075 25.5 29.1
Conservative Howard Douglas 3,86924.2+4.6
Whig James Morris3,62722.7N/A
Turnout 8,16765.413.0
Registered electors 12,492
Majority3322.1+1.1
Conservative hold Swing +8.2
Majority2061.32.8
Radical hold Swing 16.2
General election 1837: Liverpool (2 seats) [21] [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Dudley Ryder 4,786 26.6 1.0
Conservative Cresswell Cresswell 4,652 25.8 +1.6
Radical William Ewart 4,38124.3+11.6
Radical Howard Elphinstone 4,20623.3+10.6
Majority2711.50.6
Turnout 9,09181.3+15.9
Registered electors 11,179
Conservative hold Swing 6.1
Conservative gain from Radical Swing 4.8
General election 1841: Liverpool (2 seats) [21] [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Dudley Ryder 5,979 28.7 +2.1
Conservative Cresswell Cresswell 5,792 27.8 +2.0
Whig Joshua Walmsley 4,64722.3New
Whig Henry Temple 4,43121.3New
Majority1,1455.5+4.0
Turnout 10,425 (est)67.1 (est)c.14.2
Registered electors 15,539
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Cresswell resigned after being appointed a judge of the Court of Common Pleas, causing a by-election.

By-election, 8 February 1842: Liverpool [21] [4]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Howard Douglas Unopposed
Conservative hold
General election 1847: Liverpool (2 seats) [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Peelite Edward Cardwell 5,581 32.9 New
Whig Thomas Birch 4,882 28.8 14.8
Conservative Sir Digby Mackworth, 4th Baronet4,08924.14.6
Conservative John Manners 2,41314.213.6
Turnout 8,483 (est)49.9 (est)17.2
Registered electors 17,004
Majority6994.1N/A
Peelite gain from Conservative Swing N/A
Majority7934.7N/A
Whig gain from Conservative Swing 2.9
General election 1852: Liverpool (2 seats) [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Charles Turner 6,693 28.8 +4.7
Conservative William Forbes Mackenzie 6,367 27.4 +13.2
Peelite Edward Cardwell 5,24722.610.3
Whig Joseph Christopher Ewart 4,91021.17.7
Majority1,1204.8N/A
Turnout 11,609 (est)66.6 (est)+16.7
Registered electors 17,433
Conservative gain from Peelite Swing +6.9
Conservative gain from Whig Swing +11.1

Election declared void on petition, due to bribery and treating by Mackenzie and Turner, causing a by-election. [24]

By-election, 9 July 1853: Liverpool (2 seats) [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Thomas Horsfall 6,034 34.4 +5.6
Conservative Henry Liddell 5,543 31.6 +4.2
Whig Thomas Erskine Perry [25] [26] 4,67326.7+5.6
Ind. Conservative John Bramley-Moore [27] 1,2747.3New
Majority8704.9+0.1
Turnout 10,462 (est)64.7 (est)1.9
Registered electors 16,182
Conservative hold Swing +1.4
Conservative hold Swing +0.7

Liddell succeeded to the peerage, becoming 2nd Baron Ravensworth and causing a by-election.

By-election, 29 March 1855: Liverpool [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Whig Joseph Christopher Ewart 5,718 57.3 +36.2
Conservative George Bonham 4,26242.713.5
Majority1,45614.6N/A
Turnout 9,98056.110.5
Registered electors 17,795
Whig gain from Conservative Swing +24.9
General election 1857: Liverpool (2 seats) [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Thomas Horsfall 7,566 36.0 +7.2
Whig Joseph Christopher Ewart 7,121 33.9 +12.8
Conservative Charles Turner 6,31630.1+2.7
Turnout 10,502 (est)57.3 (est)9.3
Registered electors 18,314
Majority4452.12.7
Conservative hold Swing +0.4
Majority8053.8N/A
Whig gain from Conservative Swing +1.5
General election 1859: Liverpool (2 seats) [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Joseph Christopher Ewart Unopposed
Conservative Thomas Horsfall Unopposed
Registered electors 18,779
Liberal hold
Conservative hold
General election 1865: Liverpool (2 seats) [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Thomas Horsfall 7,866 34.9 N/A
Conservative Samuel Robert Graves 7,500 33.3 N/A
Liberal Joseph Christopher Ewart 7,16031.8N/A
Majority3401.5N/A
Turnout 14,843 (est)72.0 (est)N/A
Registered electors 20,618
Conservative hold Swing N/A
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A

1868–1885

Seat increased to three members

General election 1868: Liverpool (3 seats) [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Samuel Robert Graves 16,766 26.5 6.8
Conservative Dudley Ryder 16,222 25.6 9.3
Liberal William Rathbone 15,337 24.2 +8.3
Liberal William Nathaniel Massey [28] 15,01723.7+7.8
Majority8851.40.1
Turnout 31,671 (est)79.9 (est)+7.9
Registered electors 39,645
Conservative hold Swing 7.6
Conservative hold Swing 8.6
Liberal win (new seat)

Graves' death caused a by-election.

By-election, 10 Feb 1873: Liverpool [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative John Torr 18,702 52.7 +0.6
Liberal William Sproston Caine 16,79047.30.6
Majority1,9125.4+4.0
Turnout 35,49267.112.8
Registered electors 52,912
Conservative hold Swing +0.6
General election 1874: Liverpool (3 seats) [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Dudley Ryder 20,206 27.0 +1.4
Conservative John Torr 19,763 26.4 0.1
Liberal William Rathbone 16,706 22.3 1.9
Liberal William Sproston Caine 15,80121.12.6
Lib-Lab William Shaw Simpson2,4353.3N/A
Majority3,0574.1+2.7
Turnout 38,673 (est)70.4 (est)9.5
Registered electors 54,952
Conservative hold Swing +1.8
Conservative hold Swing 1.2
Liberal hold Swing 1.3

Ryder was appointed Vice-President of the Committee of the Council on Education, requiring a by-election.

By-election, 14 Mar 1874: Liverpool [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Dudley Ryder Unopposed
Conservative hold

Torr's death caused a by-election.

By-election, 6 Feb 1880: Liverpool [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Edward Whitley 26,106 52.2 1.2
Liberal John Ramsay 23,88547.8+4.4
Majority2,2214.4+0.3
Turnout 49,99178.2+7.8
Registered electors 63,946
Conservative hold Swing 2.8
General election 1880: Liverpool (3 seats) [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal John Ramsay Unopposed
Conservative Dudley Ryder Unopposed
Conservative Edward Whitley Unopposed
Registered electors 63,946
Liberal hold
Conservative hold
Conservative hold

Ramsay succeeded to the peerage, becoming Earl of Dalhousie, causing a by-election.

By-election, 9 Aug 1880: Liverpool [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Conservative Claud Hamilton 21,019 52.4 N/A
Liberal Samuel Plimsoll 19,11847.6N/A
Majority1,9014.8N/A
Turnout 40,13762.8N/A
Registered electors 63,946
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A

Ryder succeeded to the peerage, becoming Earl of Harrowby, causing a by-election.

By-election, 11 Dec 1882: Liverpool [21]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Liberal Samuel Smith 18,198 50.4 N/A
Conservative Arthur Forwood 17,88949.6N/A
Majority3090.8N/A
Turnout 36,08758.2N/A
Registered electors 62,039
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A

Notes and references

Notes

  1. Wynn died in July 1649, and a by-election was held to replace him.
  2. Knighted 1708.
  3. Changed his surname to Salusbury on inheriting an estate from his father-in-law in 1734.
  4. Created a baronet, March 1759.
  5. The future Prime Minister (in 1827), the Right Hon. George Canning was also returned in 1812 for the Irish borough of Sligo. He elected to sit for Liverpool.
  6. Denison was also elected for Nottinghamshire, which he chose to represent, and never sat for Liverpool.

References

  1. "Gerard, Sir Gilbert (d.1593), of Ince, Lancs. and Gerrard's Bromley, Staffs.". History of Parliament. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Constituencies: Liverpool (1509–1558)". History of Parliament. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 "Constituencies: Liverpool (1558–1603)". History of Parliament. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Stooks Smith, Henry. (1973) [1844-1850]. Craig, F. W. S. (ed.). The Parliaments of England (2nd ed.). Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. pp.  180–184. ISBN   0-900178-13-2.
  5. Dod, Charles Roger; Dod, Robert Phipps (1847). Dod's Parliamentary Companion, Volume 15. Dod's Parliamentary Companion. p.  164 via Internet Archive.
  6. Boase, George Clement (1889). "Ewart, William"  . In Stephen, Leslie (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography . Vol. 18. London: Smith, Elder & Co.{{cite encyclopedia}}: |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  7. Farrell, S. M. (9 January 2014) [2004]. "Ewart, William (1798–1869)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi: 10.1093/ref:odnb/9011 .
  8. "Leeds Intelligencer" . 31 July 1841. p. 7 via British Newspaper Archive.
  9. "Dumfries Burghs" . Northern Star and Leeds General Advertiser. 10 July 1841. p. 7 via British Newspaper Archive.
  10. Smith, Goldwin (1887). "Cardwell, Edward (1813-1886)"  . In Stephen, Leslie (ed.). Dictionary of National Biography . Vol. 9. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  11. "Cardwell, Viscount (UK, 1874 - 1886)". Cracroft's Peerage. Heraldic Media Limited. 7 March 2012.
  12. Collins, Neil (2017). Politics and Elections in Nineteenth-Century Liverpool. Abingdon: Routledge. p. 73. ISBN   978-1-85928-076-8.
  13. Neal, Frank (1988). "Heightened Religious Tension". Sectarian Violence: The Liverpool Experience 1819-1914. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p.  154. ISBN   0-7190-1483-2.
  14. "Edward Cardwell". Oxford Reference. Oxford University Press.
  15. 1 2 "Liverpool" . Dublin Weekly Nation. 31 July 1847. p. 12 via British Newspaper Archive.
  16. 1 2 "Electioneering News" . Belfast News-Letter. 3 August 1847. p. 4 via British Newspaper Archive.
  17. "The Dissolution" . Derbyshire Advertiser and Journal. 23 July 1847. p. 3 via British Newspaper Archive.
  18. "Liverpool Election" . Newry Examiner and Louth Advertiser. 31 March 1855. p. 3 via British Newspaper Archive.
  19. "Bell's Weekly Messenger" . 31 March 1855. p. 4 via British Newspaper Archive.
  20. 1 2 3 4 Escott, Margaret. "Liverpool". The History of Parliament. Retrieved 16 April 2020.
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Craig, F. W. S., ed. (1977). British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885(e-book) (1st ed.). London: Macmillan Press. pp. 191–192. ISBN   978-1-349-02349-3.{{cite book}}: |format= requires |url= (help)
  22. The Christian Reform; Or, Unitarian Magazine and Review: New Series, Vol. XVIII. London: Edward T. Whitfield. 1862. pp.  361–384 via Internet Archive.
  23. Turner, Michael J. (2014). Liberty and Liberticide: The Role in Nineteenth-Century British Radicalism. Lanham: Lexington Books. p. 99. ISBN   978-0-7391-7817-1 via Google Books.
  24. "Local and Provincial" . Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser. 30 July 1853. p. 9 via British Newspaper Archive.
  25. Atkinson, Diane (2012). The Criminal Conversation of Mrs Norton. London: Arrow Books. p. 390. ISBN   9780099556480.
  26. Stubbings, Matthew (October 2016). "British Conservatism and the Indian Revolt: The Annexation of Awadh and the Consequences of Liberal Empire, 1856–1858". Journal of British Studies. 55 (4): 728–749. doi:10.1017/jbr.2016.73. S2CID   152098641.
  27. "Liverpool Election" . The Evening Freeman. 11 July 1853. p. 2 via British Newspaper Archive.
  28. "Obituary". The Times . London. 27 October 1881. p. 9.

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