R-60 (missile)

Last updated

Vympel R-60
AA-8 "Aphid"
AA8Aphid Sideview.png
TypeShort-range lightweight infrared homing air-to-air missile
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
In service1974–present
Wars Iran–Iraq War
South African Border War
Lebanese Civil War
Production history
Manufacturer Vympel
Specifications
Mass43.5 kg (96 lb)
Length2,090 mm (6 ft 10 in)
Diameter120 mm (4.7 in)
Warhead3 kg (6.6 lb)
Detonation
mechanism
proximity

Engine Solid-fuel rocket engine
Wingspan390 mm (15 in)
Operational
range
8 kilometres (5.0  mi)
Flight altitude20,000 m (66,000 ft)
Maximum speed Mach 2.7
Guidance
system
Infrared homing [1]
Launch
platform
MiG-21, MiG-23, MiG-25, MiG-27, MiG-29, MiG-31, Su-15, Su-17, Su-20, Su-22, Su-24, Su-25, Yak-28, Yak-38, Yak-141, Mi-24, BAE Systems Hawk, L39ZA, J-22 Orao

The Molniya (now Vympel) R-60 (NATO reporting name: AA-8 "Aphid") is a short-range lightweight infrared homing air-to-air missile designed for use by Soviet fighter aircraft. It has been widely exported, and remains in service with the CIS and many other nations.

Contents

History

The R-60 was initially developed for the MiG-23. Work began on the weapon, under the bureau designation K-60 (izdeliye 62), in the late 1960s. Series production began in 1973. It entered service with the designation R-60 (NATO reporting name "Aphid-A").

When introduced, the R-60 was one of the world's lightest air-to-air missiles, with a launch weight of 44 kg (97 lb). It has infrared guidance, with an uncooled Komar (Mosquito) seeker head. Control is by forward rudders with large rear fins. The distinctive canards on the nose, known as "destabilizers," serve to improve the rudders' efficiency at high angles of attack. The R-60 uses a small, 3 kg (6.6 lb) tungsten expanding-rod surrounding a high explosive fragmentation warhead. Two different types of proximity fuze can be fitted: the standard Strizh (Swift) optical fuse, which can be replaced with a Kolibri active radar fuse. Missiles equipped with the latter fuse were designated R-60K. [2]

According to Russian sources,[ which? ] practical engagement range is about 4,000 m (4,400 yd), although "brochure range" is 8 km (5.0 mi) at high altitude. The weapon was one of the most agile air-to-air missiles until the advent of thrust vectored missiles like the R-73 and AIM-9X. The R-60 can be used by aircraft maneuvering at up to 9 g against targets maneuvering at up to 8g. A tactical advantage is the short minimum range of only 300 m (330 yd).

Soviet practice was to manufacture most air-to-air missiles with interchangeable IR-homer and semi-active radar homing (SARH) seekers – however, an SARH version of the R-60 was never contemplated due to the small size of the missile which makes a radar-homing version with an antenna of reasonable size impractical.

An inert training version, alternatively designated UZ-62 and UZR-60, was also built.

An upgraded version, the R-60M (NATO reporting name: "Aphid-B"), using a nitrogen-cooled seeker with an expanded view angle of ±20°, was introduced around 1982. Although its seeker is more sensitive than its predecessor, the R-60M has only limited all-aspect capability. Minimum engagement range was further reduced, to only 200 m (220 yd). [3] The proximity fuzes had improved resistance to ECM, although both optical and radar fuzes remained available (radar-fuzed R-60Ms with the Kolibri-M fuze are designated R-60 km). The R-60M is 42 mm (1.7 in) longer, and has a heavier, 3.5 kg (7.7 lb) continuous-rod warhead, increasing launch weight to 45 kg (99 lb). In some versions the warhead is apparently laced with about 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) of depleted uranium to increase the penetrating power of the warhead. [4]

The inert training version of the R-60M was the R-60MU.

Two R-60 missiles mounted on a MiG-29K R-60.jpg
Two R-60 missiles mounted on a MiG-29K

Since 1999, a modified version of the weapon has been used as a surface-to-air missile (SAM) as part of the Yugoslav M55A3B1 towed anti-aircraft artillery system. It has also been seen carried on a twin rail mount on a modified M53/59 Praga armored SPAAG of (former) Czechoslovakian origin. These missiles have been modified with the addition of a first stage booster motor, with the missile's own motor becoming the sustainer. This was done in lieu of modifying the missile's motor for ground launch, as in the case of the US MIM-72 Chaparral.

The current Russian dogfight missile is the R-73 (missile) (AA-11 "Archer"), but large numbers of R-60 missiles remain in service.

Operational history

Soviet Union

On 20 April 1978, two R-60 missiles were fired at Korean Air Lines Flight 902 after a navigational error had caused it to fly into Russian airspace. One missile hit, detaching 4 meters of the left wing and killing 2 passengers. The plane made an emergency landing on a frozen lake.

On 21 June 1978, a PVO MiG-23M flown by Pilot Captain V. Shkinder shot down two Iranian Boeing CH-47 Chinook helicopters that had trespassed into Soviet airspace, one helicopter being dispatched by two R-60 missiles and the other by cannon fire.

Syria

Several Russian reports affirm the AA-8 was widely used during the 1982 Lebanon war, and it was the main weapon used by the Syrians in air-to-air combat. Some Russian reports affirm that the R-60 was the most successful air-to-air missile deployed by the Syrians in Lebanon over the Bekaa Valley in 1982 [5] [6] According to Israeli reports, the vast majority of air-to-air combat consisted of visual range dogfights, and this has been also confirmed by Russian sources. The Russian reports also mentioned that several F-4s, F-16, IAI Kfirs were destroyed by R-60s among other aircraft. Israel claims some F-4s and Kfirs were lost in 1982, but lists SAMs as responsible for all Israeli aircraft losses. However,on June 9 1982 a Syrian MiG-21 heavily damaged a Israeli F-15 by R-60 but it was able to make back at base and was repaired. [7]

Iraq

On 11 August 1984 during Iran–Iraq War an Iraqi air force MiG-23ML shot down an Iranian F-14A piloted by Hasheem-el-agha by R-60.

On 19 January 1991, during the Gulf War, Iraqi air force pilot Jameel Sayhood claimed to have shot down a Royal Air Force Panavia Tornado with a R-60 missile, however according to the Royal Air Force the aircraft crashed on 22 January 1991 on a bombing mission in Ar Rutba.

Angola/Cuba

On 27 September 1987, during Operation Moduler, two Cuban FAR MiG-23MLs intercepted Captain Arthur Piercy's Mirage F1CZ, which was damaged by either an R-23 or an R-60 fired head-on by Major Alberto Ley Rivas. The explosion destroyed the aircraft's drag chute and damaged the hydraulics. Piercy was able to recover to AFB Rundu, but the aircraft overshot the runway. The impact with the rough terrain caused Piercy's ejection seat to fire, but he failed to separate from the seat and suffered major spinal injuries. [8] [7]

On 7 August 1988, a BAe-125 owned by the Botswana government was carrying the President of Botswana, Quett Masire, and his staff to a meeting in Luanda. An Angolan MiG-23 pilot fired two R-60s at the plane. One missile hit the no. 2 engine, causing it to fall off the aircraft. The second missile then hit the falling engine. The crew was able to make a successful emergency landing on a bush strip at Cutio Bie. [9] [ citation needed ]

India

An Indian Air Force MiG-21 used an infrared homing R-60 to bring down a Pakistani Navy Breguet Atlantic in 1999 which intruded over Indian airspace. Part of the wreckage was found in contested territory, this incident is widely known as the Atlantique incident.

Operators

Map with R-60 operators in blue and former operators in red R-60 operators.png
Map with R-60 operators in blue and former operators in red

Current operators

Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria [10]
Flag of Armenia.svg  Armenia
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia
Flag of Cuba.svg  Cuba
Flag of Georgia.svg  Georgia [11]
Flag of India.svg  India
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran
Flag of Libya.svg  Libya [12]
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia
Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea
Flag of Peru.svg  Peru
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland [13]
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
Flag of Syria.svg  Syria
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam

Former operators

Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czechoslovakia
Passed on successor states.
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic
Flag of East Germany.svg  East Germany
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland
Was used on MiG-21Bis. Was used concurrently and afterwards on BAE Hawks until the early 2000s, replaced by the AIM-9M.
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary
Used on MiG-29
Flag of Iraq (1991-2004).svg  Iraq
As of Saddam's Era.
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Passed on successor states.
Flag of Yugoslavia (1946-1992).svg  Yugoslavia
Passed on successor states.

Related Research Articles

AIM-7 Sparrow Medium-range, semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile

The AIM-7 Sparrow is an American, medium-range semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile operated by the United States Air Force, United States Navy, and United States Marine Corps, as well as other various air forces and navies. Sparrow and its derivatives were the West's principal beyond visual range (BVR) air-to-air missile from the late 1950s until the 1990s. It remains in service, although it is being phased out in aviation applications in favor of the more advanced AIM-120 AMRAAM.

AGM-114 Hellfire Type of air-to-surface and surface-to-surface missile

The AGM-114 Hellfire is an air-to-surface missile (ASM) first developed for anti-armor use, but later models were developed for precision drone strikes against other target types, and have been used in a number of actions aimed to "destroy high-value targets." It was originally developed under the name Heliborne laser, fire-and-forget missile, which led to the colloquial name "Hellfire" ultimately becoming the missile's formal name. It has multi-mission, multi-target precision-strike ability, and can be launched from multiple air, sea, and ground platforms, including the Predator drone. The Hellfire missile is the primary 100-pound (45 kg) class air-to-ground precision weapon for the armed forces of the United States and many other nations.

Ruhrstahl X-4 WWII guided missile developed by Nazi Germany

The Ruhrstahl Ru 344 X-4 or Ruhrstahl-Kramer RK 344 was a wire-guided air-to-air missile designed by Germany during World War II. The X-4 did not see operational service and thus was not proven in combat but inspired considerable post-war work around the world, and was the basis for the development of several ground-launched anti-tank missiles, including the Malkara.

Sukhoi Su-15 Interceptor aircraft

The Sukhoi Su-15 is a twinjet supersonic interceptor aircraft developed by the Soviet Union. It entered service in 1965 and remained one of the front-line designs into the 1990s. The Su-15 was designed to replace the Sukhoi Su-11 and Sukhoi Su-9, which were becoming obsolete as NATO introduced newer and more capable strategic bombers.

R-77 Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air BVR missile

The Vympel NPO R-77 missile is a Russian active radar homing beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile. It is also known by its export designation RVV-AE. It is the Russian counterpart to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missile.

K-5 (missile) Short-range air-to-air missile

The Kaliningrad K-5, also known as RS-1U or product ShM, was an early Soviet air-to-air missile.

K-8 (missile) Medium-range air-to-air missile

The Kaliningrad K-8 (R-8) was a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union for interceptor aircraft use.

K-13 (missile) Short-range infrared homing air-to-air missile

The Vympel K-13 is a short-range, infrared homing air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. It is similar in appearance and function to the American AIM-9 Sidewinder from which it was reverse-engineered. Although it since has been replaced by more modern missiles in frontline service, it saw widespread service in many nations.

AIM-4 Falcon A US guided air-to-air missile

The Hughes AIM-4 Falcon was the first operational guided air-to-air missile of the United States Air Force. Development began in 1946; the weapon was first tested in 1949. The missile entered service with the USAF in 1956.

AIM-26 Falcon

The AIM-26 Falcon was a larger, more powerful version of the AIM-4 Falcon air-to-air missile built by Hughes. It is the only guided American air-to-air missile with a nuclear warhead to be produced, although the unguided AIR-2 Genie rocket was also nuclear-armed.

R-4 (missile) Heavy air-to-air missile

The BisnovatR-4 was an early Soviet long-range air-to-air missile. It was used primarily as the sole weapon of the Tupolev Tu-128 interceptor, matching its RP-S Smerch ('Tornado') radar.

R-73 (missile) Air-to-air missile

The R-73 is a short-range air-to-air missile developed by Vympel NPO that entered service in 1984.

R-23 (missile) Medium air-to-air missile

The Vympel R-23 is a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by Vympel in the Soviet Union for fighter aircraft. An updated version with greater range, the R-24, replaced it in service. It is comparable to the American AIM-7 Sparrow, both in terms of overall performance as well as role.

R-27 (air-to-air missile) Air-to-air missile

The Vympel R-27 is a family of air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force, air forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States and air forces of many other countries as standard medium range air-to-air missile even though they have the more advanced R-77.

MIM-23 Hawk 1960s surface-to-air missile family by Raytheon

The Raytheon MIM-23 HAWK is an American medium-range surface-to-air missile. It was designed to be a much more mobile counterpart to the MIM-14 Nike Hercules, trading off range and altitude capability for a much smaller size and weight. Its low-level performance was greatly improved over Nike through the adoption of new radars and a continuous wave semi-active radar homing guidance system. It entered service with the US Army in 1959.

9K114 Shturm ATGM

9K114 Shturm - is a SACLOS radio guided anti-tank missile system of the Soviet Union. Its GRAU designation is 9K114. Its NATO reporting name is AT-6 Spiral. The missile itself is known as the 9M114 Kokon (Cocoon).

AIM-152 AAAM

The AIM-152 AAAM was a long-range air-to-air missile developed by the United States. The program went through a protracted development stage but was never adopted by the United States Navy, due to the ending of the Cold War and the reduction in threat of its perceived primary target, Soviet supersonic bombers. Development was cancelled in 1992.

The Kh-29 is a Soviet air-to-surface missile with a range of 10–30 km. It has a large warhead of 320 kg, has a choice of laser, infrared, active radar or TV guidance, and is typically carried by tactical aircraft such as the Su-24, Su-30, MiG-29K as well as the "T/TM" models of the Su-25, giving that craft an expanded standoff capability.

Kh-25 tactical air-to-surface missileanti-radar missile (Kh-25MP)

The Kh-25/Kh-25M is a family of Soviet lightweight air-to-ground missiles with a modular range of guidance systems and a range of 10 km. The anti-radar variant (Kh-25MP) is known to NATO as the AS-12 'Kegler' and has a range up to 40 km. Designed by Zvezda-Strela, the Kh-25 is derived from the laser-guided version of the Kh-23 Grom. It has now been succeeded by the Kh-38 family, but the Kh-25 remains in widespread use.

KSR-5

The Raduga KSR-5 was a long-range, air-launched cruise missile and anti ship missile developed by the Soviet Union. It was essentially a scaled down version of the Kh-22 'Kitchen', built to be carried by the less capable Tu-16.

References

Citations
  1. (in Ukrainian) Spring of 1978. How USSR downed over Karelia the Korean "Boeing". (The homing device was produced at the Kiev Arsenal factory.)
  2. Gordon, Yefim, Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two (Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing, 2004), pp. 29–32.
  3. Mladenov, Alexander, "Air-to-air missiles for the fighter 'Flogger'", International Air Power Review vol. 14, 2004, pp. 90–91.
  4. "Health Risks of Using Depleted Uranium," Venik's Aviation, 2001.
  5. SyAAF MiG-23 comabat record. Archived 16 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  6. "-23" . Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  7. 1 2 "Piloto SAAF derribado por MiG-23 cubano". Archived from the original on 7 September 2014. Retrieved 20 December 2008.
  8. Lord, Dick (2000). Vlamgat: The Story of the Mirage F1 in the South African Air Force. Covos-Day. ISBN   0-620-24116-0.
  9. Hatch, Paul (29 November – 5 December 1989). "World's Air Forces 1989". Flight International . p. 42.
  10. "Error with loading of Weaponsystem (HH07 - R-60)". weaponsystems.net. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  11. "Fighter SU-25KM (Scorpion)" . Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  12. "Facebook" . Retrieved 23 December 2014.
  13. "Wiadomości - Altair Agencja Lotnicza". www.altair.com.pl. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
Bibliography