9M120 Ataka

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9M120 Ataka
AT-9 Spiral-2
Engineering Technologies 2010 Part7 0032 copy.jpg
9M120 missile with tandem HEAT warhead
Type Anti-tank guided missile
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service1985–present
Used bySee Operators
Production history
Designer KBM [1]
Manufacturer Degtyarev plant [2]
VariantsSee Variants
Specifications (9M120 Ataka [3] )
Mass49.5  kg (109  lb)
Length1,830  mm (72  in)
Diameter130 mm (5.1 in)
Warhead HEAT Tandem warhead
Warhead weight7.4 kg (16 lb)

Wingspan360 mm (14 in)
0.4–6  km (0.25–3.73  mi)
Flight ceiling0–4,000  m (2.5 mi)
Maximum speed 550  m/s (1,800  ft/s; Mach  1.6) (maximum)
400 m/s (1,300 ft/s; Mach 1.2) (average)
Radio command link SACLOS
Accuracy0.65–0.9 Hit probability against an MBT from a distance of 4 km. [3]
Armored fighting vehicles and helicopters

The 9M120 Ataka (Russian : Атака; Attack) is an anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) originating from the Soviet Union. [3] The NATO reporting name of the 9M120 missile is the AT-9 Spiral-2. It is the next major generation in the 9K114 Shturm (AT-6 Spiral) family. The missile has radio command guidance and is also a Beam riding SACLOS. This missile's primary variant was designed to defeat tanks with composite armour and explosive reactive armor. The 9M120 Ataka system is often confused with the 9K121 Vikhr system, despite being different weapons systems developed by different companies. The former was designed by the KBM machine-building design bureau and manufactured by the Degtyarev plant. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Russia exported the Ataka ATGM to Iran, Kazakhstan, and Slovenia. [4]



The AT-9 missile was developed by the Kolomna engineering design bureau, located in Kolomna. [1] This company already designed previous ATGMs, such as the AT-3 "Sagger" and AT-6 "Spiral" missiles. The design work began in the mid 1980s. The Ataka ATGM was designed as a successor model to the AT-6 "Spiral", which was introduced in the late 1970s. The AT-9 is a further development of the AT-6. Compared to its predecessor, the AT-9 is more resistant to electronic countermeasures, and has a greater hit accuracy and longer reach. The newly developed warhead allows for increased penetration power and effectiveness against explosive reactive armor. The first units were delivered in 1985 to the Soviet armed forces. [5]

The missile has often been confused in the west with the 9A4172 Vikhr dual-purpose laser beam riding missile used on the Kamov helicopters and Sukhoi attack aircraft (as well as some Ukrainian Mi-24/35 upgrades). These systems are completely unrelated in their design and are in fierce competition. New light multifunctional guided missiles with increased range – up to 15 kilometers – have been developed and received for Russian attack helicopters on the outcomes of the military operation in Syria. [6]


The primary armaments of the BMPT include four Ataka-T missiles with two mounted on each side. BMPT at Engineering Technologies 2012 (8).jpg
The primary armaments of the BMPT include four Ataka-T missiles with two mounted on each side.

The Ataka missile is stored in a glass reinforced plastic tube, which also acts as its launcher. The missile is reported to be considerably faster than the 9K114 Shturm, with longer range than the original version. It still uses radio command guidance, but the system has been improved when compared to the earlier 9K114 Shturm.

The system is carried by the multiple kinds of helicopters including the Mi-28 and Mi-35. It is also offered for ground vehicles like the BMPT and the 9P149.

There are three main missiles that are compatible with the launch system. The first is a two-stage anti-armour weapon that features a tandem warhead for dealing with add-on armor. The second variant of the missile – designated as 9M120F – has a thermobaric warhead for use against infantry positions and bunkers. The third variant of the 9M120 Ataka is the 9M220, which features a proximity fused expanding rod warhead, providing the missile with air-to-air capability against low- and slow-flying aircraft.


The 9P149 combat vehicle carries 12 Ataka missiles. 9P149 vehicle with 9M144 missiles of anti-tank complex <<Shturm-S>> in Military-historical Museum of Artillery, Engineer and Signal Corps in Saint-Petersburg, Russia.jpg
The 9P149 combat vehicle carries 12 Ataka missiles.

General specifications

The Mi-28 attack helicopter carries 16 Ataka missiles for anti-tank missions. Mi-28N (7).jpg
The Mi-28 attack helicopter carries 16 Ataka missiles for anti-tank missions.
DesignationDescriptionLengthDiameterWingspanLaunch weightWarheadArmor penetration (RHA)RangeSpeed
9M120Original variant1,830 mm (72 in)130 mm (5.1 in)360 mm (14 in)49.5 kg (109 lb)7.4 kg (16 lb) Tandem HEAT 800 mm (31 in) after ERA0.4–6 km (0.25–3.73 mi)550 m/s (1,800 ft/s; Mach 1.6)(Top speed)
400 m/s (1,300 ft/s; Mach 1.2)(Average)
9M120FAnti-personnel variantThermobaric warhead with 9.5 kg (21 lb) TNT equivalentN/A1–5.8 km (0.62–3.60 mi)
9M220OAnti-air variantProximity Fuse0.4–7 km (0.25–4.35 mi)
9M120MModernized anti-tank variant7.4 kg (16 lb) Tandem HEAT950 mm (37 in) after ERA0.8–8 km (0.50–4.97 mi)


Map with 9M120 operators in blue with former operators in red 9M120 operators.png
Map with 9M120 operators in blue with former operators in red

Current operators

Flag of Egypt.svg  Egypt
Flag of Algeria.svg  Algeria
Flag of Belarus.svg  Belarus
Flag of Brazil.svg  Brazil
Flag of India.svg  India


Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Flag of Iran.svg  Iran [4]
Flag of Kazakhstan.svg  Kazakhstan [4]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia
Flag of Serbia.svg  Serbia
Flag of Slovenia.svg  Slovenia [4]
Flag of Venezuela.svg  Venezuela

Possible operators

Flag of North Korea.svg  North Korea [17]

Former operators

Flag of the Soviet Union.svg  Soviet Union – Passed on to successor states.

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