S-300 missile system

Last updated

S-300 Family
NATO reporting name:
SA-10 Grumble, SA-12 Giant/Gladiator, SA-20 Gargoyle
S-300 - 2009 Moscow Victory Day Parade (2).jpg
S-300 anti-aircraft missile system at the Victory Parade, Red Square, 9 May 2009.
TypeLong-range SAM system
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service1978–present
Used bySee list of operators
Production history
Designer Almaz-Antey:
NPO Almaz (lead designer)
NIIP (radars)
MKB Fakel (missile designer for S-300P series)
NPO Novator (missile designer for S-300V series)
MNIIRE Altair (Naval version designer)
Designed1967–2005 [1]
Manufacturer MZiK [2]
Produced1975 [3] –2011 (for PS and PM) [4] V/F – free.
Variantssee variants

The S-300 (NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version. The S-300 system was developed to defend against aircraft and cruise missiles for the Soviet Air Defence Forces. Subsequent variations were developed to intercept ballistic missiles. The S-300 system was first deployed by the Soviet Union in 1979, designed for the air defence of large industrial and administrative facilities, military bases and control of airspace against enemy strike aircraft. The system is fully automated, though manual observation and operation are also possible. [3] [5] Components may be near the central command post, or as distant as 40 km. Each radar provides target designation for the central command post. The command post compares the data received from the targeting radars up to 80 km apart, filtering false targets, a difficult task at such great distances.[ citation needed ] The central command post features both active and passive target detection modes. [6] [7]

Contents

The project-managing developer of the S-300 is Almaz-Antey. S-300 uses missiles developed by both MKB "Fakel" and NPO Novator design bureaus (separate government corporations, previously named "OKB-2" and "OKB-8").

The S-300 is regarded as one of the most potent anti-aircraft missile systems currently fielded. [8] It is mainly used in Asia and Eastern Europe, including three NATO member countries: Bulgaria, Greece and Slovakia. An evolved version of the S-300 system is the S-400 (NATO reporting name SA-21 Growler), which entered limited service in 2004.

Variations and upgrades

Serial production started in 1975. [3] The tests have been completed in 1978 (P) and 1983 (V + 1987 for anti-ballistic V). [9] Numerous versions have since emerged with different missiles, improved radars, better resistance to countermeasures, longer range and better capability against short-range ballistic missiles or targets flying at very low altitude. There are currently three main variations.

S-300 system family tree

S-300 Family
S-300V S-300P S-300F
S-300V1S-300V2S-300PTS-300PSFortRif
S-300VM S-300PT-1S-300PMS-300PMUFort-MRif-M
Favorit-S
S-300VM1S-300VM2S-300PT-1AS-300PM1 S-300PMU1
Antey 2500S-300PM2S-300PMU2Domestic Version
S-300V4 FavoritExport Version
S-300VMD S-400

S-300P

Land-based S-300P (SA-10)

Slovak S-300P-TELs, ready to launch Slovak S-300.jpg
Slovak S-300P-TELs, ready to launch

The S-300P (transliterated from Russian С-300П, NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is the original version of the S-300 system which became operational in 1978. [1] In 1987, over 80 of these sites were active, mainly in the area around Moscow. The P suffix stand for PVO-Strany (country air defence system). An S-300PT unit consists of a 36D6 (NATO reporting name TIN SHIELD) surveillance radar, a 30N6 (FLAP LID) fire control system and 5P85-1 launch vehicles. The 5P85-1 vehicle is a semi-trailer truck. Usually a 76N6 (CLAM SHELL) low altitude detection radar is also a part of the unit. [10]

This system broke substantial new ground, including the use of a passive electronically scanned array radar and multiple engagements on the same Fire-control system (FCS). Nevertheless, it had some limitations. It took over one hour to set up this semi-mobile system for firing and the hot vertical launch method employed scorched the TEL. [11]

9S32 engagement radar 9S32 engagement radar -2.jpg
9S32 engagement radar

It was originally intended to fit the Track Via Missile (TVM) guidance system onto this model. However, the TVM system had problems tracking targets below 500 m. Rather than accept the limitation, the Soviets decided that the tracking of low altitude targets was a must and decided to use a pure command-guidance system until the TVM head was ready. [11] This allowed the minimum engagement altitude to be set at 25 m.

Improvements to the S-300P have resulted in several major sub-versions for both the internal and the export market. The S-300PT-1 and S-300PT-1A (SA-10b/c) are incremental upgrades of the original S300PT system. They introduce the 5V55KD missile and the cold launch method thereafter employed. Time to readiness was reduced to 30 minutes and trajectory optimizations allowed the 5V55KD to reach a range of 75 km. [11]

Two S-300-PM missile TEL and a 'Flap Lid' radar Sa-10c b.jpg
Two S-300-PM missile TEL and a 'Flap Lid' radar

The S-300PS/S-300PM (Russian С-300ПC/С-300ПМ, NATO reporting name SA-10d/e) was introduced in 1985 and is the only version thought to have been fitted with a nuclear warhead. This model saw the introduction of the modern TEL and mobile radar and command-post vehicles that were all based on the MAZ-7910 8 × 8 truck. [1] This model also featured the new 5V55R missiles which increased maximum engagement range to 90 km (56 mi) and introduced a terminal semi-active radar homing (SARH) guidance mode. The surveillance radar of these systems was designated 30N6. Also introduced with this version was the distinction between self-propelled and towed TELs. The towed TEL is designated 5P85T. Mobile TELs were the 5P85S and 5P85D. The 5P85D was a "slave" TEL, being controlled by a 5P85S "master" TEL. The "master" TEL is identifiable thanks to the large equipment container behind the cabin; in the "slave" TEL this area is not enclosed and is used for cable or spare tyre storage.

The next modernisation, called the S-300PMU (Russian С-300ПМУ, US DoD designation SA-10f) was introduced in 1992 for the export market and featured the upgraded 5V55U missile which still utilised the intermediate SARH terminal guidance method and smaller warhead of the 5V55R but increased the engagement envelope to give this missile roughly the same range and altitude capabilities as the newer 48N6 missile (max. range 150 km/93 mi). The radars were also upgraded, with the surveillance radar for the S-300PMU being designated 64N6 (BIG BIRD) and the illumination and guidance radar being designated 30N6-1 in the GRAU index.[ citation needed ]

  • S-300P total produced: 3000 launchers, 28,000 missiles for the S-300P [12]

S-300PMU-1/2 (SA-20)

S-300PMU-2 64N6E2 acquisition radar (part of 83M6E2 command post) S-300PMU2 64N6E2.jpg
S-300PMU-2 64N6E2 acquisition radar (part of 83M6E2 command post)

The S-300PMU-1 (Russian : С-300ПМУ-1, US DoD designation SA-20A, NATO reporting name SA-20 Gargoyle) was also introduced in 1993 with the new and larger 48N6 missiles for the first time in a land-based system and introduced all the same performance improvements from the S300FM version including the increased speed, range, TVM guidance and ABM capability. [13] [14] The warhead is slightly smaller than the naval version at 143 kg (315 lb). This version also saw the introduction of the new and more capable 30N6E TOMB STONE radar.

The S-300PMU-1 was introduced in 1993 and for the first time introduces several different kinds of missiles in a single system. In addition to the 5V55R and 48N6E missiles the S-300PMU-1 can utilise two new missiles, the 9M96E1 and 9M96E2. Both are significantly smaller than the previous missiles at 330 and 420 kg (730 and 930 lb) respectively, and carry smaller 24 kg (53 lb) warhead. The 9M96E1 has an engagement range of 1–40 km (0.62–25 mi) and the 9M96E2 of 1–120 km (0.62–75 mi). They are still carried 4 per TEL. Rather than just relying on aerodynamic fins for manoeuvring, they use a gas-dynamic system which allows them to have an excellent probability of kill (Pk) despite the much smaller warhead. The Pk is estimated at 0.7 against a tactical ballistic missile for either missile. The S-300PMU-1 typically uses the 83M6E command and control system, although it is also compatible with the older Baikal-1E and Senezh-M1E CCS command and control systems. The 83M6E system incorporates the 64N6E (BIG BIRD) surveillance/detection radar. The fire control/illumination and guidance radar used is the 30N6E(1), optionally matched with a 76N6 low altitude detection radar and a 96L6E all altitude detection radar. The 83M6E command and control system can control up to 12 TELs, both the self-propelled 5P85SE vehicle and the 5P85TE towed launchers. Generally support vehicles are also included, such as the 40V6M tow vehicle, intended for lifting of the antenna post.[ citation needed ]

China is building its own version of the S-300PMU-1, called HQ-10. [15] [ better source needed ]

S-300PMU-2 vehicles. From left to right: 64N6E2 detection radar, 54K6E2 command post and 5P85 TEL. S-300PMU2 complex.jpg
S-300PMU-2 vehicles. From left to right: 64N6E2 detection radar, 54K6E2 command post and 5P85 TEL.

The S-300PMU-2Favourite (Russian : С-300ПМУ-2 ФаворитFavourite, DoD designation SA-20B), introduced in 1997 (presented ready 1996), is an upgrade to the S-300PMU-1 with range extended once again to 195 km (121 mi) with the introduction of the 48N6E2 missile. This system is apparently capable against not just short range ballistic missiles, but now also medium range ballistic missiles. It uses the 83M6E2 command and control system, consisting of the 54K6E2 command post vehicle and the 64N6E2 surveillance/detection radar. It employs the 30N6E2 fire control/illumination and guidance radar. Like the S-300PMU-1, 12 TELs can be controlled, with any mix of 5P85SE2 self-propelled and 5P85TE2 trailer launchers. Optionally it can make use of the 96L6E all altitude detection radar and 76N6 low altitude detection radar. [16] A version titled HQ-15 is currently in Chinese service. [17]

S-300F

Sea-based S-300F (SA-N-6)

Close up view of SA-N-6 launchers on Marshal Ustinov. SA-N-6 SAM launchers with radar.JPEG
Close up view of SA-N-6 launchers on Marshal Ustinov .

The S-300FFort (Russian С-300Ф Форт, DoD designation SA-N-6, F suffix for Flot, Russian for fleet) was introduced in 1984 as the original ship-based (naval) version of the S-300P system developed by Altair with the new 5V55RM missile with range extended to 7–90 km (4.3–56 mi; 3.8–49 nmi) and maximum target speed up to Mach 4 while engagement altitude was reduced to 25–25,000 m (82–82,021 ft). The naval version utilises the TOP SAIL or TOP STEER, TOP PAIR and 3R41 Volna (TOP DOME) radar and utilises command guidance with a terminal semi-active radar homing (SARH) mode. Its first installation and sea trials were on a Kara class cruiser and it is also installed on Slava class cruisers and Kirov class battlecruisers. It is stored in eight (Slava) or twelve (Kirov) 8-missile rotary launchers below decks. The export version of this system is known as Rif (Russian Рифreef). The NATO name, found also in colloquial use, is "Grumble".

Sea-based S-300FM (SA-N-20)

The S-300FMFort-M (Russian С-300ФМ, DoD designation SA-N-20) is another naval version of the system, installed only on the Kirov-class cruiser Pyotr Velikiy, and introduced the new 48N6 missile. It was introduced in 1990 and increased missile speed to approximately Mach 6 for a maximum target engagement speed of up to Mach 8.5, increased the warhead size to 150 kg (330 lb) and increased the engagement range yet again to 5–150 km (3.1–93 mi) as well as opening the altitude envelope to 10–27 km (6.2–16.8 mi). The new missiles also introduced the ultimate track-via-missile guidance method and brought with it the ability to intercept short-range ballistic missiles. This system makes use of the TOMB STONE MOD rather than TOP DOME radar. The export version is called the Rif-M. Two Rif-M systems were purchased by China in 2002 and installed on the Type 051C air-defence guided missile destroyers.

Both naval versions are believed to include a secondary infrared terminal seeker, similar to the newer US Standard missile system, probably to reduce the system's vulnerability to saturation. This also allows the missile to engage contacts over the radar horizon, such as warships or sea-skimming anti-ship missiles.

S-300V (SA-12)

In service 1984.

S-300V (SA-12a Gladiator) ParkPatriot2015part8-21.jpg
S-300V (SA-12a Gladiator)

The 9K81 S-300VAntey-300 (Russian 9К81 С-300В Антей-300 – named after Antaeus , NATO reporting name SA-12 Gladiator/Giant) varies from the other designs in the series. This complex is not part of the C-300, including is designed by another developer. [18] It was built by Antey rather than Almaz, [19] and its 9M82 and 9M83 missiles were designed by NPO Novator. The V suffix stands for Voyska (ground forces). It was designed to form the top tier army air defence system, providing a defence against ballistic missiles, cruise missiles and aircraft, replacing the SA-4 Ganef. The "GLADIATOR" missiles have a maximum engagement range of around 75 km (47 mi) while the "GIANT" missiles can engage targets out to 100 km (62 mi) and up to altitudes of around 32 km (20 mi). In both cases the warhead is around 150 kg (330 lb).

Radar modes are different and it requires the use of all methods of jamming, while S-300V system works completely passive mode. [18]

While it was created from the same project, hence the common S-300 designation, different priorities resulted in a design quite different from the other versions. The S-300V system is carried on tracked MT-T transporters, which gives it better cross-country mobility than even the S-300Ps on 8 × 8 wheeled transporters. It is also somewhat more distributed than the S-300P's. For example, while both have mechanically-scanning radar for target acquisition (9S15 BILL BOARD A), the battery level 9S32 GRILL PAN has an autonomous search ability and SARH delegated to illumination radar on TELARs. The early 30N6 FLAP LID on the S-300P handles tracking and illumination, but is not equipped with an autonomous search capability (later upgraded). 9S15 can simultaneously carry out active (3 coordinates) and passive (2 positions) search for targets. [7]

Chance to destroy a target by using single missile an interceptor (The official source) [20] Adopted in service in 1983 (1983 just using the missile 9M83), fully accepted in 1988. [7] [20] [21]

9M83 /Chance/ MGM-52 Lance.......... 0,5-0,65

9M82 /Chance/ MGM-31 Pershing...... 0,4-0,6

9M83 /Chance/ aircraft........................ 0,7-0,9

9M82 /Chance/ SRAM rocket.............. 0,5-0,7

SA-12 high altitude surface-to-air missile systems Oboronexpo2014part2-27.jpg
SA-12 high altitude surface-to-air missile systems

The S-300V places a greater emphasis on the ABM, with the dedicated 9M82 (SA-12B Giant) Anti-Ballistic missile. This missile is larger and only two can be held on each TELAR. It also has a dedicated ABM radar: the 9S19 HIGH SCREEN phased array radar at battalion level. A typical S-300V battalion is made up out of a target detection and designation unit, a guidance radar and up to 6 TELARs. The detection and designation unit consists of the 9S457-1 command post, a 9S15MV or 9S15MT BILL BOARD all-round surveillance radar and 9S19M2 HIGH SCREEN sector surveillance radar. [22] The S-300V uses the 9S32-1 GRILL PAN multi-channel guidance radar. Four types of missile-launcher vehicles can be used with the system: [23]

Target detection range. [25]

S-300V system may be controlled by an upper level command post system 9S52 Polyana-D4 integrating it with Buk missile system into a brigade.

China has built its own version of the S-300V called HQ-18. [28]

S-300VM (SA-23)

The system is available abroad (1996)

The S-300VM (Antey 2500) is an upgrade to the S-300V. It consists of a new command post vehicle, the 9S457ME and a selection of new radars. These consist of the 9S15M2, 9S15MT2E and 9S15MV2E all-round surveillance radars, and the 9S19ME sector surveillance radar. The upgraded guidance radar has the Grau index 9S32ME. The system can still employ up to six TELARs, the 9A84ME launchers (up to 4 × 9M83ME missile) and up to 6 launcher/loader vehicles assigned to each launcher (2 × 9M83ME missile each). An upgraded version, dubbed S-300V4 will be delivered to the Russian army in 2011. [29]

The Antey-2500 complex is the export version developed separately from the S-300 family and has been exported to Venezuela for an estimated export price of 1 billion dollars. The system has one type of missile in two versions, basic and amended with a sustainer stage that doubles the range (up to 200 km (120 mi), according to other data up to 250 km (160 mi)) and can simultaneously engage up to 24 aircraft or 16 ballistic targets in various combinations.

S-300V4

The S-300V4 is also called S-300VMD. [31] It is reportedly capable of targeting AWACS aircraft at very large distances. [32] [33] Different versions of the NPO Novator 9M82MD [34] S-300V4 missiles have a range of 400 km at Mach 7.5 or a range of 350 km at Mach 9 and can destroy maneuvering targets even at very high altitudes. [35] [36] Gladiator rockets significantly less. An export version exists, marketed as the Antey-4000. [37]

S-400 (SA-21)

The S-400Triumf (Russian С-400 «Триумф», formerly known as the S-300PMU-3/С-300ПМУ-3, NATO reporting name SA-21 Growler) was introduced in 1999 and features a new, much larger missile. The new complex is totally different. The project has been encountering delays since its original announcement and deployment has only begun on a small scale in 2006. With an engagement range of up to 400 km (250 mi), depending on the missile variant used, and specifically designed to counter stealth, it is by far the most advanced version incorporating the ability to survive PGM threats and counter advanced jammers by using automatic frequency hopping. [38]

Specifications

An important quality of all complexes of the family of S-300 is the ability to work in various combinations within a single modification and within the same complex, between the modifications (limited), as well as through a variety of mobile superior command posts to line up in a battery of any composition, quantity, modifications, location and so on including the introduction of other air defence systems into a common battery. [39] the System for the defence of the major industrial and administrative objects, military bases and control points from the shock means of air-space attack of the enemy. Capable of hitting ballistic and aerodynamic targets. Became the first multi-channel anti-aircraft missile system, is able to accompany each system (ADMS) to 6 goals and build them up to 12 missiles. When creating funds management (FM), consisting of paragraph combat control and radar detection, solved the problem of automatic track initiation of up to one hundred goals and effective management divisions, located at a distance of 30–40 km from the (FM).

For the first time established a system with full automation of combat operation. All tasks—detection, tracking, target setting is considered, target designation, development of target designation, target acquisition, maintenance, capture, tracking and missile guidance, assessment of results of firing system capable of dealing automatically with the help of digital computing facilities. The operator functions are to control over the work of funds and implementation of the launch of rockets. In a complex environment, you can manually intervene in the course of combat operation. None of the previous systems possessed these qualities. Vertical launch missiles provided bombardment of targets flying from any direction without the reversal of the launcher in the direction of the shooting. [30] [40]

Missiles are guided by the 30N6 FLAP LID or naval 3R41 Volna (TOP DOME) radar using command guidance with terminal semi-active radar homing. Later versions use the 30N6 FLAP LID B or TOMB STONE radar to guide the missiles via command guidance/seeker-aided ground guidance (SAGG). SAGG is similar to the Patriot's TVM guidance scheme. The earlier 30N6 FLAP LID A can guide up to four missiles at a time to up to four targets, and can track up to 24 targets at once. The 30N6E FLAP LID B can guide up to two missiles per target to up to six targets simultaneously. Targets flying at up to Mach 2.5 can be successfully engaged or around Mach 8.5 for later models. One missile can be launched every three seconds. The mobile control centre is able to manage up to 12 TELs simultaneously.

The original warhead weighed 100 kg (220 lb), intermediate warheads weighed 133 kg (293 lb) and the latest warhead weighs 143 kg (315 lb). All are equipped with a proximity fuse and contact fuse. The missiles themselves weigh between 1,450 and 1,800 kg (3,200 and 3,970 lb). Missiles are catapulted clear of the launching tubes before their rocket motor fires, and can accelerate at up to 100 g (1 km/s²). They launch straight upwards and then tip over towards their target, removing the need to aim the missiles before launch. The missiles are steered with a combination of control fins and through thrust vectoring vanes. The sections below give exact specifications of the radar and missiles in the different S-300 versions. Since the S-300PM most vehicles are interchangeable across variations.

Radar

The 30N6 FLAP LID A is mounted on a small trailer. The 64N6 BIG BIRD is mounted on a large trailer along with a generator and typically towed with the now familiar 8-wheeled truck. The 76N6 CLAM SHELL (5N66M [41] etc.) is mounted on a large trailer with a mast which is between 24 and 39 m (79 and 128 ft) tall. Usually is used with a mast. Target detection range of 90 km if altitude of the target of 500 meters above the ground (with a mast). [41]

The original S-300P utilises a combination of the 5N66M continuous-wave radar Doppler radar for target acquisition and the 30N6 FLAP LID A I/J-band phased array digitally steered tracking and engagement radar. Both are mounted on trailers. In addition there is a trailer-mounted command centre and up to twelve trailer-mounted erector/launchers with four missiles each. The S-300PS/PM is similar but uses an upgraded 30N6 tracking and engagement radar with the command post integrated and has truck-mounted TELs.

If employed in an anti-ballistic missile or anti-cruise missile role, the 64N6 BIG BIRD E/F-band radar would also be included with the battery. It is capable of detecting ballistic missile class targets up to 1,000 km (620 mi) away travelling at up to 10,000 km/h (6,200 mph) and cruise missile class targets up to 300 km (190 mi) away. It also employs electronic beam steering and performs a scan once every twelve seconds.

The 36D6 TIN SHIELD radar can also be used to augment the S-300 system to provide earlier target detection than the FLAP LID radar allows. It can detect a missile-sized target flying at an altitude of 60 metres (200 ft) at least 20 km (12 mi) away, at an altitude of 100 m (330 ft) at least 30 km (19 mi) away, and at high altitude up to 175 km (109 mi) away. In addition a 64N6 BIG BIRD E/F band target acquisition radar can be used which has a maximum detection range of 300 km (190 mi).

The S-300 FC Radar Flap Lid can be mounted on a standard pylon.

Surveillance radar
GRAU index NATO reporting nameSpecialisationTarget detection rangeSimultaneously detected targets NATO frequency band First used withNotes
36D6TIN SHIELD180–360 km (110–220 mi)120E/FS-300PIndustrial designation: ST-68UM
350 kW to 1.23 MW power
76N6CLAM SHELLLow altitude detectionIS-300P
76N6CLAM SHELLLow altitude detection120 km (75 mi)180IS-300PMU1.4 kW FM continuous wave
64N6BIG BIRDRegiment radar300 km (190 mi)300CS-300PMU-1
96L6ECHEESE BOARDAll altitude detection300 km100S-300PMU-1
9S15BILL BOARD250 km (160 mi)250SS-300V
9S19HIGH SCREENSector tracking16S-300V
MR-75 [42] TOP STEERNaval300 kmD/ES-300F
MR-800 Voskhod [42] TOP PAIRNaval200 km (120 mi)C/D/E/FS-300F
Target tracking/missile guidance
GRAU indexNATO reporting nameNATO frequency bandTarget detection rangeSimultaneously tracked targetsSimultaneously engaged targetsFirst used withNotes
30N6FLAP LID AI/J44S-300P
30N6E(1)FLAP LID BH-J200 km (120 mi)66S-300PMU Phased array
30N6E2FLAP LID BI/J200 km66S-300PMU-2
9S32-1GRILL PANMulti-band140–150 km (87–93 mi)66S-300V
3R41 VolnaTOP DOMEI/J100 km (62 mi)S-300F

Extrasystemic Radar (greater effectiveness)

Compared. C-300 its own listed above. Includes powerful 91N6E Anti – stealth range 150, [43] RCS 4scm 390 km, 0.4 m2 for 240 km. [44] Extrasystemic Radar multiply ability. Approximately 4-fold.

Missiles

two types of missiles for the Russian SA-20 anti-air complex SA-20 missiles thin.JPG
two types of missiles for the Russian SA-20 anti-air complex
Missile specifications
GRAU indexYearRangeMaximum velocityMaximum target SpeedLengthDiameterWeightWarheadGuidanceFirst used with
5V55K [50] / 5V55R [51] 1978/1982 [52] 47 km (29 mi) 75 km1,900 m/s (4,250 mph)1,150 m/s (2,572 mph)7 m (23 ft)450mm1,450 kg (3,200 lb)100 kg (220 lb)Command
5V55R/5V55KD[ citation needed ]after 1982 [51] 75/90 km (/56mile)1,900 m/s (4,250 mph)1,150 m/s (2,572 mph)7 m (23 ft)450mm1,450 kg (3,200 lb)133 kg (293 lb) SARH
5V55U1992150 km (93 mi)2,000 m/s (4,470 mph)7 m (23 ft)450mm1,470 kg (3,240 lb)133 kg (293 lb) SARH
48N6accepted on arms 1993 [53] 150 km (93 mi)2,000 m/s (4,470 mph)2,800 m/s (6,415 mph)7.5 m (25 ft)500mm1,780 kg (3,920 lb)150 kg (330 lb) Track-via-missile (TVM)
48N6P-011992195 km (121 mi)2,000 m/s (4,470 mph)2,800 m/s (6,415 mph)7.5 m (25 ft)500mm1,800 kg (4,000 lb)150 kg (330 lb)TVM
9M82198413–100 km (8.1–62.1 mi)
30 km (98,000 ft) alt
2,400 m/s (5,400 mph)420 kg (930 lb)150 kg (330 lb) SARH by TELARS-300V
9M8319846–75 km (3.7–46.6 mi)
25 km (82,000 ft) alt
1,700 m/s (3,800 mph)150 kg (330 lb) SARH by TELARS-300V
9M83ME1990200 km (120 mi) SARH by TELARS-300VM
9M96E1199940 km (25 mi)900 m/s [54] (2,010 mph)4,800–5,000 m/s
(10,737–11,185 mph)
330 kg (730 lb)24 kg (53 lb) Active radar homing S-400
9M96E21999120 km (75 mi)1,000 m/s [54] (2,240 mph)4,800–5,000 m/s
(10,737–11,185 mph)
420 kg (930 lb)24 kg (53 lb)Active Radar HomingS-400
40N62000400 km (250 mi)Active Radar HomingS-400

Means of camouflage and protection

Additional means of masking are used, such as camouflage nets and placement of components of the C-300 in trenches that considerably complicates detection from long range. Station interference with radar enemy, SPN-30, Veil-1. [39]

Composite element to counter the radar missile program is for S-300 system Paperboy-E, [39] [56] the likelihood of intercepting missiles PIS type of HARM is 0.85 for missiles with active radar-guided, heat or body-managed system pointing the probability of interception of 0.85–0.99. Under the interception perceived inability of the object to cause harm because of his hit miss the target.

Comparison with other systems

Official designation of unitS-300PMU [57] S-300PMU1 [58] S-300PMU2 [39] S-300VM [39] /S-300V4 [59] Patriot PAC-2 [60] Patriot PAC-3 [61]
Range of,
km
aerodynamic target5–905–1503–200200 (400) [62] 3–16015, at most 20 [63] / 0.3-20 [64]
ballistic targetsat most 35at most 405–40402015–45 [65] (20) [66] possible max 50 [64]
Height defeat,
km
aerodynamic target0.025–270.01–270.01–270.025–30 /?-370.06–2415 [66]
ballistic targets(?)(?)2–251–303–12 [67] 15(?). [66] 15, possible max 20. [63]
Maximum target speed, m/s1,150, at most 1,300 (for the escort 3000) [67] at most 2,800 (for the escort 10000 km/hr) [58] [67] at most 2,8004,500 of ballistic targets [39] at most 2,200 [67] at most 1,600 [66]
Maximum speed of the rocket complex, m/sat most 2,000 [57] 2000 [58] 1,9002,600 and 1,700 [66] /7.5M or 9M (more 3000) and (?)1,700 [68] (?) approximately 1,500 [64]
Number of simultaneously guided anti-aircraft missiles by one unitat most 12at most 12at most 72 [69] at most 48 [31] at most 9
Number of simultaneously engaged targets by one unitat most 6at most 6at most 36 [69] at most 24 [70] at most 9at most 9
Mass of a rocket, kg1,400–1,600(?)330–1,900(?)900312
Warhead weight, kg150(?)180 [71] (?)9174
Minimum time between missile launches, seconds3–53–53 (0 at start from different

CARRIERS MISSILES)

1.5 (0 at start from different

CARRIERS MISSILES)

3–4 (1 [68] at start from different

CARRIERS MISSILES)

(?)
Set up time and clotting time of starting

complex, minutes

555515/30 [67] 15/30(?)
Means of transportationWheeledWheeledWheeled tracked semi trailersemi trailer

Operational history

The system has put in strong performances in real-world exercises. [72] In 1991, 1992 and 1993, various versions of the S-300 had successfully destroyed ballistic missiles and other objects in exercises, with a high success rate (90% or more if 1 missile interceptor is used). [72] [73] [74] [75] In 1995, it was the first system in the world to successfully destroy a R-17 Elbrus Scud missile in the air. [75] China is to test the S-300PMU2 effectiveness in destroying targets in real exercises. This UAV (4.6 km) and simulator a strategic bomber aircraft (186 km), tactical missile (range of the system to the point of interception 34 km and a height of 17.7 km) and also against pinpoint missile. Although none of the S-300 versions have fired a missile in a conflict, it is considered a very capable SAM system that poses a significant hazard even to the most advanced aircraft or other airborne targets. In April 2005, NATO had a combat exercise in France and Germany called Trial Hammer 05 to practice Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses missions. [76] [77] Participating countries were pleased that the Slovak Air Force brought an S-300PMU along, providing a unique opportunity for NATO to become familiar with the system.[ citation needed ]

Israel's purchase of F-35 Lightning II fighters was allegedly motivated in part to nullify the threat of S-300 missiles that were, at the time the fighters were initially sought, subject to a potential arms sale to Iran. [78] [79]

The system can destroy ground targets at a range of 120 km (19,000 fragments or 36,000 according to various missiles). If the S-300 missiles are launched against ballistic missile launched, the range reaches up to 400 km. [9] [80]

In 2010, Russia announced that its military had deployed the S-300 systems in breakaway Abkhazia in 2008, leading to condemnation from the government of Georgia. [81]

Syria

After a Russian Sukhoi Su-24 was shot down over Syria in November 2015, Russia deployed S-300 and S-400 to the region - some to the Khmeimim Air Base, some with the Russian cruiser Moskva. [82]

On 17 September 2018, a Syrian S-200 system downed a Russian military plane, killing 15 Russian service members. Moscow accused Israel of indirectly causing this incident, and announced that to keep its troops safe, it started to supply Syria with modern S-300 anti-missile rocket systems. [83] [84] Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu objected to the move in a telephone call with Russian president Vladimir Putin, stating that the delivery of S-300 anti-missile rocket systems to "irresponsible players" would be dangerous for the region. [85]

In 2020, the Syrian military criticized the Russian S-300 missile defense system, saying that it was largely ineffective against Israeli air strikes. Syrian military sources speaking with the Russian outlet Avia.pro said that the radar used on the S-300 and the Pantsir-S systems had proven to be incapable of detecting and hitting Israeli cruise missiles on numerous occasions. [86]

2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict

During the 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh conflict the S-300 system took active part in an armed conflict for the first time, being listed in the active inventory of both sides in different versions. The Armenian systems were initially deployed around Yerevan. On 29 September 2020, Azerbaijan reported that Armenia was moving its S-300 systems closer to the conflict zone, [87] and vowed their destruction. [88] On 30 September 2020, Azerbaijani Armed Forces claimed the destruction of an Armenian S-300 system without providing further details. [89] [90] The first alleged combat firing of the S-300 happened during the night between 1 and 2 October when the Armenian Ministry of Defense claimed that Armenian S-300s had downed three unspecified Azerbaijani drones bound for Yerevan, [91] not missiles as initially claimed by different sources. [92] On 10 October 2020, the Azerbaijani Armed Forces released a video showing the destruction of at least an active 36D6 radar of an Armenian S-300 system, destroyed by Azerbaijani IAI Harop loitering munitions. [93] In the same attack, a 5P85S fire unit belonging to the same S-300 SAM site was also destroyed. [94] On 12 October 2020, the Azerbaijani Armed Forces released two videos showing the destruction of at least two Armenian S-300 fire units, destroyed by Azerbaijani IAI Harop loitering munitions. [95] On 17 October 2020, another video was released by the Azerbaijani Armed Forces, showing the successful destruction of two radar elements [96] part of an active Armenian S-300 SAM site being hit by Bayraktar TB2 UCAV. [97] [98]

On 18 October 2020, the Azerbaijani Minister of Defense claimed that an Azerbaijani S-300PMU2 system shot down an Armenian Sukhoi Su-25 trying to attack some positions of the Azerbaijani Army in the Jabrayil region. [99] [100]

Operators and other versions

Map with S-300 operators in blue and former operators in red S-300 operators.png
Map with S-300 operators in blue and former operators in red
An S-300 of the Armenian Air Force during the parade in 2016 S300.jpg
An S-300 of the Armenian Air Force during the parade in 2016
An S-300 of the Bulgarian Air Force S-300BG Parade.jpg
An S-300 of the Bulgarian Air Force
Russian S-300PMU2 during the Victory Day Parade 2009 S-300 - 2009 Moscow Victory Day Parade (2).jpg
Russian S-300PMU2 during the Victory Day Parade 2009

The S-300 is mainly used in Eastern Europe and Asia although sources are inconsistent about which countries possess the system. [101]

Following the Syrian military's downing of Russian Il-20 aircraft in Syria in September 2018 using a S-200 system (for which Russia held Israel responsible) Russian defense minister Sergey Shoygu on 24 September said that within two weeks, the Syrian Army will receive S-300 systems. Though the variant was not specified, the stated range of the system is to be 250 km. [141] [142] [143] [144] [145] On 2 October 2018, Sergey Shoygu told president Vladimir Putin during a meeting broadcast that the delivery of the S-300 system to Syria had been completed a day prior. [146] [147] On 8 October 2018, Russian news agency TASS reported that three S-300PM battalions had been given to Syria free of charge, citing "On 1 October three battalion sets of S-300PM systems of eight launchers each were delivered to Syria,". According to the source, the deliveries also included more than 100 surface-to-air missiles for each battalion. [148] It is operated by the Syrian Air Defense Force.

Former operators

Evaluation-only operators

Cancelled

See also

Notes

  1. Russian President Vladimir Putin ordered the acceleration of highly advanced Russian weapons supplies to Syria. Referring to S-300 anti-air systems and the nuclear-capable 9K720 Iskander (NATO named SS-26 Stone) surface missiles. Since Syrian Air Defense Force teams have already trained in the Russian Federation on the handling of the S-300 interceptor batteries, they can go into service as soon as they are landed by one of Russia's daily airlifts to Syria. Russian air defence officials will supervise their deployment and prepare them for operation. [138] According to President Vladimir Putin, components of the S-300 have been delivered to Syria but the delivery has not been completed. [139] 2 SA-20B (4 batalions), contract 2010, fully prepared in 2012. Centre for Analysis of World Arms Trade (armstrade.org/english.shtml) SA-20B actually received in 2013 [140]

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