S-5 rocket

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A S-5M rocket. It has a sharper nose than the original S-5 rocket and the fins do not fold back as far. S-5M 57 mm rocket.jpg
A S-5M rocket. It has a sharper nose than the original S-5 rocket and the fins do not fold back as far.
A cross section of a S-5M rocket. S-5 57mm rocket cross-section.JPG
A cross section of a S-5M rocket.

The S-5 (first designated ARS-57) is a rocket weapon developed by the Soviet Air Force and used by military aircraft against ground area targets. It is in service with the Russian Air Force and various export customers.

Contents

It is produced in a variety of sub-types with different warheads, including HEAT anti-armour (S-5K), high-explosive fragmentation (S-5M/MO), smoke, and incendiary rounds. Each rocket is about 1.4 meters (4 ft 6 in) long and weighs about 5 kg (11 lb), depending on warhead and fuze. Range is 3 to 4 kilometres (1.9 to 2.6 miles), (Ref.)

Development

In 1946 the Soviet Nudelman Precision Engineering Design Bureau (then designated OKB-16) undertook technical research of unguided air to air missiles in aircraft armament. As part of the bureaus research, captured examples of the German 55mm R4M "Orkan" (Engl: Hurricane) unguided air to air missile were closely studied. After 5 years, the Soviet ministry of defense finally provided official status and funding of the project in 1951, [1] originally as part of the air-to-air AS-5 weapon system for the MiG-19. The rockets were tested in a series of configurations on MiG-15bis and MiG-17 jets, with the final tests complete on a MiG-17PF in January 1955. The tests revealed that the rockets did not perform as expected against aerial targets. The rocket ARS-57 was accepted into service in April 1955, with a military designation S-5. [1]

Apart from the Soviet Union and then Russia, S-5 rockets were produced among others in Poland. [2] As of 2013, the only producers remained Belarus and Bulgaria. [2]

S-5U

In late 2019, Russia announced it would resume production of the S-5 rocket for the first time since production ceased in 1990. The improved S-5U is 1,090 mm (3.28 ft) long and weighs 6 kg (13.23 lb), making it longer and heavier than the previous S-5M, though it is compatible with older rocket pods. It runs on composite propellant rather than a solid fuel motor and is spin-stabilized through four curved fins wrapped around the rocket nozzle to match its diameter when stored. Effective range remains between 0.5–4 km (0.31–2.49 mi), but lethality is increased by a heavier 0.8 kg (1.76 lb) warhead. It features a universal warhead that can penetrate 150 mm (5.9 in) of armor, explode into 500 2 g (0.071 oz) splinters, and has incendiary elements; combat efficiency is comparable to the S-8 rocket. [3]

Description

ORO-58K launcher under MiG-19/F-6 F-6 fighter underwing rocket pod.jpg
ORO-58K launcher under MiG-19/F-6
UB-16-57UMP launchers under MiG-23 Aircraft engine MiG-23 rockets pods.jpg
UB-16-57UMP launchers under MiG-23
Su-20 with UB-32 rocket launchers Airforce Museum Berlin-Gatow 288.JPG
Su-20 with UB-32 rocket launchers

The S-5 is a 55 mm (2.2 in) calibre unguided rocket fired from a 57 mm calibre tube. It is used by fighter bombers and helicopters. It consists of a steel body containing a solid fuel rocket, and a high-explosive warhead with a mechanical impact fuse. At the rear of the rocket is an elongated exhaust nozzle, with eight attached forward folding wings. The fins fold around the rocket when it is stowed in its launch tube, springing back as soon as it leaves the launch tube. In flight, the very slightly angled fins exert a stabilizing spin to the rocket, turning at approximately 750 rpm. The solid rocket motor burns for just 1.1 seconds, during which time it covers about 300 meters (985 ft).

The S-5 is carried in rocket pods, with 4–32 rockets. The first were ORO-57 launchers, made in variants with capacity of 4, 8 and 16 rockets. Most typical became ORO-57K for 8 rockets, used especially with MiG-19. Then, beginning in the early 1960s, the typical launcher became UB-16-57, with 16 rockets, developed in several variants, for helicopters and planes. UB stands for "universal block", as it could be carried on conventional bomb hardpoints, "57" refers to the actual diameter of the launch tube (the diameter of the rocket plus 2 mm). The first variant and UB-16-57U had a conical forward part while the next variant UB-16-57D had a blunt forward part. Starting in 1968, a variant UB-16-57UMP was produced, with a conical forward part and five protruding inner tubes. [1] In the 1970s, UB-32 was developed with 32 rockets, carried by heavier aircraft. In Poland, Mars-2 launcher was developed for 16 rockets, and in Romania, LPR 57 launchers for 16 rockets.

Operational history

Afghanistan

S-5 rockets were used extensively by Sukhoi Su-25 and Mil Mi-24 aircraft in Afghanistan in the 1980s, where their effectiveness was considered poor. Pilots described the rockets fanning out after launch "like a tulip", and that the warhead was only good for "tickling the dookhi's (mujahedeen) heels". The Russian forces have shifted to higher-calibre weapons like the S-8 rocket instead. In addition the Soviet 40th Army made use of improvised launchers mounted on T-62 tanks, BTR-70 APCs and Ural-4320 trucks in a ground-to-ground role. [4]

Israel

On Sunday, 6 January 2009, The Israel Defense Forces identified a rocket fired at Israel earlier in the day by militants in the Gaza Strip as a Russian-made S5K.

According to the IDF, the rocket fired at Kibbutz Alumim in the Negev marked the first time militants in Gaza have used this type of weapon. Although the weapon is intended to be launched aerially, Gaza militants chose to launch their rocket from ground-based launchers. Unlike a Qassam rocket, the S5K contains more explosives, but is less precise.

On Friday, 8 December 2017, two S-5 rockets fired from Gaza Strip, landed on Sderot. One of the rockets landed on a kindergarten and the second one landed on a nearby street, causing damage to a car.

Libya

S-5, along with S-8 and S-13 rockets, have been deployed from the backs of pick-up trucks (generally, technicals) during the 2011 Libyan civil war, [5] serving as a makeshift MLRS. The rebels have also developed a man-portable launcher for the S-5, turning the rocket into a makeshift RPG round. [5]

Syria

The S-5 has seen use by the Syrian Air Force against opposition forces in the Syrian civil war. [6]

Typical launchers specifications

MiG-21 Lancer firing S-5 rockets. MiG-21 Lancer C firing rockets.jpg
MiG-21 Lancer firing S-5 rockets.

Rocket specifications

DesignationTypeLength overallLaunch weightWarhead weightNotes
S-5/ARS-57GP0.915 m3.99 kg1.16 kgImpact fuze. 3.5 mrad dispersion.
S-5MHE-FRAG ? ? ?Produces 75 splinters
S-5M1HE-FRAG0.882 m3.86 kg0.8 kgProduces 75 splinters
S-5MOFrag0.998 m4.82 kg0.8 kgWarhead has 20 notched steel rings generate 360 fragments.
S-5KHEAT ? ? ? Shaped charge warhead, 130 mm versus RHA.
S-5K1HEAT0.83 m3.64 kg1.1 kgShaped charge warhead, 130 mm versus RHA.
S-5KOHEAT /
FRAG
0.987 m4.43 kg1.36 kgWarhead has 11 notched steel rings, 220 fragments.
S-5KOBHEAT /
FRAG
0.987 m4.43 kg1.36 kgWarhead has 11 notched steel rings, 220 fragments. Code "B" for uses new type BN-K low smoke motor powder.
S-5KPHEAT /
FRAG
1.079 m5.01 kg1.8 kgShaped charge with wound wire fragmentation jacket and sensitive piezoelectric impact fuze. Improved warhead with 250 mm RHA penetration.
S-5KPBHEAT /
FRAG
1.079 m5.01 kg1.8 kgShaped charge with wound wire fragmentation jacket and sensitive piezoelectric impact fuze. Improved warhead with 250 mm RHA penetration. Code "B" for uses new type BN-K low smoke motor powder.
S-5SFlechette ? ? ?Warhead contains 1,000 to 1,100 40 mm long flechettes.
S-5SBFlechette ? ? ?Warhead contains 1,000 to 1,100 40 mm long flechettes. Code "B" for uses new type BN-K low smoke motor powder.
S-5P (PARS-57) Chaff  ? ?n/aChaff rocket
S-5P1Chaff1.073 m5.04 kgn/aChaff rocket.
S-5-OFlare ? ? ?Flare / illumination
S-5-O1Paraflare0.948 m4.94 kg1.73 kgParachute flare.
S-5KorGuided1.100 m5.85 kg.-200 mm RHA penetration. 0.8–1.8 m CEP accuracy.

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 (in Russian) C-5 at Ugolok Neba site
  2. 1 2 17 tys. S-5 dla WP, altair.com (in Polish) published 2013-05-29 [access 2017-10-13]
  3. Comeback for Russia’s Unguided Rockets. Aviation International News. 24 October 2019.
  4. Lyamin & Jenzen-Jones 2014 , p. 11 & 12
  5. 1 2 Lyamin & Jenzen-Jones 2014 , p. 19
  6. Lyamin & Jenzen-Jones 2014 , p. 22
  7. 1 2 3 (in Polish)Tomasz Szulc, Następcy Katiuszy. Cz.II in: nowa Technika Wojskowa nr 8/98, ISSN 1230-1655