S-400 missile system

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S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
S-400 <<Triumf>>.JPG
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
TypeMobile surface-to-air missile/anti-ballistic missile system
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service28 April 2007 – present [1]
Used byPrimary user: Russia
See Operators section for others
Production history
Designer Almaz-Antey
Manufacturer Fakel Machine-Building Design Bureau
Unit cost$300 million per fire unit (artillery battalion) that consists of 9 launchers, 120 missiles, command and support vehicles
Specifications

Engine YaMZ-8424.10 Diesel V12
400 HP/294kW
Transmission YaMZ
SuspensionLeaf spring
Ground clearance485 mm
Operational
range
400 km (40N6E missile)
250 km (48N6 missile)
120 km (9M96E2 missile)
40 km (9M96E missile)

The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 Триумф, Triumf, Translation: Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300PMU-3, [2] is an anti-aircraft weapon system developed in the 1990s by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. It has been in service with the Russian Armed Forces since 2007.

Contents

China was the first foreign buyer to make a government-to-government deal with Russia in 2014, while Saudi Arabia, Turkey, India and Belarus have all acquired, or expressed interest, in the system since. [3]

In 2017, the S-400 was described by The Economist as "one of the best air-defence systems currently made", [4] and Siemon Wezeman of Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) said it "is among the most advanced air defense systems available." [5] [6]

Development

The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1980s, and the Russian Air Force announced the system in January 1993. [7] On 12 February 1999, successful tests were reported at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan, and the S-400 was scheduled for deployment by the Russian army in 2001. [8] Dr Alexander Lemanskiy of Almaz-Antey was the Chief Engineer on the S-400 project.

In 2003, it became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment. In August, two high-ranking military officials expressed concern that the S-400 was being tested with "obsolete" interceptors from the S-300P system and concluded that it was not ready for deployment. [8] The completion of the project was announced in February 2004, and in April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM missile. [9] [10] In 2007, the system was approved for service. [11] Russia has accepted for service the 40N6 long-range missile for the S-400 air-defence system, a source in the domestic defense industry told TASS news agency in October 2018. [12]

The S-400 Triumf and Pantsir missile system can be integrated into a two-layer defense system. [13] [14]

Structure

Command Centre PBU 55K6E AirDefenseCombatReadiness2017-08.jpg
Command Centre PBU 55K6E

S-400 missile systems are organized around the 30K6E administration system, which can coordinate eight divisions (battalions). [15] [16] [17] The 55K6E is a command and control center based on the Ural-532301. The 91N6E [18] is a panoramic radar detection system with a 600-kilometre (370 mi) range and protection against jamming, and is mounted on an MZKT-7930.[ citation needed ] Six battalions of 98ZH6E surface-to-air missile systems (an independent combat system) [19] can track no more than six targets on their own, [20] with an additional two battalions if they are within a 40-kilometre (25 mi) range. The 92N6E (or 92N2E) is a multi-functional radar with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range, which can track 100 targets. [21] The 5P85TE2 launcher and the 5P85SE2 on a trailer (up to 12 launchers) are used for launch. The 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3, 48N6DM, 9M96E, 9M96E2, and the ultra-long-range 40N6E missiles have been authorised by a Russian presidential decree. [22] According to the Russian government, the S-400[ specify ] utilizes an active electronically scanned array. [23]

S-400 92N2 radar and 5P85T2 Oboronexpo2014part2-35.jpg
S-400 92N2 radar and 5P85T2

Optional elements of the S-400 (98ZH6E) [19] [24] include the 15I6ME–98ZH6E, which extends coverage 30, 60 and 90 km (19, 38 and 57 mi) from that provided by the 30K6E. The 96L6E [25] has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range. The 40B6M is housing for the 92N6E or 96L6E radar. The Protivnik-GE is an anti-stealth UHF radar with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range. [26] The Moscow-1 passive sensor is 2+12 times more effective than the Protivnik, with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range [27] Orion [28] for a target-designation on-the-air defense system, and the Avtobaza-M [29] and Orion+ Avtobaza add high-precision detection. The 1RL220BE [19] [30] versions were reportedly used for jamming. [31] The 400-kilometre (250 mi)-range S-200D Dubna (SA-5c) missiles and S-300 P-family radar systems can be used without additional command-and-control centers. [32] S-300 (SA-20A, SA-20B) missiles may also be guided. [33] A-50 and A-50U [15] aircraft provide early warning and command-and-control target designation. [34]

The 30К6Е control system can be integrated with the [19] S-400 Triumf 98ZH6E system; the S-300PMU2 (through the 83М6Е2 control system); the S-300PMU1 (through the 83М6Е control system); the Tor-M1 through the Ranzhir-M battery-command post; the Pantsir-S1 through the lead battery vehicle. The Protivnik-GE and Gamma-DE radars, integrated with the 92H6E radar system, enables communication between each battery with Baikal-E senior command posts and similar types; nearby 30К6Е, 83М6Е and 83М6Е2 administration systems; the Polyana-D4М1 command post; fighter-aircraft command post, and mobile long-range radars. The system's VHF component provides sector search-and-tracking, with the X- and L-band components providing fine-tracking capability. Good placement of the radars relative to the threat axis enables the L- and X-band components to illuminate the incoming target from angles where the target radar cross-section (RCS) is sub-optimal. The RLM-S and RLM-D have better elevation-tracking accuracy than the RLM-M, and the Nebo M should be capable of producing high-quality tracks suitable for mid-course guidance of modern surface-to-air missiles and trajectory guidance of legacy SAMs. [35]

The Gamma-C1E SHF mobile radar station has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range. [36] The Nebo VHF mobile radar station and the Resonance-NE radar station have a detection range of 1,200 kilometres (750 mi), and 65 kilometres (40 mi) to a height of 500 metres (1,600 ft). All Nebo-family locators are doubled for army air defense. [37] During the 1970s, the long-range mobile UHF 5H87, and SHF 5H69 low-altitude locators were used. [38] [39] A goal of the 1980s was detection at a height of 10 metres (33 ft) at a distance of 40 km (25 mi). [40] The Elbrus-90 computer is used to control the system. [41]

Components

The 91N6E panoramic radar [42] Has a declared anti-stealth targeting range of 150 km (93 mi) [43] Maximum targeting ranges (detection ranges are wider) are:

96L6 high-altitude radar 96L6E radar radar - 100th Anniversary VVS-R -01.jpg
96L6 high-altitude radar

The 96L6 high-altitude detector (TSBS) [44] [45] radar and equipment operates independently of the 96L6E low-level radar detector. The 96L6E2 export version can track a maximum of 100 targets, and is resistant to false returns of clutter in mountainous terrain. It can perform the functions of a command post for battalions of S-300 (SA20/20A/20B) [46] or S-400. 96L6-1 [47] of S-400 and S-500. It serves as the command post for the battalions. [46]

92N6A radar for S-400 92N6A radar for S-400.jpg
92N6A radar for S-400

Missiles are launched from 5P85TE2 self-propelled launchers or 5P85SE2 trailer launchers operating in conjunction with a BAZ-64022 or MAZ-543M tractor-trailer. A new type of transporter was introduced in 2014 to improve mobility while reducing fuel consumption. The cost of transporters in 2014 is 8.7 million rubles. [49]

Missiles

One system comprising up to eight divizion (battalions) can control up to 72 launchers, with a maximum of 384 missiles [50] (including missiles with a range of less than 250 km [160 mi]. [51] [52] A gas system launches missiles from the launch tubes up to 30 metres (98 ft) into the air before rocket motor ignition. [33] In April 2015, a successful test firing of the missile was conducted at an airborne target at a range of 400 km (250 mi); [53] [54] transporter erector launchers (TELs) carrying the long-range 40N6 may only be able to hold two missiles instead of the typical four due to their large size. [55] Another test recorded a 9M96 missile using an active radar homing head that reached a height of 56 km. [56] All the missiles are equipped with directed explosion warhead, which increases the probability of complete destruction of targets. [57] In 2016, Russian anti-aircraft missile troops received new guided missiles for S-300 and S-400 defense systems. [58] The anti-aircraft missile system, designed to destroy aircraft, cruise, and ballistic missiles, can also be used against ground targets. [59] The S-400 is able to intercept cruise missiles at a range of about 40 km due to their low-altitude flight paths. [60]

Missile specifications
GRAU indexRangeAltitudeMaximum velocityMaximum target velocityWeightWarheadGuidanceNotes
40N6E [61] 400 km (250 mi) [61] 30 km (98,000 ft) [61] 1190 m/s (Mach 3.5) [62] 4,800 m/s (11,000 mph; Mach 14) [61] 1,893 kg [63] Semi-active radar homing or
active radar homing
With an active radar homing head, climbs to designated altitude then guidance switches to search & destroy mode. [33]

Effective against low-altitude targets at extremely long range (below the radio horizon). [64]

48N6DM/
48N6E3
250 km (160 mi) [65] 60 km (200,000 ft)2,000 m/s (4,500 mph; Mach 5.9) [65] 4,800 m/s (11,000 mph; Mach 14) [65] 1,835 kg (4,045 lb) [65] 180 kg (400 lb) [65] Semi-active radar homing [19]
48N6E2200 km (120 mi) [65] 2,000 m/s (4,500 mph; Mach 5.9) [65] 2,800 m/s (6,300 mph; Mach 8.2) [65] 1,835 kg (4,045 lb) [65] 180 kg (400 lb) [65] Semi-active radar homing [19]
9M96 and
9M96E2
120 km (75 mi) [66] 30 km (98,000 ft) [66] 1,000 m/s (2,200 mph; Mach 2.9) [66] 420 kg (930 lb) [66] 24 kg (53 lb) [66] Active radar homing [66] High hit probability with one missile against fast, maneuvering targets. Aircraft = 0.9; UAV = 0.8; Missile = 0.7. [18] [66]
Load factor of more than 20 g at 30 km altitude greatly increases the probability to destroy short- to medium-range ballistic missiles. [32]
9M96E40 km (25 mi) [66] [67] 20 km (66,000 ft) [67] 900 m/s (2,000 mph; Mach 2.6) [68] 333 kg (734 lb) [67] 24 kg (53 lb) [67] Active radar homing [69] Targeting at the radio horizon, with homing action to aid interception of low-flying targets at long range. Optical and infrared range of 9M96 versions combined with approximate figures from long-wavelength radar can detect and home-in on stealth targets. [69]

S-300 system family tree

S-300 Family
S-300V S-300P S-300F
S-300V1S-300V2S-300PTS-300PSFortRif
S-300VM S-300PT-1S-300PMS-300PMUFort-MRif-M
Favorit-S
S-300VM1S-300VM2S-300PT-1AS-300PM1 S-300PMU1
Antey 2500S-300PM2S-300PMU2Russian Ver.
S-300V4FavoritExport Ver.
S-300VMDS-400

Morpheus defence system

Statistics

Main characteristics of the S-400 [79]
Max. target speed4.8 km/s (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14) [24]
Target detection distance (km)600
Range against aerodynamic target (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

400 [80]
2 [51]
Altitude limits for aerodynamic target (2015, km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

27 [24] (easily)/30, [52] 56 [81] (9m96e2), [82] up to 185 km (40Н6Е) [63]
0.005(9M96)/0.01(all)
Range against tactical ballistic targets (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

60
5 [19]
The number of simultaneously engaged targets (full system)80 [15] [51] [83] [84] [85]
The number of simultaneously guided missiles (full system)160 [51] [52] [86] [87] can use 2 missile to attack 1 target [88]
Ready for operation on a signal from driving on the march5 min; [89] 10–15 min during development [85]
Ready for operation on a signal from standbyready and enabled 35 sec; ready 3 min [42]
Time between major overhauls10,000 hours
Service life
  • ground facilities
  • anti-aircraft guided missiles

At least 20 years
15 years

Operating history

Russia

Boevoi raschet S-400 <<Triumf>> za rabotoi Boevoi raschet S-400 <<Triumf>> za rabotoi.jpg
Боевой расчет С-400 «Триумф» за работой

A regular S-400 battalion consists of at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post. [97] On 21 May 2007, the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by 1 July 2007. [98] The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal. [99]

On 6 August 2007, the first regiment equipped with S-400 entered active service in Moscow Oblast near Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. This was the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command. [100]

On 8 February 2008, Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia would be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the S-400. Russian military experts expected that Russia plans for this system to be in place and represent a major component of their ballistic missile defense system until 2020. [101]

In September 2006, Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov announced a new state program of armaments for 2007–15. This program provides for the purchase of 18 missile battalions of S-400s. [102]

On 17 March 2009, Russia's defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems had been put into combat service. [103]

On 26 August 2009, the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling onto Russian territory. [97]

In February 2011, a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defense Regiment consists of two battalions, each consisting of eight launch points, each with four missiles. [104] In February 2011, it was also announced that the missile system will be deployed in the southern Kuril Islands "to protect Russia's sovereignty in the Far East". [105]

The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems which went into operational status in April 2012. [106] One S-400 divizion is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city Nakhodka. [107]

As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) was operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020. [108] [ needs update ] Russia is also setting up two regiments of S-400 in the Eastern Military district. [109]

As of September 2013, the Russian Armed Forces had five S-400 regiments: two in Moscow, one in the Pacific fleet, one in the Baltic Fleet, and one in the Southern Military District. From 2014, the army was to receive two to three sets of regimental units of S-400 systems every year. [110] Another S-400 regiment was to be put on combat duty around Moscow by the end of 2013. Russia plans to have 28 S-400 regiments by 2020, each comprising two or three battalions with four systems each, mainly in maritime and border areas. [111]

In November 2015, it was announced that when the Kirov-class battlecruiser Admiral Nakhimov will be recommissioned to the Russian Navy in 2018, it will be equipped with the 48N6DMK anti-aircraft missile derived from the land-based S-400. The inclusion of the 48N6DMK into the Kirov's arsenal extends its air defense range from 100 km (62 mi; 54 nmi) with the 48N6E2 missile from the S-300FM to 250 km (160 mi; 130 nmi). [112] [ needs update ] Northern Fleet Commander Adm. Vladimir Korolev commented in that same year that Russia's Northern Fleet's Coastal Forces had deployed S-400s. [113] [114]

On 1 March 2016, the acting commander of the 14th Air Force and Air Defense Army, major general Vladimir Korytkov, said that six S-400 units had been activated according to his order in the anti-aircraft missile regiment of the Novosibirsk air defense formation in Russia's Novosibirsk Oblast. [115] TASS also reported that as of the end of 2015, a total of eleven Russian missile regiments were armed with S-400, and by the end of 2016 their number was expected to increase to sixteen. [115]

2015 Russian military intervention in Syria

In November 2015, it was reported S-400 will be deployed to Syria, along with the contingent of Russian troops and other military hardware in the course of the air campaign conducted by the Russian forces on the side of the Syrian government. [116] However, those claims were refuted by Russia. [117] On 25 November 2015, the Russian government announced it would deploy S-400s in Syria as a response to the downing of its Su-24M jet by Turkey. [118] On 26 November 2015, deployment of S-400 air defense systems to Syria was underway. [119] The first S-400 unit was activated at the Khmeimim Air Base in Latakia Governorate. [120]

In April and July 2017, a second S-400 unit was activated 13 km northwest of Masyaf, Hama Governorate. [120]

Belarus

In 2011, State Secretary of the Union State of Russia and Belarus Pavel Borodin has stated that Russia will supply the S-400 air defense system to Belarus. [121]

China

In March 2014, it was announced that Russian President Vladimir Putin had given authorization to sell the S-400 system to China. [122] On 13 April 2015, the chief executive of the Russian state-run arms trader Rosoboronexport confirmed that China secured a contract for the purchase of the S-400 air defence systems. [123] Delivery of the system began in January 2018. [124] China test fired Russian S-400 systems for the first time in early August 2018. [125] [126]

The acquisition of S-400, reported to initially consist of six batteries, significantly improved the country's ability to defend its own air space and served as an effective stand-off weapon against air attacks. With a 400 km (250 mi) coverage range, aircraft in disputed areas off the coast could be targeted by SAMs from the mainland; all of Taiwan could be covered from Fujian, and the Diaoyu Islands could be covered from Shandong, making it difficult for the US and Japan to deploy combat aircraft over those airspaces. Taiwan sought to address these potential advantages by locating activated S-400 batteries using extensive signals intelligence units and destroying them with stand-off weapons, cruise and ballistic missiles, and anti-radiation missiles. [127]

Turkey

In late 2017, the president of Turkey and Russian officials signed a US$2.5 billion agreement for delivery of the S-400 air defence system units. [128] [129] The US Secretary of State raised concerns over the deal, [130] but President Erdogan and other Turkish officials rejected the US threat of sanctions, citing that the US refused to sell the upgraded MIM-104 Patriot to Turkey. Turkey received its first installment of the Russian S-400 missile defense system on 12 July 2019. [131] The US threatened Turkey with CAATSA sanctions [132] [133] and on 17 July suspended Turkey from the F-35 program, stating "F-35 cannot coexist with a Russian intelligence collection platform that will be used to learn about its advanced capabilities". [134] As of 2020, 4 batteries consisting of 36 fire units, and 192+ missiles were delivered to Turkey. [135]

Saudi Arabia

In September 2009, it was reported that the S-400 was a part of a US$2 billion arms deal being negotiated between Russia and Saudi Arabia. [136] The agreement was reportedly delayed due to Saudis trying to acquire the more advanced S-400 but Russia was willing to sell only the S-300 air defence systems at the time. [137] In November 2019, it was reported that the deal had still not been finalized. [138]

India

On 15 October 2016, during the BRICS Summit, India and Russia signed an Inter-governmental Agreement (IGA) for the supply of five S-400 regiments. [139] The US$5.43 billion deal (₹40,000 crore) was formally signed on 5 October 2018, ignoring threat of US sanctions. [140] The deliveries are expected to commence by the end of 2020 [141] [142] [143] and brought into service in October 2020. [144] The United States threatened India with sanctions over India's decision to buy the S-400 missile defense system from Russia because India chose S-400 over American origin Patriot PAC 3. [145]

In March 2021, U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin discussed India's planned purchase of Russia's S-400 air missile system and threatened India with sanctions for buying S-400. [146]

Other foreign interest

Iran

In June 2019, amid tensions with the United States, some Iranian officials expressed interest for procurement of the S-400 missile system to further improve nation's defense capabilities along with previously bought S-300PMU2. Russia stated that it is ready to sell the S-400 system to Iran if an official request is made.[ citation needed ]

South Korea

South Korea is developing a simplified medium range SAM system, M-SAM Cheolmae-2 , based on technology from the 9M96 missile and with help of the Almaz. The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales. [147] The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz, [148] fire-control vehicles and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan, [149] and missiles provided by LIG Nex1. [150]

Egypt

In February 2017, Sergey Chemezov, CEO of Rostec, stated that Egypt was interested in the S-400 air defense system. He explained that Russia offered to sell Egypt either the Antey-2500 or S-400. According to Chemezov, the negotiations were delayed due to Egypt's financial issues. [151]

Iraq

In February 2018, Iraqi Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim al-Jaafari confirmed ongoing rumors that his country had shown interest in the S-400 and that negotiations with Russia were underway. [152] [153] [154] In May 2019, the ambassador of Iraq to Russia, Haidar Mandour Hadi, said that the Iraqi government had decided to procure the S-400 air defence system. [155]

Qatar

In January 2018, Russian state media TASS reported that Qatar was in an advanced state of talks to procure the S-400 air defense system. [156] [157]

United States

In June 2020, United States Senate Majority Whip, John Thune, R-S.D., proposed an amendment to the 2021 National Defense Authorization Act to allow the US Department of Defense to purchase Turkey’s S-400 system, using the U.S. Army’s missile procurement account. The reasoning is that this would remove the issue of Turkey having a foreign military system that contravenes the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act of 2017, under which a nation procuring a major defense article from Russia faces major sanctions. This would then allow the USA to re-integrate Turkey into the F-35 Lightning II acquisition and ownership program. [158]

Operators

Current and future operators
  Current operators
  Future operators
  Suspected operators

Current operators

Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of Turkey.svg  Turkey

Turkish Air Force:

Future operators

Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus
Flag of India.svg  India
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia

Suspected operators

Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria

See also

 

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The Egyptian Air Defense Forces or EADF, is the Anti-aircraft warfare branch of the Egyptian Armed Forces. It is responsible for protecting the Egyptian airspace against any hostile air attacks. The EADF was established in accordance with the presidential decree issued on 1 February 1968, which provided for the establishment of the Air Defense Forces as the fourth branch, next to the Navy, Egyptian Ground Forces, and Egyptian Air Force, formerly part of the artillery and under the operation command of the Air Force. Egypt has a modern system of air defense armament, characterized by diverse sources between east and west, which is divided between anti-aircraft missiles long, medium and short-range anti-aircraft artillery systems and early warning radars.

S-300VM missile system Mobile surface-to-air missile/anti-ballistic missile system

The S-300VM "Antey-2500" is a Russian anti-ballistic missile system. The system is designed to defeat short- and medium-range ballistic missile, aeroballistic, cruise missiles, fixed-wing aircraft, as well as loitering ECM platforms and precision-guided munitions.

Pantsir missile system Self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon

The Pantsir missile system is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile and anti-aircraft artillery systems. Starting with the Pantsir-S1 as the first version, it is produced by KBP Instrument Design Bureau of Tula, Russia. The system is a further development of 2K22 Tunguska and uses phased array radars for both target acquisition and tracking.

The S-500 Prometey, also known as 55R6M "Triumfator-M", is a Russian surface-to-air missile/anti-ballistic missile system intended to replace the A-135 missile system currently in use, and supplement the S-400. The S-500 is under development by the Almaz-Antey Air Defence Concern. Initially planned to be in production by 2014, it is currently targeting 2021 for first delivery. With its characteristics, according to Pravda Report, it is unrivaled by any other similar system in the world, being the first in a new class of space-defense weapons. Also according to Pravda Report, it shares with the US Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system the trait that it will be integrated into a single network of aerospace defense assets.

Joint CIS Air Defense System is a unified system that comprises air defense units and elements of the former Soviet republics under control of the Coordination Committee on Air Defense of the Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS. Currently there are 6 de facto members of JADS: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. 70% of all expenditures of the military budget of the Commonwealth of Independent States are directed to the improvement and development of the unified air defense system.

Western Military District One of the operational strategic commands of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation

The Western Military District is a military district of Russia.

S-350E Vityaz 50R6 medium-range SAM system

The 50R6 Vityaz or S-350E is a Russian medium-range surface-to-air missile system developed by GSKB Almaz-Antey. Its purpose is to replace the S-300PS and S-300PT-1A. The system design traces its roots from the joint South Korean/Russian KM-SAM project and uses the same 9M96 missile as the S-400 missile system.

54th Air Defense Corps

The 54th Air Defense Corps was a corps of the Soviet Air Defence Forces and later the Russian Air Force.

1488th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment

The 1488th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Regiment is a surface-to-air missile regiment of the Russian Aerospace Forces.

Belarusian Ground Forces Land forces of Belarus

The Belarusian Ground Forces is a service branch of the Armed Forces of Belarus. It is considered to be the seniormost and notable service branch in the armed forces.

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