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RD-107 Vostok.jpg
Rocket engine RD-107 "Vostok" in the Museum of Space and Missile Technology (Saint Petersburg).
Country of originFlag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union
Designer OKB-456
Manufacturer JSC Kuznetsov [1]
ApplicationBooster engine
Associated L/V R-7 Family of launchers
StatusIn production
Liquid-fuel engine
Propellant LOX / Kerosene
Cycle Gas-generator cycle
Thrust (vac.)RD-107: 1,000 kN (220,000 lbf)
RD-107A: 1,020 kN (230,000 lbf)
Thrust (SL)RD-107: 810 kN (180,000 lbf)
RD-107A: 839 kN (189,000 lbf)
Isp (vac.)RD-107: 313 s
RD-107A: 320.2 s
Isp (SL)RD-107: 256 s
RD-107A: 263.3 s
Dry weightRD-107: 1,190 kg (2,620 lb)
RD-107A1,190 kg (2,620 lb)
Used in
First stage boosters for R-7 family
References [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]

The RD-107 and its sibling, the RD-108, are a type of rocket engine initially used to launch R-7 Semyorka missiles. RD-107 engines were later used on space launch vehicles based on the R-7. As of 2015, very similar RD-107A and RD-108A engines are used to launch the Soyuz-FG, Soyuz-2.1a, and Soyuz-2.1b, which are in active service. [7]



Turbopump schematic of the NPO Energomash RD-107 rocket engine. RD-107 Turbopump Scheme.v1.svg
Turbopump schematic of the NPO Energomash RD-107 rocket engine.

The RD-107 was designed under the direction of Valentin Glushko at the Gas Dynamics Laboratory-Experimental Design Bureau (OKB-456) between 1954 and 1957. It uses liquid oxygen and kerosene as propellants operating in a gas generator cycle. As was typical by all the descendants of the V-2 rocket technology, the turbine is driven by steam generated by catalytic decomposition of H2O2. The steam generator uses solid F-30-P-G catalyst. These are based on a variable sized pellet covered in an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate and sodium. Each engine uses four fixed main combustion chambers. The RD-107 has an additional two vernier combustion chambers that can thrust vector in a single plane to supply attitude control. The RD-108 has four of such vernier combustion chambers to supply full vector control to the Blok-A stage. The single-axle turbopump unit includes the steam driven turbine, an oxidizer pump, a fuel pump, and a nitrogen gas generator for tank pressurization. [3]

One important innovation of this engine was the capability to use variable mixture ratio between fuel and oxidizer. The natural variations in manufacturing between each engine meant that without an active propellant consumption control, each boosters would deplete oxygen and fuel at different rates. This might result in as much as tens of tonnes of unburned propellant near the end of the burn. It would generate enormous strains on the structure and control authority due to the mass imbalance. Thus, the mixture ratio control system was developed to ensure the simultaneous consumption of propellant mass among the four R-7 boosters. [3] [8]


The RD-107 and RD-108 engines are produced at the JSC Kuznetsov plant in Samara, Russia, under the supervision of the Privolzhskiy branch of NPO Energomash, also known as the Volga branch. [1] [3] [5] The Privolzhsky branch was organized as a branch of OKB-456 in 1958, specifically for the manufacture of RD-107 and RD-108 engines. The branch was led by Y.D. Solovjev until 1960, then by R.I. Zelenev until 1975, then by A.F. Udalov until 1978, and is currently led by A.A. Ganin. [9]


RD-107 variants

Modifications to the RD-107 design have led to production of several distinct versions of the engine:

RD-107 Family of Engines
AKA8D748D74K8D728 or 8D74M11D51114D2214D22KhZ
Engine Cycle Liquid propellant rocket engine burning RG-1/LOX in a gas generator cycle with the turbine driven by steam generated by catalytic decomposition of H2O2
Combustion Chamber Pressure5.88 MPa (853 psi)5.88 MPa (853 psi)5.85 MPa (848 psi)5.32 MPa (772 psi)6.00 MPa (870 psi)6.00 MPa (870 psi)
Thrust (Sea Level)813.98 kN (182,990 lbf)818.88 kN (184,090 lbf)755.14 kN (169,760 lbf)778.68 kN (175,050 lbf)839.48 kN (188,720 lbf)839.48 kN (188,720 lbf)
Thrust (Vacuum)1,000.31 kN (224,880 lbf)995.41 kN (223,780 lbf)921.86 kN (207,240 lbf)Unknown1,019.93 kN (229,290 lbf)1,019.93 kN (229,290 lbf)
Specific Impulse (Sea Level)256 s (2.51 km/s)256.2 s (2.512 km/s)257 s (2.52 km/s)253 s (2.48 km/s)263.3 s (2.582 km/s)263.3 s (2.582 km/s)
Specific Impulse (Vacuum)313 s (3.07 km/s)313.3 s (3.072 km/s)314 s (3.08 km/s)316 s (3.10 km/s)320.2 s (3.140 km/s)320.2 s (3.140 km/s)
Height2,865 mm (112.8 in)2,865 mm (112.8 in)2,865 mm (112.8 in)2,865 mm (112.8 in)2,578 mm (101.5 in)2,578 mm (101.5 in)
Diameter1,850 mm (73 in)1,850 mm (73 in)1,850 mm (73 in)1,850 mm (73 in)1,850 mm (73 in)1,850 mm (73 in)
Intended Use R-7, Sputnik, Vostok, and Voskhod Molniya (8К78) Molniya-M (8К78М) and Soyuz (11A511) Soyuz-U (11А511U) and Soyuz-U2 (11A511U2) Soyuz-FG (11А511U-FG), Soyuz-STA (372RN21A), and Soyuz-STB (372RN21B) Soyuz-2.1a (14A14-1A) and Soyuz-2.1b (14A14-1B)
StatusRetiredRetiredRetiredRetiredIn ProductionIn Production
ReferencesUnless otherwise noted: [3] [4]

RD-108 variants

Similar modifications have led to several distinct versions of the RD-108:

RD-108 Family of Engines
AKA8D758D75K8D727 or 8D75M11D51211D512PF [11] 14D2114D21KhZ
Engine Cycle Liquid propellant rocket engine burning RG-1/LOX in the gas generator cycle with the turbine driven by steam generated by catalytic decomposition of H2O2
Propellant RG-1/LOX Syntin/LOX [11] RG-1/LOX
Combustion Chamber Pressure5.10 MPa (740 psi)5.10 MPa (740 psi)5.32 MPa (772 psi)5.85 MPa (848 psi)5.39 MPa (782 psi)5.44 MPa (789 psi)5.44 MPa (789 psi)
Thrust (Sea Level)745.33 kN (167,560 lbf)745.33 kN (167,560 lbf)676.68 kN (152,120 lbf)818.88 kN (184,090 lbf)Unknown792.41 kN (178,140 lbf)792.41 kN (178,140 lbf)
Thrust (Vacuum)941.47 kN (211,650 lbf)941.47 kN (211,650 lbf)833.60 kN (187,400 lbf)1,000.31 kN (224,880 lbf)Unknown921.86 kN (207,240 lbf)921.86 kN (207,240 lbf)
Specific Impulse (Sea Level)248 s (2.43 km/s)248.2 s (2.434 km/s)253 s (2.48 km/s)257 s (2.52 km/s)263.5 s (2.584 km/s)257.7 s (2.527 km/s)257.7 s (2.527 km/s)
Specific Impulse (Vacuum)315 s (3.09 km/s)314.2 s (3.081 km/s)316 s (3.10 km/s)314 s (3.08 km/s)Unknown320.6 s (3.144 km/s)320.6 s (3.144 km/s)
Height2,865 mm (112.8 in)2,865 mm (112.8 in)2,865 mm (112.8 in)2,865 mm (112.8 in)2,865 mm (112.8 in)2,865 mm (112.8 in)2,865 mm (112.8 in)
Diameter1,950 mm (77 in)1,950 mm (77 in)1,950 mm (77 in)1,950 mm (77 in)1,950 mm (77 in)1,950 mm (77 in)1,950 mm (77 in)
Intended Use R-7, Sputnik, Vostok and Voskhod Molniya (8К78) Molniya-M (8К78М) and Soyuz (11A511) Soyuz-U (11А511U) Soyuz-U2 (11A511U2) Soyuz-FG (11А511U-FG), Soyuz-STA (372RN21A) and Soyuz-STB (372RN21B) Soyuz-2.1a (14A14-1A) and Soyuz-2.1b (14A14-1B)
StatusRetiredRetiredRetiredRetiredRetiredIn ProductionIn Production
ReferencesUnless otherwise noted: [3] [4]

Work on the 14D21 and 14D22 engines started in 1986, with a preliminary design completed in 1993. These engines incorporate a new injector head design to increase specific impulse. The first launch of a Progress cargo spacecraft using a launch vehicle equipped with these engines took place in May 2001. The first human spaceflight launch utilizing these engines took place in October 2002. [5]

Hypergolic vs. pyrotechnic ignition

Currently produced engines are ignited with a pyrotechnic ignition system. Energomash reports a new, hypergolic ignition system (on engines designated 14D21KhZ and 14D22KhZ) are ready for certification and flight tests. [5]

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The RD-120 is a liquid upper stage rocket engine burning RG-1 and LOX in an oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle with an O/F ratio of 2.6. It is used in the second stage of the Zenit family of launch vehicles. It has a single, fixed combustion chamber and thus on the Zenit it is paired with the RD-8 vernier engine. The engine has been developed from 1976 to 1985 by NPO Energomash with V.P. Radovsky leading the development. It is manufactured by, among others, Yuzhmash in Ukraine.

This page is an incomplete list of orbital rocket engine data.

RD-0110 Soviet (later Russian) rocket engine

The RD-0110 is a rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and kerosene in a gas generator combustion cycle. It has four fixed nozzles and the output of the gas generator is directed to four secondary vernier nozzles to supply vector control of the stage. It has an extensive flight history with its initial versions having flown more than 57 years ago.


The S1.5400 was a Soviet single-nozzle liquid-propellant rocket engine burning liquid oxygen and kerosene in an oxidizer-rich staged combustion cycle, being the first rocket engine to use this cycle in the world. It was designed by V. M. Melnikov, an alumnus of Isaev, within Korolev's Bureau, for the Molniya fourth stage, the Block-L. It was also the first Soviet engine designed for start and restart in vacuum and had the highest Isp at the time of its deployment.

The RD-263 (GRAU Index 15D117) is a liquid rocket engine, burning N2O4 and UDMH in the oxidizer rich staged combustion cycle. Four RD-263 engines form a propulsion module RD-264 (GRAU Index 15D119). For the R-36M KB Yuzhnoye only ordered the first stage propulsion to Energomash, instead of both stages, arguing that they were overworked with the RD-270 development. By April 1970 Yuzhnoye was getting the engine documentation. By the end of 1972 Energomash started to test fire the engines in its own test stand. And by September 1973 the engine was certified for flight. While the engine is out of production, the ICBM as well as the Dnepr remain operational as of 2015.


The RD-119 was a liquid rocket engine, burning liquid oxygen and UDMH in the Gas Generator cycle. It has a huge expansion ratio on the nozzle and uses a unique propellant combination to achieve an extremely high isp of 352s for a semi-cryogenic gas generator engine. It also has a unique steering mechanism. The engine main nozzle is fixed and the output of the gas generator is fed into four nozzles on the side of the engine. Instead of using gimbaled verniers to supply vector control, the combustion gases are distributed by an electrically driven system that can control the thrust among the nozzles.


The RD-214 (GRAU Index 8D59) was a liquid rocket engine, burning AK-27I (a mixture of 73% nitric acid and 27% N2O4 + iodine passivant and TM-185 (a kerosene and gasoline mix) in the gas generator cycle. As was the case with many V-2 influenced engines, the single turbine was driven by steam generated by catalytic decomposition of H2O2. It also had four combustion chambers and vector control was achieved by refractory vanes protruding into the nozzle's exhaust.


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  2. "RD-107-8D74". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2015-07-14.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 "ЖРД РД-107 и РД-108 и их модификации" [RD-107 and RD-108 and their modifications] (in Russian). Retrieved 2015-07-14.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "NPO Energomash list of engines". NPO Energomash . Retrieved 2015-06-20.
  5. 1 2 3 4 "RD-107/108". NPO Energomash . Retrieved 2015-07-14.
  6. John R. London III (October 1994). LEO on the Cheap (PDF). Air University Press. pp. 68–69. ISBN   0-89499-134-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-05-14.
  7. "Engines". NPO Energomash . Retrieved 2015-07-14.
  8. Chertok, Boris (June 2006). "Chapter 16 The Seven Problems of the R-7 Missile". Rockets and People Vol. 2 Creating a Rocket Industry (PDF). Volume 2 (NASA SP-2006-4110). NASA. p. 292. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  9. "History". NPO Energomash . Retrieved 2015-07-14.
  10. 1 2 Zak, Anatoly. "Soyuz-2 launch vehicle (14A14)". RussianSpaceWeb. Retrieved 2015-07-14.
  11. 1 2 3 Pillet, Nicolas. "Le lanceur Soyouz-U2 (11A511U-2)" [The Soyuz-U2 Launcher (11A511U-2)] (in French). Kosmonavtika.com. Retrieved 2015-07-14.