|Type|| Cruise missile |
Air-launched cruise missile
|Place of origin||India, Russia|
|In service||November 2006|
|Used by|| Indian Army |
Indian Air Force
|Designer|| Defence Research and Development Organisation |
|Manufacturer||BrahMos Aerospace Limited|
|Unit cost||US$2.75 million|
|Mass||3,000 kg (6,600 lb) |
2,500 kg (5,500 lb) (air-launched)
|Length||8.4 m (28 ft)|
|Diameter||0.6 m (2.0 ft)|
|Warhead||200 kg (440 lb) conventional semi-armour-piercing and nuclear |
300 kg (660 lb) (air-launched)
Both manufactured indigenously by the Indian Ordnance Factories
|Engine||First stage: Solid rocket booster |
Second stage: Liquid ramjet
Both manufactured by Ordnance Factory Board
|Propellant||First stage: Solid fuel, |
Second stage: Liquid fuel
|Surface/Sea Platform - 290 km (180 mi; 160 nmi) |
To be upgraded to 800 km (500 mi; 430 nmi)
|Flight ceiling||15 km (49,000 ft)|
|Flight altitude||Sea skimming, as low as 10 meters|
|Maximum speed||Mach 3|
|Mid-course: Inertial navigation system |
Terminal: Active radar homing,
GPS/GLONASS/GAGAN satellite guidance
|Accuracy||1 m CEP|
|Ship, aircraft, and land-based mobile launchers.|
The BrahMos (designated PJ-10)is a medium-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, aircraft, or land. It is the fastest supersonic cruise missile in the world. It is a joint venture between the Russian Federation's NPO Mashinostroyeniya and India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), who together have formed BrahMos Aerospace. It is based on the Russian P-800 Oniks cruise missile and other similar sea-skimming Russian cruise missile technology. The name BrahMos is a portmanteau formed from the names of two rivers, the Brahmaputra of India and the Moskva of Russia.
It is the world's fastest anti-ship cruise missile in operation.The land-launched and ship-launched versions are already in service. An air-launched variant of BrahMos appeared in 2012 and entered service in 2019. A hypersonic version of the missile, BrahMos-II, is also presently under development with a speed of Mach 7–8 to boost aerial fast strike capability. It was expected to be ready for testing by 2024.
India wanted the BrahMos to be based on a mid range cruise missile like the P-700 Granit. Its propulsion is based on the Russian missile, and missile guidance has been developed by BrahMos Aerospace. The missile is expected to reach a total order of US$13 billion.
In 2016, as India became a member of the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), India and Russia are now planning to jointly develop a new generation of Brahmos missiles with 800 km-plus range and an ability to hit protected targets with pinpoint accuracy. In 2019, India upgraded the missile with a new range of 650 km with plans to eventually upgrade all missiles to a range of 1500 km.
The BrahMos has been developed as a joint venture between the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India and the Federal State Unitary Enterprise NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM) of Russia as BrahMos Aerospace via an inter-government agreement. The company was established on 12 February 1998 with an authorised share capital of US$250 million. India holds 50.5% share of the joint venture and its initial financial contribution was US$126.25 million, while Russia holds 49.5% share with an initial contribution of US$123.75 million.
Since late 2004, the missile has undergone several tests from a variety of platforms, including a land based test from the Pokhran range in the desert, in which the evasive'S' maneuver at Mach 2.8 was demonstrated for the Indian Army and a launch in which the land attack capability from sea was demonstrated.
Keltec (now known as BrahMos Aerospace Trivandrum Ltd or BATL), an Indian state-owned firm, was acquired by BrahMos Corporation in 2008. ₹ 1,500 crore (equivalent to ₹34 billionorUS$471.7 million in 2019) will be invested in the facility to make BrahMos components and integrate the missile systems. This was necessitated by the increased order book of the missile system, with orders having been placed by both the Indian Army and Navy. Initially, Russia supplied 65% of the BrahMos' components, including its ramjet engine and radar seeker. Currently 65% of the missile is manufactured in India and there are plans to increase this to 85% by replacing the components with an Indian made seeker and booster.Approximately
BrahMos was first test-fired on 12 June 2001 from the Integrated Test Range (ITR), Chandipur in a vertical launch configuration. On 14 June 2004, another test was conducted at ITR and BrahMos was fired from a mobile launcher. Rajput and the missile hit and destroyed the right target among a group of targets. The vertical launch of BrahMos was conducted on 18 December 2008 from INS Ranvir. The BrahMos I Block-I for the army was successfully tested with new capabilities in the deserts of Rajasthan, at a test range near Pokharan in December 2004 and March 2007. During a user trial on 20 January 2009, BrahMos was tested with a new navigation system but it failed to hit the target. BrahMos Aerospace Corporation's director Dr Sivathanu Pillai said, "The missile performance was absolutely normal until the last phase, but the missile missed the target, though it maintained the direction." and that "The problem was in the software, not hardware". The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) said that there were "small hitches" in the last stage of the test firing due to delay in input of satellite navigation input to the Inertial Navigation System, the missile travelled for 112 seconds instead of the slated 84 seconds and fell 7 km away from the target. According to BrahMos Corporation, another test of the new missile was to be conducted within one month, but it was eventually conducted on 4 March 2009 and was deemed successful. BrahMos was test-fired again on 29 March 2009. For the test, the missile had to identify a building among a cluster of buildings in an urban environment. BrahMos successfully hit the intended target in two and a half minutes of launch. According to official sources, "The new seeker is unique and would help us to hit our targets, which are insignificant in terms of size, in a cluster of large buildings. India is now the only nation in the world with this advanced technology". After the third test, Lt Gen Noble Thamburaj, said that the Indian Army wanted the BrahMos to achieve high standards of accuracy and congratulated the scientists on behalf of the Indian Army. The Indian Army confirmed that the test was successful and the army is satisfied with the missile. This marking the completion of the development phase of BrahMos Block-II, and it was ready for induction.On 5 March 2008, the land attack version of the missile was fired from the destroyer INS
The 5 September 2010 test of BrahMos created a world record for being the first cruise missile to be tested at supersonic speeds in a steep-dive mode. The missile was test-fired from the integrated test range launching complex-3 (LC-3) at Chandipur around 11.35 am. With this launch, the Indian army's requirement for land attacks with Block-II advanced seeker software with target discriminating capabilities was met. BrahMos became the only supersonic cruise missile possessing advanced capability of selection of a particular land target amongst a group of targets, providing an edge to the user with precise hit.
Block III has advanced guidance and upgraded software, incorporating high manoeuvres at multiple points and steep dive from high altitude. The steep dive capability of the Block III enables it to hit targets hidden behind a mountain range. It will be deployed in Arunachal Pradesh. It can engage ground targets from an altitude as low as 10 metres for surgical strikes without any collateral damage. It is capable of being launched from multiple platforms like submarines, ships, aircraft and land based Mobile Autonomous Launchers (MAL).On 12 August 2011, it was test-fired by ground forces and met all mission parameters.
The new navigation system uses an Indian chip called G3OM (GPS, GLONASS, GAGAN on a Module). The system weighs around 17 grams, and gives accuracy below five metres using Indian, US and Russian navigation satellites. The system can be used in tandem with and Inertial Navigation System (INS) to provide high-accuracy targeting without using any seeker.
BrahMos was tested with an Indian seeker for the first time on 22 March 2018,and was tested with an India-developed propulsion system, airframe and power supply on 30 September 2019.
On 30 September 2020, India successfully test-fired an extended range BrahMos supersonic cruise missile. The supersonic cruise missile is capable of hitting targets at more than 400-km range.The test was carried out under PJ-10 project of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), under which the missile was launched with an indigenous booster. The missile was launched from a land-based facility in Odisha.
This is the second test-firing of the extended range version of the missile which has an indigenously developed airframe and booster.
The submarine-launched variant of Brahmos was test fired successfully for the first time from a submerged pontoon near Visakhapatnam at the coast of Bay of Bengal on 20 March 2013. This was the first vertical launch of a supersonic missile from a submerged platform. 40 to 50 m (130 to 160 ft). In late January 2016, Russia confirmed that future Indian-made submarines would be armed with smaller version of the missile that could fit inside a torpedo tube.The missile can be launched from a depth of
The BrahMos-A is a modified air-launched variant of the missile with a range of 500 km which can be launched from a Sukhoi Su-30MKI as a standoff weapon. To reduce the missile's weight to 2.55 tons, many modifications were made like using a smaller booster, adding fins for airborne stability after launch, and relocating the connector. It can be released from the height of 500 to 14,000 metres (1,640 to 46,000 ft). After release, the missile free falls for 100–150 metres, then goes into a cruise phase at 14,000 metres and finally the terminal phase at 15 metres. BrahMos Aerospace planned to deliver the missile to the IAF in 2015, where it is expected to arm at least three squadrons. A Su-30MKI is able to only carry one BrahMos missile.
The missile was also planned to arm the Indian Navy's Ilyushin Il-38 and Tupolev Tu-142 maritime patrol and anti-submarine aircraft with 6 missiles per aircraft, but this could not be made possible due to insufficient ground clearance of the IL-38, high cost of modifying the Tu-142 and the questionable benefits of modifying an ageing fleet.
The air-launched version for the Indian Air Force was ready for testing in 2008.An expert committee from the DRDO and the Indian Air Force (IAF) had ruled out any structural modifications to the Su-30MKI to carry the missile. On 22 October 2008, A. Sivathanu Pillai, Chief Controller, R&D, DRDO and CEO and managing director of BrahMos Aerospace, announced that trials and tests were to be carried out by 2011, and the IAF would get its own version of BrahMos by 2012.
On 10 January 2009, it was reported that two Indian Air Force Su-30MKI fighter jets were sent to Russia for a retrofit program that would enable them to launch the missile.On 8 August 2009, Alexander Leonov, Director of the Russian Machine Building Research and Production Centre, said "we are ready for test launches." He also said that a new takeoff engine for the launching of the missile in air and at extremely high altitudes had been developed, and the initial test firing of the missile would be undertaken from the Su-30 MKI but did not specify the dates. On 26 February 2012, A. Sivathanu Pillai said that the air-launched version of BrahMos is being developed and will be tested by the end of 2012. This version of the BrahMos missile will use air-breathing scramjet propulsion technology and would be more fuel-efficient than a traditional rocket-powered missile.
The purchase of over 200 air-launched BrahMos supersonic cruise missiles for the IAF was cleared by Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) on 19 October 2012, at the cost of ₹ 6,000 crore (equivalent to ₹91 billionorUS$1 billion in 2019). This would include funds for the integration and testing of the BrahMos on Su-30MKI of the IAF. As per this plan, the first test of the air-launched version of the missile was to be conducted by December 2012. Two Su-30MKI of the IAF would be modified by the HAL at its Nashik facility where they will also be integrated with the missile's aerial launcher.
A demonstration flight was carried out at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited Nashik on 25 June 2016 as a modified Su-30MKI carrying BrahMos-A underwent a successful trial flight,the first time a heavyweight supersonic cruise missile had been integrated on a long-range fighter aircraft; the project to adapt the weapon for air launch was approved in 2011, but was bogged down with technology transfer and intellectual property rights concerns. To carry the missile, the Su-30MKI undercarriage had to be strengthened, which also required new hard points and structural modifications. The cost of adapting the BrahMos for air launch was "phenomenal," but efforts to downsize the missile were abandoned after an attempt to reduce the size of the ramjet. On 22 November 2017, the missile was successfully test fired for the first time from a Sukhoi-30MKI against a sea-based target in the Bay of Bengal. This made Indian Air Force the first in the world to have successfully tested such a type of air launched trisonic-class missile on a sea-based target. After the IAF successfully tested Brahmos from a Su-30MKI against a sea-based target, it declared on 17 December 2019 that the integration of BrahMos-A on Su-30 MKI is complete.
40 IAF SU-30MKI are to undergo modifications to be equipped to carry the missile.According to the CEO of BrahMos Aerospace, Sudhir Kumar Mishra, Brahmos-A when fired from Su-30 aircraft can reach targets thousands of kilometres away. On 20 January 2020, the IAF commissioned its first squadron of Su-30MKI fighters equipped with the PJ-10 BrahMos-A missile.
|1||12 June 2001||SSM - Block I||Success||ITR||Tested in vertical configuration|
|2||28 April 2002||SSM - Block I||ITR||Tested on an inclined plane|
|3||12 February 2003||ASM||Bay of Bengal||INS Rajput|
|4||29 October 2003||SSM - Block I||ITR|
|5||9 November 2003||SSM - Block I||ITR||Mobile launcher|
|6||23 November 2003||ASM||Bay of Bengal||INS Rajput||Fired from a moving ship at a decommissioned vessel|
|7||13 June 2004||SSM - Block I||ITR||Mobile launcher||First production missile integrated at BrahMos Integration Complex, Hyderabad|
|8||3 November 2004||ASM||Bay of Bengal||INS Rajput|
|9||21 December 2004||SSM||Rajasthan||Mobile launcher||First test of land-attack version|
|10||15 April 2005||ASM||Indian Navy||Arabian Sea||INS Rajput|
|11||30 November 2005||SSM||Indian Army||ITR||Mobile launcher|
|12||31 May 2006||Pokhran Test Range||Mobile launcher|
|13||16 April 2007||ITR||Mobile launcher||First test with the "S" maneuver|
|14||22 April 2007||ITR||Mobile launcher|
|15||5 March 2008||LACM||Indian Navy||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||INS Rajput||First test of the land attack variant|
|18 December 2008||ASM||Indian Navy||Bay of Bengal||INS Ranvir||First test from a VLS|
|20 January 2009||SSM - Block II||Indian Army||Failure||Pokhran Test Range||Mobile launcher||Failed to correctly discriminate target located within a cluster|
|19||4 March 2009||Success||First successful test in a target discriminatory role|
|20||29 March 2009|
|21||29 July 2009|
|22||21 March 2010||ASM||Indian Navy||Orissa||INS Ranvir||Tested on decommissioned INS Meen|
|23||5 September 2010||SSM - Block II||ITR||Mobile launcher|
|24||2 December 2010||SSM - Block III||Indian Army||ITR||Mobile launcher|
|25||12 August 2011||SSM - Block III||Indian Army||Pokhran Test Range||Mobile launcher|
|4 March 2012||SSM - Block II||Indian Army||Pokhran Test Range||Mobile launcher||Operational test of the second army regiment|
|29||28 March 2012||SSM - Block III||Indian Army||ITR||Mobile launcher|
|30 March 2012||DRDO||ITR||Mobile launcher|
|32||29 July 2012||DRDO||Failure||ITR||Mobile launcher||Developmental flight test with 25 new subsystems and components|
|33||7 October 2012||ASM||Indian Navy||Success||Arabian Sea||INS Teg||Tested with a GLONASS navigation system derived from Kh-101|
|34||9 January 2013||Bay of Bengal||Naval ship||Tested with double maneuver in "S" form|
|20 March 2013||SLCM||DRDO||Visakhapatnam||Underwater pontoon||First test from a submerged platform|
|22 May 2013||ASM||Indian Navy||Goa||INS Tarkash||Acceptance Test Firing|
|18 November 2013||SSM - Block III||Indian Army||Pokhran Test Range||Mobile launcher||Destroyed a hardened target|
|7 February 2014||ASM||Indian Navy||Arabian Sea||INS Trikand||2 missiles test fired in salvo mode|
|7 April 2014||SSM - Block III||Indian Army||Pokhran Test Range||Mobile launcher||Tested in steep dive-cum-target discrimination mode|
|9 June 2014||ASM||Indian Navy||Karwar||INS Kolkata|
|44||8 July 2014||SSM||Indian Army||Launch complex III, ITR||Mobile launcher||First test with advanced guidance system and indigenously built software algorithm|
|45||1 November 2014||ASM||Indian Navy||Arabian Sea||INS Kochi|
|46||14 February 2015||ASM||Indian Navy||Goa||INS Kolkata|
|9 April 2015||SSM||Indian Army||Failure||Car Nicobar||Mobile launcher|
|47||8 May 2015||Success|
|7 November 2015||SSM||Indian Army||Pokhran Test Range||Mobile launcher|
|6 February 2017||ASM||Indian Navy||Arabian Sea||INS Chennai|
|11 March 2017||Extended range||-||Launch complex III, ITR||-||First test of the extended range|
|21 April 2017||LACM||Indian Navy||Bay of Bengal||INS Teg|
|2-3 May 2017||SSM - Block III||Indian Army||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||Mobile launcher||2 missiles tested in top attack configuration|
|22 November 2017||ALCM||Indian Air Force / DRDO||Bay of Bengal||Su-30MKI||First test of the air launched variant|
|22 March 2018||SSM||Indian Army||Pokhran Test Range||-||First test with indigenous seeker|
|21 May 2018||SSM||DRDO||ITR||Mobile launcher||Validated "life extension" technologies|
|22 May 2018||SSM||DRDO||ITR||Mobile launcher||Tested Indian fuel management system and a few non-metallic airframe components|
|16 July 2018||SSM||DRDO / Indian Army||ITR||Mobile launcher||Tested to validate service life extension of the missile under extreme weather conditions|
|7 July 2019||Block-II||DRDO||Success||-||-||Tested the vertical steep dive version.|
|30 September 2019||SSM||DRDO||Success||-||-||Tested with India-developed propulsion system, airframe and power supply.|
|21-21 October |
|SSM||IAF||Success||Andaman and Nicobar Islands||Mobile Launcher|
|17 December 2019||SSM and Air launched||IAF and DRDO||Success||Integrated Test Range and Kalaikunda airbase||Mobile launcher and Aircraft||Both land attack and Air launched versions were tested in two firings.|
In 2016, India became a member of the MTCR. India and Russia are now planning to jointly develop a new generation of Brahmos missiles with 1500 km-plus range and an ability to hit protected targets with pinpoint accuracy. The upgrade will also be applied to all existing BrahMos missiles.
BrahMos-II is a hypersonic cruise missile currently under development and is estimated to have a range of 600 km. With a speed of Mach 8, it will have double the speed of the current BrahMos missile, and it will be the fastest hypersonic missile in the world. Development could take 7–8 years to complete.
BrahMos-NG (Next Generation) is a mini version based on the existing BrahMos, will have same 290 km range and mach 3.5 speed but it will weigh around 1.5 tons, 5 metres in length and 50 cm in diameter, making BrahMos-NG 50 percent lighter and three metres shorter than its predecessor. The system is expected to be inducted in the year 2024. BrahMos-NG will have lesser RCS (radar cross section) compared to its predecessor, making it harder for air defense systems to locate and engage the target. BrahMos-NG will have Land, Air, ship-borne and Submarine tube-launched variants. The first test flight is expected to take place in 2022–24. Initially Brahmos-NG was referred to as Brahmos-M. Additionally, the BrahMos-NG will have an AESA radar rather than the mechanically scanned one on the PJ-10.
The missile will arm the Sukhoi Su-30MKI, Mikoyan MiG-29K, HAL Tejasand future inductions such as the Dassault Rafale, and HAL MWF. Submarine launched variant will be capable of being fired from the new P75I class of submarines. A model of the new variant was showcased on 20 February 2013, at the 15th anniversary celebrations of BrahMos Corporations. The Sukhoi SU-30MKI would carry three missiles while other combat aircraft would carry one each.
Missile is likely to be ready in late 2022.
The former President of India, A. P. J. Abdul Kalam asked BrahMos Aerospace to develop an advanced version of the BrahMos cruise missile to maintain India's lead in the field.He stated that a hypersonic version of BrahMos would be needed that could deliver its payload and return to base.
BrahMos claims it has the capability of attacking surface targets by flying as low as five metres in altitude and the maximum altitude it can fly is 15,000 metres. It has a diameter of 70 cm and a wingspan of 1.7 m. It can gain a speed of Mach 3.5, and has a maximum range of 650 km. The ship-launched and land-based missiles can carry a 200 kg warhead, whereas the aircraft-launched variant (BrahMos A) can carry a 300 kg warhead. It has a two-stage propulsion system, with a solid-propellant rocket for initial acceleration and a liquid-fuelled ramjet responsible for sustained supersonic cruise. Air-breathing ramjet propulsion is much more fuel-efficient than rocket propulsion, giving the BrahMos a longer range than a pure rocket-powered missile would achieve.
The high speed of the BrahMos likely gives it better target-penetration characteristics than lighter subsonic cruise-missiles, such as Tomahawk. Being twice as heavy and almost four times as fast as Tomahawk, the BrahMos has more than 32 times the on-cruise kinetic energy of a Tomahawk missile, although it carries only 3/5 the payload and a fraction of the range, which suggests that the missile was designed with a different tactical role. Its 2.8 mach speed means that it cannot be intercepted by some existing missile defence systems and its precision makes it lethal to water targets.
Although BrahMos was primarily an anti-ship missile, the BrahMos Block III can also engage land-based targets. It can be launched either in a vertical or inclined position and is capable of covering targets over a 360-degree horizon. The BrahMos missile has an identical configuration for land, sea, and sub-sea platforms.The air-launched version has a smaller booster and additional tail fins for added stability during launch. The BrahMos has currently been configured for aerial deployment with the Su-30MKI as its carrier. On 5 September 2010 BrahMos created a record for the first supersonic steep dive.
India and Russia intend to make 2,000 BrahMos supersonic cruise missiles over the next ten years through their joint venture company, and nearly 50% of them are expected to be exported to friendly countries.The Brahmos headquarters complex is located at New Delhi and consists of a design centre and aerospace knowledge centre. The integration complex is located at Hyderabad and a production centre is located at Thiruvananthapuram. Another assembly line is being established at Pilani.
By April 2013, Brahmos has been inducted in eight warships of the Indian Navy.The following ship classes of the navy are equipped with BrahMos:
The Brahmos Block I was inducted into the army on 21 June 2007.The Brahmos has been inducted in three regiments of the Indian Army. The army has raised one regiment (numbered 861) of the Mark I and two missile regiments of the BrahMos Mark II, numbered 881 and 1889. The first regiment with five mobile launcher cost $83 million to set up. Each of the two new regiments would have between four and six batteries of three to four Mobile Autonomous Launchers (72 missiles per regiment) that can be connected to a mobile command post. All these regiments will be part of the army's existing 40th and 41st Artillery Divisions. The operational BrahMos regiments are:
India has deployed Brahmos along with long range cruise missile Nirbhay and Akash surface to air missile to deter Chinese aggression along the Line of Actual Control in eastern Ladakh.
According to unspecified sources the BrahMos could be fitted to the updated Gorshkov class of frigates which will be entering the Russian Navy soon.The defence ministry reported that due to the size and hull specifications of the BrahMos, few if any of its new ships will be able to accommodate it.
In September 2016, it was revealed that the Russian Defense Ministry is interested in purchasing the air-launched BrahMos to arm their Su-30SM fighters. Talks could begin in 2017.
Several countries, including Vietnam, [ citation needed ]South Africa, Egypt, Oman, Chile and Brunei have expressed interest in the missile. In February 2010, a senior executive said that BrahMos was in negotiations with Chile, Brazil, South Africa and Indonesia regarding the purchase of the missile. Malaysia is also reported to be considering the purchase of the missile for use on its Kedah class warships and fighter jets. Informal negotiations are ongoing between India and Vietnam for the sale of BrahMos missiles. BrahMos Aerospace has said that several Southeast Asian and Latin American countries have expressed interest in the system, with particular interest in naval and coastal defense versions, and that a "definite list of countries" exists. Industry sources say that interested countries include Vietnam, Indonesia, and Venezuela. The intergovernmental agreement between India and Russia to develop the BrahMos stipulates that both countries would have to approve an export sale. On 20 April 2016, BrahMos Aerospace spokesman Praveen Pathak said that the first export contract on delivering BrahMos to a country in the Asian-Pacific Region will be signed by the end of 2016. The Asian-Pacific nation would be a friendly nation that neither Russia nor India has any conflicts with.
One of the major issues regarding sales of the missile is that the nations looking to buy may have stressful relations with allies and trading partners of Russia. China is one of the main nations that has objections about its neighbours getting these missiles for their navies.In recent years, the export of BrahMos to Vietnam has picked up pace with plans and negotiations reaching a possible conclusion in mid-2016. The only objection could be from China, which sees the selling of these missiles to Vietnam as an act of belligerence and interference in the South China Sea dispute.
In October 2019, Philippines was reported to be in discussion with India for a possible BrahMos missile acquisition project.In November 2020, Secretary of Defense Delfin Lorenzana said that the program to acquire medium-range ramjet supersonic BrahMos cruise missiles is moving forward but getting enough funds remains a challenge. The plan is to acquire at least two batteries of the BrahMos cruise missiles with each battery having three mobile autonomous launchers. Each mobile autonomous launchers will consist of two to three missile tubes. The acquisition will be done through a "government-to-government deal". The procurement process of BrahMos was already in the advanced stage by March 2020 but the COVID-19 pandemic halted the process and caused the Philippines reprioritizing its budget. India has offered the Philippines an arrangement to acquire the missiles through soft loan but President Rodrigo Duterte is reportedly not keen on taking the offer. However, the Philippines resumed the procurement process for the missile, signing an arms agreement with India in March 2021 to potentially acquire Indian weapons including the BrahMos missile.
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Nirbhay (Hindi:Dauntless/Fearless) is a long range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile designed and developed in India by the Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) which is under Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). The missile can be launched from multiple platforms and is capable of carrying conventional and nuclear warheads. It is currently deployed in limited numbers in LAC during standoff with China.
The Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Program is an initiative develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defence system to protect India from ballistic missile attacks. Phase 1 has been successfully tested and completed and deployment awaits final official permission. Phase 2 is under development.
The Shaurya missile is a canister launched hypersonic surface-to-surface tactical missile developed by the Indian Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for use by the Indian Armed Forces. It has a range of 700 to 1,900 km and is capable of carrying a payload of 200 kg to 1 tonne conventional or nuclear warhead. It gives the potential to strike at very-long-range against any adversary.
INS Kochi (D64) is the second ship of the Kolkata-class stealth guided-missile destroyers built under the code name Project 15A for the Indian Navy. She was constructed by Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL) in Mumbai. After undergoing extensive sea trials, she was commissioned to Indian Navy service on 30 September 2015.
A Sivathanu Pillai is an Indian scientist who formerly served as Honorary Distinguished Professor at Indian Space Research Organisation (2015-2018) and an honorary professor at IIT Delhi in the Department of Mechanical Engineering (2015-2016) and a Visiting Professor at Indian Institute of Science (2014-2015).
The Indian Air Force has been undergoing a modernization program to replace and upgrade its aging and outdated equipment since the late 90s to modern standards. For that reason it has started procuring and developing aircraft, weapons, associated technologies, and infrastructures. Some of these programs date back to the late 80s. The primary focus of current modernization and upgrades is to replace aircraft purchased from the Soviet Union that currently form the backbone of the Air Force.
The BrahMos Aerospace Limited is a joint venture between the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) of India and the Federal State Unitary Enterprise NPO Mashinostroyenia (NPOM) of Russia under BrahMos Aerospace. The BrahMos missile is named after two rivers, the Brahmaputra and the Moskva.
The use of rockets for warfare in India has been recorded early as 18th century. Mysorean rockets were the first iron-cased rockets in world that were successfully deployed for military use. Mysore's conflict with East India Company exposed British to the technology leading to development of Congreve rockets and introduction of rocketry in Europe.
Gerbert Aleksandrovich Efremov is a Russian design engineer and Professor of Technical Sciences.
BrahMos-II or BrahMos-2 or BrahMos Mark II is a hypersonic cruise missile currently under joint development by India's Defence Research and Development Organisation and Russia's NPO Mashinostroyenia, which have together formed BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited. It is the second of the BrahMos series of cruise missiles. The BrahMos-II is expected to have a range of 1,000 kilometres and a speed of Mach 8. During the cruise stage of flight the missile will be propelled by a scramjet airbreathing jet engine. Other details, including production cost and physical dimensions of the missile, are yet to be published. The planned operational range of the BrahMos-II has been restricted to 290 kilometres as Russia is a signatory to the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR), which prohibits it from helping other countries develop missiles with ranges above 300 kilometres. However, now that India is also a MTCR signatory, it is trying to extend the range of BrahMos. Its top speed will be double that of the current BrahMos-I, and it has been described as the fastest cruise missile in the world. Russia is developing a special and secret fuel formula to enable the BrahMos-II to exceed Mach 8.
The 3M22 Zircon also spelled as 3M22 Tsirkon is a scramjet powered maneuvering anti-ship hypersonic cruise missile currently in testing by Russia.
Sudhir Kumar Mishra is an Indian engineer, defence scientist and civil servant. He is currently a director general at the Defence Research & Development Organisation, and the chief executive officer and managing director of BrahMos Aerospace, a joint venture between India's and Russia's ministries of defence.
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