Oatmeal

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Oatmeal
Oatmeal.jpg
Rolled Oats
Alternative namesWhite oats
Type Porridge
Main ingredients Oat groats

Oatmeal is a type of coarse flour made of hulled oat grains (groats) that have either been milled (ground) or steel-cut. Ground oats are also called "white oats". Steel-cut oats are known as "coarse oatmeal", "Irish oatmeal" or "pinhead oats". Rolled oats can be either thick or thin, and may be categorized as "old-fashioned", "quick", or "instant", depending on the cooking time, which is shortened by the size of the oats, precooking, and sometimes the addition of enzymes.

Contents

The term oatmeal is also used in the U.S. and parts of Canada to describe a popular oat porridge made from either ground, steel-cut, or rolled oats.

Oatmeal cookies made with oatmeal, flour, sugar and butter 091223 galletas de avena.JPG
Oatmeal cookies made with oatmeal, flour, sugar and butter
Baked oatmeal in a dish Baked oatmeal.JPG
Baked oatmeal in a dish

Industrial preparation and varieties

The oat grains are dehusked by impact, and are then heated and cooled to stabilize the oat groats – the seed inside the husk. The process of heating produces a nutty flavour in the oats. [1] These oat groats may be milled to produce fine, medium or coarse oatmeal. [2] Steel-cut oats may be small and contain broken groats from the dehusking process (these bits may be steamed and flattened to produce smaller rolled oats).

Rolled oats are steamed and flattened whole oat groats. Old-fashioned oats can be thick and take a while to boil to make porridge. Quick-cooking rolled oats (quick oats) are cut into small pieces before being steamed and rolled. Instant oatmeal is cooked and dried, often with a sweetener, such as sugar, and flavourings added. [3] [4]

Food uses

Unenriched oatmeal, cooked with water
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 297 kJ (71 kcal)
12 g
Sugars 0.3
Dietary fiber 1.7 g
Fat
1.5 g
2.5 g
Vitamins Quantity%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
0 μg
Thiamine (B1)
7%
0.08 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
2%
0.02 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.23 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
4%
0.197 mg
Vitamin B6
0%
0.005 mg
Folate (B9)
2%
6 μg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Vitamin E
1%
0.08 mg
Vitamin K
0%
0.3 μg
Minerals Quantity%DV
Calcium
1%
9 mg
Iron
7%
0.9 mg
Magnesium
8%
27 mg
Manganese
29%
0.6 mg
Phosphorus
11%
77 mg
Potassium
1%
70 mg
Sodium
0%
4 mg
Zinc
11%
1 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water83.6

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Both types of rolled oats may be eaten uncooked, as in muesli, or may be cooked with water or milk to make porridge. In some countries, rolled oats are eaten raw or toasted with milk and sugar, sometimes with raisins added, like a basic muesli. The term "oatmeal" sometimes refers to a porridge made from the bran or fibrous husk as well as the oat kernel or groat. [5] Rolled oats are often used as a key ingredient in granola breakfast cereals (in which toasted oats are blended with sugar and/or nuts and raisins) and granola bars.

Rolled oats are also used as an ingredient in oatmeal cookies, oatcakes, British flapjack bars, and baked oatmeal dessert dishes such as Apple Brown Betty and apple crisp. Oats may also be added to foods as an accent, as in the topping on many oat bran breads and as the coating on Caboc cheese. Oatmeal is also used as a thickening agent in thick, savoury Arabic or Egyptian meat-and-vegetable soups, and sometimes as a way of adding relatively low-cost fibre and nutritional content to meatloaf.

Nutrition

Unenriched oatmeal, cooked by boiling or microwave, is 84% water, and contains 12% carbohydrates, including 2% dietary fiber, and 2% each of protein and fat (table). In a 100 gram amount, cooked oatmeal provides 71 Calories and contains 29% of the Daily Value (DV) for manganese and moderate content of phosphorus and zinc (11% DV each), with no other micronutrients in significant content (see table on right).

Health benefits

Oatmeal cooked with water to create a runny bowl of porridge Oatmeal 121345.JPG
Oatmeal cooked with water to create a runny bowl of porridge

Oatmeal and other oat products were the subject of a 1997 ruling by the Food and Drug Administration that consuming oat bran or whole rolled oats can lower the risk of heart disease when combined with a low-fat diet via the effect of oat beta-glucan to reduce levels of blood cholesterol. [6] A similar conclusion was reached in 2010 by the European Food Safety Authority. [7]

Regional variations

United States

In the United States oatmeal is often served as a porridge [8] with milk or cream and a sweetener, such as brown sugar or honey. It may include additional ingredients such as peanut butter, cinnamon, or various types of fruits. [9]

Scotland

Oatmeal has a long history in Scottish culinary tradition because oats are better suited than wheat to the country's low temperatures and high humidity. [10] As a result, oats became the staple grain of Scotland. The ancient universities of Scotland had a holiday called Meal Monday to permit students to return to their farms and collect more oats for food.

Samuel Johnson referred, disparagingly, to this in his dictionary definition for oats: "A grain, which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland supports the people." His biographer, James Boswell, noted that Lord Elibank was said by Sir Walter Scott to have retorted, "Yes, and where else will you see such horses and such men?" [11]

A common method of cooking oatmeal in Scotland is to soak it overnight in salted water and cook on a low heat in the morning for a few minutes until the mixture thickens.

In Scotland, oatmeal is created by grinding oats into a coarse powder. [12] It may be ground fine, medium, or coarse, or rolled, or the groats may be chopped in two or three pieces to make what is described as pinhead oatmeal. [13] Ground oatmeal, rolled oats, and pinhead oatmeal, are all used (throughout Britain); one Scots manufacturer describes varieties as "Scottish Porridge Oats" (rolled), "Scottish Oatmeal" (medium ground), and "Pinhead Oatmeal". [14] The main uses are:

Oatmeal is a prime ingredient of haggis, seen here at a Burns supper Haggis at a Burns Supper.JPG
Oatmeal is a prime ingredient of haggis, seen here at a Burns supper

Staffordshire

Staffordshire oatcakes are a local component of the full English breakfast. It is a plate-sized pancake, made with equal parts medium oatmeal and wheatmeal (flour), along with frothing yeast. Once the mixture has risen to produce something like a Yorkshire pudding batter, it is ladled onto a griddle or bakestone, and dried through. Staffordshire oatcakes are commonly paired with bacon, sausages, mushrooms, kidney, and baked beans, among others. [17] A related oatcake is sometimes found in neighbouring Derbyshire.

Nordic countries, the Baltics and Russia

Throughout the Nordic, Baltic regions and Russia, oatmeal porridge made from rolled oats and water or milk is a traditional breakfast staple. Known under various local names meaning "oat porridge", "oat flake porridge" or "oatmeal porridge", it is normally made either savoury or sweet by adding salt or sugar, and it is often eaten with added nuts, raisins or dried fruits as well as spices, most commonly cinnamon. Local names for the porridge include Swedish havregrynsgröt, Danish havregrød, Norwegian havregrøt or havregraut, Icelandic hafragrautur, Finnish kaurapuuro, Estonian kaerahelbepuder, Latvian auzu pārslu (putra), Lithuanian avižinių dribsnių košė, Polish owsianka and Russian "овсянка" (ovsyanka).

Oatmeal porridge has a long tradition in these regions, but during the Middle Ages porridge made from rye or barley was even more common in at least some parts of the area. [18]

See also

Related Research Articles

Oat Species of plant

The oat, sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name. While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and oat milk, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats are associated with lower blood cholesterol when consumed regularly.

Porridge Food

Porridge is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk. It is often cooked or served with added flavorings such as sugar, honey, (dried) fruit or syrup to make a sweet cereal, or it can be mixed with spices or vegetables to make a savoury dish. It is usually served hot in a bowl, depending on its consistency. Oat porridge, or oatmeal, is one of the most common types of porridge. Gruel is a thinner version of porridge.

Breakfast cereal Food made from grain

Breakfast cereal is a traditional breakfast made from processed cereal grains. It is traditionally eaten as breakfast primarily in Western societies. Warm cereals like porridge and grits have the longest history. Ready-to-eat cold cereals, appearing around the late 19th century, are most often mixed with milk, but can also be paired with yogurt instead or eaten plain. Fruit or nuts are sometimes added. Many breakfast cereals are produced via extrusion. Some companies promote their products for the health benefits that come from eating oat-based and high-fiber cereals. In the United States, cereals are often fortified with vitamins but can still lack many of the vitamins needed for a healthy breakfast. A significant proportion of cereals are made with high sugar content. Many are marketed towards children, feature a cartoon mascot, and may contain a toy or prize.

Cornmeal meal (coarse flour) ground from dried maize (corn)

Cornmeal is a meal ground from dried maize (corn). It is a common staple food, and is ground to fine, medium, and coarse consistencies, but not as fine as wheat flour. In Mexico, very finely ground cornmeal is referred to as corn flour. When fine cornmeal is made from maize that has been soaked in an alkaline solution, e.g., limewater, it is called masa flour, which is used for making arepas, tamales and tortillas. Boiled cornmeal is called polenta in Italy and is also a traditional dish and bread substitute in Romania.

Rice pudding Dish made from rice mixed with water or milk

Rice pudding is a dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and other ingredients such as cinnamon and raisins.

Peasant foods

Peasant foods are dishes specific to a particular culture, made from accessible and inexpensive ingredients, and usually prepared and seasoned to make them more palatable. They often form a significant part of the diets of people who live in poverty, or have a lower income compared to the average for their society or country.

Groat (grain) Hulled kernels of various cereal grains

Groats are the hulled kernels of various cereal grains, such as oat, wheat, rye, and barley. Groats are whole grains that include the cereal germ and fiber-rich bran portion of the grain, as well as the endosperm.

Kasha Type of porridge

In the English language, kasha usually refers to pseudocereal buckwheat or its culinary preparations. In various East-Central and Eastern European countries, kasha can apply to any kind of cooked grain. It can be baked but most often is boiled, either in water or milk, and therefore the term coincides with the English definition of porridge, but the word can also refer to the grain before preparation, which corresponds to the definition of groats. This understanding of kasha concerns mainly Belarus (каша), Czechia (kaše), Lithuania (košė), Poland (kasza), Russia (каша), Slovakia (kaša) and Ukraine (каша), where the term, besides buckwheat, can apply to wheat, barley, oats, millet and rye. Kashas have been an important element of Slavic diet for at least one thousand years.

Balkenbrij Traditional Dutch food

Balkenbrij is a traditional Dutch food that shares some of the characteristics of American scrapple. Traditionally, its preparation and consumption was an important economizing custom, especially for the rural poor. Particularly, it allowed farmers to use various less-desirable parts of pork, which were made more palatable by being added to a seasoned porridge of groats or flour. The closely related 'Panhas', 'Pannas' or 'Möppkenbrot' are widely known in the whole northwest of Germany; the last variety is a speciality of middle Westphalia.

Hasty pudding is a food product, more specifically a pudding or porridge of grains cooked in milk or water. In the United States, it often refers specifically to a version made primarily with ground ("Indian") corn, which sense is understood as intended in one verse of the early-American song "Yankee Doodle".

Rolled oats food

Rolled oats are a type of lightly processed whole-grain food. Traditionally, they are made from oat groats that have been dehusked and steamed, before being rolled into flat flakes under heavy rollers and then stabilized by being lightly toasted.

Brose

Brose is a Scots word for an uncooked form of porridge: oatmeal is mixed with boiling water and allowed to stand for a short time. It is eaten with salt and butter, milk or buttermilk. A version of brose is called crowdie, made with ground oats and cold water, though that term is more often used for a type of cheese.

Yemeni cuisine culinary traditions of Yemen

Yemeni cuisine is distinct from the wider Middle Eastern cuisines but with a degree of regional variation. Some foreign influences are evident in some regions of the country, the Yemeni kitchen is based on similar foundations across the country.

Steel-cut oats

Steel-cut oats (US), also called pinhead oats, coarse oatmeal (UK), or Irish oatmeal are groats of whole oats which have been chopped into two or three pinhead-sized pieces. The pieces can then be sold, or processed further to make rolled oat flakes, of smaller size than flakes of whole groats. Steel-cutting produces oatmeal with a chewier and coarser texture than other processes.

Full breakfast Traditional English breakfast

A full breakfast is a substantial cooked breakfast meal often served in the UK and Ireland that typically includes bacon, sausages, eggs, black pudding, baked beans, tomatoes and mushrooms, toast and a beverage such as coffee or tea. It comes in different regional variants and is referred to by different names depending on the area. While it is colloquially known as a "fry up" in most areas of Britain and Ireland, it is usually referred to as a full English breakfast in England, and as a "full Irish", "full Scottish", "full Welsh", "full Cornish", and "Ulster fry" in the Republic of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, and Northern Ireland, respectively.

Pottage A soupy stew prepared in a pot

Pottage is a term for a thick soup or stew made by boiling vegetables, grains, and, if available, meat or fish. It was a staple food for many centuries. The word pottage comes from the same Old French root as potage, which is a dish of more recent origin.

Oatcake

An oatcake is a type of flatbread similar to a cracker or biscuit, or in some versions takes the form of a pancake. They are prepared with oatmeal as the primary ingredient, and sometimes include plain or wholemeal flour as well. Oatcakes are cooked on a griddle or baked in an oven.

Bulgur cereal food made from the groats of several different wheat species

Bulgur is a cereal food made from the cracked parboiled groats of several different wheat species, most often from durum wheat. It originates in Middle Eastern cuisine.

Oatmeal raisin cookie Drop cookie with oatmeal and raisins mixed into the dough

An oatmeal raisin cookie is a type of drop cookie distinguished by an oatmeal-based dough with raisins mixed throughout. Its ingredients also typically include flour, sugar, eggs, salt, and various spices. A descendant of the Scottish oatcake, the oatmeal raisin cookie has become one of the most popular cookies in the United States.

References

  1. "How Oats are Processed". buzzle.com.
  2. "Nairn's (2010)". Nairns-oatcakes.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
  3. Trowbridge Filippone, F. (2007) "Oatmeal Recipes and Cooking Tips" About.com
  4. Hosahalli Ramaswamy; Amalendu Chakraverty; Mujumdar, Arun S.; Vijaya Raghavan (2003). Handbook of postharvest technology: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tea, and spices. New York, N.Y: Marcel Dekker. pp. 358–372. ISBN   978-0-8247-0514-5 . Retrieved Feb 13, 2010.
  5. Prewett's (manufacturer of oatmeal)
  6. "21 CFR Part 101; Docket No. 95P–0197; RIN 0910–AA19; Food Labeling: Health Claims; Oats and Coronary Heart Disease" (PDF). US Food and Drug Administration. 23 January 1997. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  7. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2010). "Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to oat beta glucan and lowering blood cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006". EFSA Journal. 8 (12): 1885. doi: 10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1885 .
  8. Encyclopedia of American Food and Drink, p. 777
  9. https://www.tasteofhome.com/recipes/peanut-butter-oatmeal/
  10. Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England. Royal Agricultural Society of England. 1859. p. 169.
  11. The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D.: Including a Journal of His Tour to the Hebrides. Volume 3 by James Boswell. New York: Derby & Jackson, 1858. Page 11.
  12. The Food Journal. London: J.M. Johnson & Sons. 1874. Retrieved Feb 14, 2010. The grain of oats, intended for human food, is generally prepared by being ground into meal; although it is also used in the form of groats, that is, of grain denuded of its husk, and merely broken into fragments. Oatmeal is of two kinds, both common in all shops in which it is sold, fine meal, and coarse or round meal. For various purposes, some prefer the one and some the other. There is no difference in quality, but merely in the degree in which the grain has been triturated in the mill.
  13. 1 2 Sybil Kapoor (2010-01-07). "How to make perfect porridge | Life and style". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
  14. "Oatmeal product list of a Scots manufacturer". Hamlynsoats.co.uk. Retrieved 2018-08-14.
  15. McNeill, F. Marian (1929). The Scots Kitchen. Paperback: 259 pages, Edinburgh: Mercat Press; New Edition (25 Oct 2004) ISBN   1-84183-070-4, p202
  16. Mairi Robinson, ed. (1987). The Concise Scots Dictionary. Aberdeen University Press. p. 648. ISBN   978-0-08-028492-7.
  17. Cloake, Felicity (2018-01-29). "How to make the perfect staffordshire oatcakes | Food". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-08-14.
  18. Ohlmarks, Åke (1995). Fornnordiskt lexikon. Tiden. p. 115