R-27 (air-to-air missile)

Last updated

R-27
AA-10 Alamo
Mig 29 firing AA-10.JPG
German Air Force MiG-29 firing an R-27
TypeMedium-range, air-to-air BVR missile; anti-radiation missile
Place of origin Soviet Union
Service history
In service1983–present
Wars Iran–Iraq War
Eritrean–Ethiopian War
War in Donbas
Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen
Production history
Manufacturer Vympel (Russia)
Artem (Ukraine) [1]
Unit costN/A
Specifications
Mass253 kg (558 lb)
Length4.08 m (13.4 ft)
Diameter230 mm (9.1 in)
Warhead blast/fragmentation, or continuous rod
Warhead weight39 kg (86 lb)
Detonation
mechanism
radar-proximity and impact fuzes

EngineHigh performance, w. directed-rocket motor
Solid-fuel rocket motor
Wingspan772 mm (30.4 in)
Operational
range
R-27T: up to 40 km
R-27T1: up to 80 km [2]
R-27ET: up to 120 km
R-27ET1: up to 80 km [3]
R-27R: up to 73 km
R-27R1: up to 75 km [4]
R-27ER: up to 130 km
R-27ER1: up to 100 km [5]
R-27P: up to 80 km
R-27EP: up to 130 km
R-27EA: up to 130 km
R-27EM: up to 170 km [6] [7]
Flight altitudeN/A
Maximum speed Mach 4.5[ citation needed ]
Guidance
system
semi-active radar homing (A/C), active-radar-homing (R-27EA), infrared homing (B/D), passive radar (E/F)
Launch
platform
Su-27, Su-30, Su-33, Su-34, Su-35, Su-37, F-14 (done by Iran), MiG-23, MiG-29, Yak-141, Su-57, local conversion as a surface-to-air missile in Yemen [8]
R-27 T R-27 T 3D.jpg
R-27 T
R-73Ae, R-27R1(AeR1), R-27T1(AeT1), and Kh-59MAe at MACS, Zhukovski, 1999. R-73E R-27R1 R-27T1 R-59ME.jpg
R-73Ae, R-27R1(AeR1), R-27T1(AeT1), and Kh-59MAe at MACS, Zhukovski, 1999.

The Vympel R-27 (NATO reporting name AA-10 Alamo) is a family of air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union. It remains in service with the Russian Air Force, air forces of the Commonwealth of Independent States and air forces of many other countries as standard medium range air-to-air missile even though they have the more advanced R-77.

Contents

The R-27 is manufactured in infrared-homing (R-27T, R-27ET), [9] semi-active-radar-homing (R-27R, R-27ER), [10] and active-radar-homing (R-27EA) [11] versions. R-27 family missiles produced by both Russian and Ukrainian manufacturers. The R-27 missile is carried by the Mikoyan MiG-29 and Sukhoi Su-27 family fighters, and some of the later-model MiG-23MLD fighters have also been adapted to carry it. The R-27 missile is also license-produced in China,[ citation needed ] though the production license was bought from Ukraine instead of Russia.

Variants

R-27T (Second from bottom) and R-27R (First from bottom) Lipetsk Air Base (437-24).jpg
R-27T (Second from bottom) and R-27R (First from bottom)
9B-1101K, inertial semi-active homing head for R-27R missiles. R-27 missile homing head, Kyiv 2018, 02.jpg
9B-1101K, inertial semi-active homing head for R-27R missiles.

R-27R and ER variants can be used in any meteorological conditions. Launch can made at less than 5 g overload and less 50 deg/s roll rate. [12] It is allowed to redesignate targets during flight, or sharing target illumination with other aircraft.

R-27T and ET variants can be used out of cloudiness, at least 15 degrees away from the bearing of sun, and 4 degrees away from the bearing of moon and ground-based heat-contrasting conditions. In cases of maximum head-on range launches where lock-command cannot be utilised, missile can be fired in PPS: In this mode, missile will fly straight until achieves target lock. As missile lacks capability of maneuvering before lock, aircraft itself must maneuver so that missile will be pointed to no more than 15 degrees bearing of the target for confident capture by the IR seeker after launch. Equalising altitude is recommended but not required. [13] On combat operations section of the Su-27 manual, this mode of usage is especially recommended for head-on usage for passive attacks at targets with 0 degrees approach angle (i.e. another fighter moving to intercept), leaving target unalerted to incoming missile. [14] Launch can be made at 0 to 7 g, but limited to 6 g if roll induced slip is more than 2× diameter of the ball. [12]

Other Variants:

Operational service

Ethiopia and Eritrea

In the 1999 Eritrean-Ethiopian War, Eritrean MiG-29s fought Ethiopian Su-27s both piloted by Russian mercenaries. [15] There were possibly as many as 24 R-27s fired by both sides. Only one R-27 fired by an Ethiopian Su-27 at an Eritrean MiG-29 proximity-fuzed near enough the MiG that the damaged aircraft eventually crashed on landing.

Ukraine

During the War in Donbas, the Ukrainian Air Force claimed that one of its Su-25 was shot down by a Russian Air Force MiG-29 using a R-27T on 16 July 2014. [16] Russian officials denied any involvement. [17]

Yemen

During the Yemeni Civil War (2015–present) Houthis have used R-27T missiles modified to serve as surface to air missiles. A video released on January 7, 2018 also shows a modified R-27T hitting a Saudi led coalition fighter on a Forward looking infrared camera. Houthi sources claim to have downed a F-15. [18] [19] Rebels later released footage showing an aircraft wreck, however serial numbers on the wreckage suggested that the downed aircraft was a Panavia Tornado, also operated by Saudi forces. [20] On January 8, the Saudi Press Agency admitted the loss of an aircraft over Yemen, though it did not clarify whether it was a Tornado or an F-15, blaming the crash to 'a technical issue' and reporting that the pilots ejected and recovered by friendly forces. [21]

On 21 March 2018, Houthi rebels released a video where they hit and possibly shot down a Saudi F-15 in Saada province. [22] In the video a R-27T air to air missile adapted for surface to air use was launched, appearing to have successfully hit a jet. As in the video of the previous similar hit recorded on 8 January, the target, while clearly hit, did not appear to be downed. Saudi forces confirmed the hit, while saying the jet safely landed at a Saudi base. [23] [24] Saudi official sources confirmed the incident reporting that it happened at 3:48 pm local time after a surface-to-air defense missile was launched at the fighter jet from inside Saada airport. [25] [8]

Operators

Map with R-27 operators in blue with former operators in red R-27 operators.png
Map with R-27 operators in blue with former operators in red

Current operators

Former operators

See also

Similar weapons

Related Research Articles

AIM-120 AMRAAM American air-to-air missile

The AIM-120 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missile, or AMRAAM, is an American beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) capable of all-weather day-and-night operations. Designed with a 7-inch (180mm) diameter form-and-fit factor, and employing active transmit-receive radar guidance instead of semi-active receive-only radar guidance, it has the advantage of being a fire-and-forget weapon when compared to the previous generation Sparrow missiles. When an AMRAAM missile is launched, NATO pilots use the brevity code Fox Three.

Air-to-air missile Missile fired from the air at airborne targets

An air-to-air missile (AAM) is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft. AAMs are typically powered by one or more rocket motors, usually solid fueled but sometimes liquid fueled. Ramjet engines, as used on the Meteor, are emerging as propulsion that will enable future medium-range missiles to maintain higher average speed across their engagement envelope.

Sukhoi Su-15 Interceptor aircraft

The Sukhoi Su-15 is a twinjet supersonic interceptor aircraft developed by the Soviet Union. It entered service in 1965 and remained one of the front-line designs into the 1990s. The Su-15 was designed to replace the Sukhoi Su-11 and Sukhoi Su-9, which were becoming obsolete as NATO introduced newer and more capable strategic bombers.

R-77 Medium-range, active radar homing air-to-air BVR missile

The Vympel NPO R-77 missile is a Russian active radar homing beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile. It is also known by its export designation RVV-AE. It is the Russian counterpart to the American AIM-120 AMRAAM missile.

The MolniyaR-60 is a short-range lightweight infrared homing air-to-air missile designed for use by Soviet fighter aircraft. It has been widely exported, and remains in service with the CIS and many other nations.

Novator KS-172 Long range air-to-air missile

The Novator KS-172 is a Russian air-to-air missile designed as an "AWACS killer" at ranges up to 400 km. The missile has had various names during its history, including K-100, Izdeliye 172, AAM-L (RVV-L), KS–172, KS-1, 172S-1 and R-172. The airframe appears to have been derived from the 9K37 Buk surface-to-air missile (SAM) but development stalled in the mid-1990s for lack of funds. It appears to have restarted in 2004 after a deal with India, who wants to produce the missile in India for their Su-30MKI fighters. It is the heaviest air-to-air missile ever produced.

R-4 (missile) Heavy air-to-air missile

The BisnovatR-4 was an early Soviet long-range air-to-air missile. It was used primarily as the sole weapon of the Tupolev Tu-128 interceptor, matching its RP-S Smerch ('Tornado') radar.

R-73 (missile) Air-to-air missile

The R-73 is a short-range air-to-air missile developed by Vympel NPO that entered service in 1984.

R-23 (missile) Medium air-to-air missile

The Vympel R-23 is a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by Vympel in the Soviet Union for fighter aircraft. An updated version with greater range, the R-24, replaced it in service. It is comparable to the American AIM-7 Sparrow, both in terms of overall performance as well as role.

A beyond-visual-range missile (BVR) is an air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) that is capable of engaging at ranges of 20 nmi (37 km) or beyond. This range has been achieved using dual pulse rocket motors or booster rocket motor and ramjet sustainer motor.

9K33 Osa Vehicle-launched surface-to-air missile system

The 9K33 Osa is a highly mobile, low-altitude, short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system developed in the Soviet Union in the 1960s and fielded in 1972. Its export version name is Romb.

R-37 (missile) Long range, air-to-air BVR missile

The Vympel R-37M is a Russian hypersonic air-to-air missile with very long range. The missile and its variants also had the names K-37, izdeliye 610 and RVV-BD, and the NATO codenames 'Axehead' and 'Andi'. It was developed from the R-33.

Astra is an Indian all weather beyond-visual-range active radar homing air-to-air missile, developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation. It is the first air-to-air missile developed by India. Astra is designed to be capable of engaging targets at varying range and altitudes allowing for engagement of both short-range targets at a distance of 10 km (6.2 mi) and long-range targets up to a distance of 110 km (68 mi). Astra has been integrated with Indian Air Force's Sukhoi Su-30MKI and will be integrated with Dassault Mirage 2000, HAL Tejas and Mikoyan MiG-29 in the future. Limited series production of Astra missiles began in 2017.

S-75 Dvina Strategic SAM system

The S-75 is a Soviet-designed, high-altitude air defence system, built around a surface-to-air missile with command guidance. Following its first deployment in 1957 it became one of the most widely deployed air defence systems in history. It scored the first destruction of an enemy aircraft by a surface-to-air missile, with the shooting down of a Taiwanese Martin RB-57D Canberra over China on 7 October 1959 that was hit by a salvo of three V-750 (1D) missiles at an altitude of 20 km (65,600 ft). This success was credited to Chinese fighter aircraft at the time to keep the S-75 program secret.

Mikoyan MiG-29K Carrier-based multirole combat aircraft

The Mikoyan MiG-29K is a Russian all-weather carrier-based multirole fighter aircraft developed by the Mikoyan Design Bureau. The MiG-29K was developed in the late 1980s from the MiG-29M. Mikoyan describes it as a 4+ generation aircraft.

The Kh-29 is a Soviet air-to-surface missile with a range of 10–30 km. It has a large warhead of 320 kg, has a choice of laser, infrared, active radar or TV guidance, and is typically carried by tactical aircraft such as the Su-24, Su-30, MiG-29K as well as the "T/TM" models of the Su-25, giving that craft an expanded standoff capability.

Kh-31 Medium-range air-to-surface missile

The Kh-31 is a Russian air-to-surface missile carried by aircraft such as the MiG-29 or Su-27. It is capable of Mach 3.5 and was the first supersonic anti-ship missile that could be launched by tactical aircraft.

Kh-59 Cruise missileAir-launched cruise missileAir-to-surface missileAnti-ship missileLand-attack missile

The Kh-59 Ovod is a Russian TV-guided cruise missile with a two-stage solid-fuel propulsion system and 200 km range. The Kh-59M Ovod-M is a variant with a bigger warhead and turbojet engine. It is primarily a land-attack missile but the Kh-59MK variant targets ships.

Kh-35 Air-to-surfaceSurface-to-surface missileCruise missileAnti-ship missile

The Zvezda Kh-35 is a Soviet turbojet subsonic cruise anti-ship missile. The same missile can also be launched from helicopters, surface ships and coastal defence batteries with the help of a rocket booster, in which case it is known as Uran or Bal. It is designed to attack vessels up to 5,000 tonnes.

Bars radar

The Bars (Leopard) is a family of Russian all-weather multimode airborne radars developed by the Tikhomirov Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Design for multi-role combat aircraft such as the Su-27 and the MiG-29.

References

Citations
  1. "ARTEM". ARTEM. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  2. 1 2 "R-27T1". Rosoboronexport. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  3. 1 2 "R-27ET1". Rosoboronexport. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  4. 1 2 "R-27R1". Rosoboronexport. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  5. 1 2 "R-27ER1". Rosoboronexport. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
  6. 1 2 "The Russian Philosophy of Beyond Visual Range Air Combat". ausairpower.net. 2012. Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
  7. 1 2 Dr C Kopp. "The Russian Philosophy of Beyond Visual Range Air Combat". Archived from the original on 30 January 2012.
  8. 1 2 "Saudi Arabia says F-15 survived SAM hit over Yemen - Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018.
  9. "Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC". eng.ktrv.ru. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014.
  10. "Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC". eng.ktrv.ru. Archived from the original on 15 September 2013.
  11. "Tactical Missiles Corporation JSC". eng.ktrv.ru. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Su-27 Flight Manual booklet-1. 2001. p. 129.
  13. Su-27 Flight Manual booklet-1. 2001. p. 151.
  14. Su-27 Flight Manual booklet-1. 2001. p. 150.
  15. Smith, Charles. "Russian Mercenaries Flying For Ethiopia." Archived 27 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine WorldNetDaily, 18 July 2000. Retrieved: 24 October 2010.
  16. "Russian military plane shot down Ukrainian Su-25 aircraft in Ukraine". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 15 November 2015.
  17. "Russia Rejects 'Absurd' Accusation Over Downed Ukrainian Jet". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 17 July 2014.
  18. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  19. "Yemen rebels release F-15 'shoot down' footage - Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018.
  20. "ASN Wikibase Occurrence # 203972". Aviation Safety Network. 8 January 2018.
  21. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  22. "Saudi Military F - 15 fighter jet shot down in Yemen: Report". timesofislamabad.com. 22 March 2018. Archived from the original on 13 May 2018.
  23. "محمد بن خالد on Twitter". twitter.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2018.
  24. "Saudi Arabia says F-15 survived SAM hit over Yemen - Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018.
  25. "Coalition fighter jet unsuccessfully targeted by defense missile over Saada". Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 25 March 2018.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 International Institute for Strategic Studies (2020). "Chapter Six: Asia". The Military Balance. 120 (1): 255. doi:10.1080/04597222.2020.1707967.
  27. "India buys thousand Russian air-launched missiles". airrecognition.com.
  28. "India, Russia sign Rs 1,500 crore deal for air-to-air missiles for Su-30 fighters". www.aninews.in.
  29. "India signs USD700 million deal with Russia for 1,000 additional air-to-air missiles | Jane's 360". www.janes.com.
Bibliography